Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields and Animal Behavior

by Joshua Parker on Jun 09, 2016


When reviewing the research bibliography below, keep in mind that the studies use a wide range of pulsed electromagnetic frequencies.

Therefore, It is VERY IMPORTANT to differentiate between effects of frequencies below 15 Hz (low Beta-rhythm brainwave state = FOCUSED – NO STRESS) and those above 15 Hz ( mid Beta-Rhythm brainwave state or higher)  resulting in negative behavioral modification and stress chemical synthesis. You’ll see the pattern form as you read down the page.

Nearly every therapeutic PEMF system has all or most programs above the 15 Hz threshold which we feel is a huge mistake. Although PEMF studies show enhanced rates of healing at a wide range of frequencies, the “sweet” spot for physiological healing is 10 Hz, plain and simple as proven by the Eastern European researchers in the 1970’s and 1980’s. NASA/Goodwin confirmed in 2003. Further studies on the mitochondria find beneficial effects at 10 Hz as well while mitochondria subject to power frequency have less than robust survival rates when insulted by hypoxic shock (no oxygen). Based upon historical data, we believe it makes no sense whatsoever to use higher frequencies for ANY therapeutic purpose while limiting exposure to higher-frequency EMF from all sources.


1: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2000 Nov-Dec;40(6):693-5.

[Influence of electromagnetic fields on the emotional behaviour of rats]

[Article in Russian]

Semenova TP, Medvinskaia NI, Bliskovka GI, Akoev IG.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow
region, 142290 Russia.

The effects of ultra low power pulse-width + modulation electromagnetic
radiation (EMR, power density 10 mc/Wt/cm2, carrying frequency 915 MHz,
modulating pulses with frequency 4, 6, 16 and 20 Hz, duration 10 min) on the rat
emotional behavior and motor activity in the elevated plus-maze were studied. It
was established that EMR (frequency of modulation 4 and 6 Hz) significantly
decreased the emotionally negative reactions of anxiety and fear by a factor of
3.7 (p < 0.01) and 4.5 (p < 0.01) correspondingly and increased by a factor of
1.9-2.2 (p < 0.05) exploratory activity. On the contrary EMR (frequency of
modulation 20 Hz) significantly increased by a factor of (p < 0.05) emotionally
negative reactions of anxiety and fear and decreased by a factor of 1.8 (p <
0.05) the exploratory activity in rats.

PMID: 11155339 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

1: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Jul-Aug;50(4):703-15.Links
[Species specificity, age factors, and various neurochemical correlates of the animal spontaneous behavior after exposure to electromagnetic field of the ultralow intensity]
[Article in Russian]

Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM.

National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow, Russia.

Behavioral and neurochemical reactions of small laboratory animals (mice and rats of different age) under exposure to ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) were studied. The EMF basically inhibited the locomotor and exploratory activity in the “open-field” test. The species- and age-specific features rather than radiation conditions dominated. However, decrease in the EMF frequency considerably intensified the observed effect. Change in animal behavior was accompanied by shifts in neurochemical processes, i.e., sharp activation of serotoninergic and inhibition of morepinephrinergic system.

1: Georgian Med News. 2006 Nov;(140):91-3.Links
[Influence of the chronic exposure to network frequency electromagnetic field on rats under interrupted and continuous action of EMF]
[Article in Russian]

Tamasidze A G .

The aim of the study was the investigation of chronic exposure to network frequency electromagnetic field in the rats under interrupted or continuous action of electric magnetic field. We were studying their behavior by the method of “open field”. Comparison of behavior of rats in the “open field” has shown that the significant difference in the emotional activity of rats was stated. The number of boluses and urination in rats of B group is 4,5 times more than in the individuals of C group (p<0,001), but the significant difference between the rats of control A and B groups has not been stated. Although, the number of boluses in the rats of B group was a little raised, this raise was not statistically significant (p<0,5). The rats of control A and C groups significantly distinguished from one another. The number of boluses and urination in the animals of C group was significantly lower (p<0,001). In that way, the rats which were under the discontinuous action of electromagnetic field were distinguished by high emotionality, which occur by increase of boluses and urination, the high number grooming behavior and increase of the number of translocation, that influences the functioning of hypothalamohypophysial system.

1: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Jul-Aug;50(4):703-15.Links
[Species specificity, age factors, and various neurochemical correlates of the animal spontaneous behavior after exposure to electromagnetic field of the ultralow intensity]
[Article in Russian]

Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM.

National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow, Russia.

Behavioral and neurochemical reactions of small laboratory animals (mice and rats of different age) under exposure to ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) were studied. The EMF basically inhibited the locomotor and exploratory activity in the “open-field” test. The species- and age-specific features rather than radiation conditions dominated. However, decrease in the EMF frequency considerably intensified the observed effect. Change in animal behavior was accompanied by shifts in neurochemical processes, i.e., sharp activation of serotoninergic and inhibition of morepinephrinergic system.

2: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2000 Jul-Aug;40(4):429-32.

1: Georgian Med News. 2006 Nov;(140):91-3.Links
[Influence of the chronic exposure to network frequency electromagnetic field on rats under interrupted and continuous action of EMF]
[Article in Russian]

Tamasidze A G .

The aim of the study was the investigation of chronic exposure to network frequency electromagnetic field in the rats under interrupted or continuous action of electric magnetic field. We were studying their behavior by the method of “open field”. Comparison of behavior of rats in the “open field” has shown that the significant difference in the emotional activity of rats was stated. The number of boluses and urination in rats of B group is 4,5 times more than in the individuals of C group (p<0,001), but the significant difference between the rats of control A and B groups has not been stated. Although, the number of boluses in the rats of B group was a little raised, this raise was not statistically significant (p<0,5). The rats of control A and C groups significantly distinguished from one another. The number of boluses and urination in the animals of C group was significantly lower (p<0,001). In that way, the rats which were under the discontinuous action of electromagnetic field were distinguished by high emotionality, which occur by increase of boluses and urination, the high number grooming behavior and increase of the number of translocation, that influences the functioning of hypothalamohypophysial system.

[The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the monoamine oxidase A activity in
the rat brain]

[Article in Russian]

Dolgacheva LP, Semenova TP, Abzhalelov BB, Akoev IG.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow
oblast, Russia.

The effect of the ultralow power pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (EMR,
power density 10 microW/cm2; carrying frequency 915 MHz; modulating pulses with
frequency 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 20 Hz) on activity of monoamine oxidase
(MAO-A), enzyme involved in the oxidative deamination of monoamines, was
investigated. It was established that the increase of activity MAO in
hypothalamus reached the maximal meaning at modulation frequency of 6 Hz that
corresponded 160% (p < 0.01) of the control level; and at modulation frequency
of 20 Hz the decrease of enzyme activity up to 74% (p < 0.01) was found. Mainly
the action of ultralow power pulse-modulated EMR on activity of MAO in hippocamp
was activating; and the maximal increase of enzyme activity up to 174% (p <
0.01) was registered at modulation frequency of 4 Hz.

PMID: 11031490 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

1: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Jul-Aug;50(4):703-15.Links
[Species specificity, age factors, and various neurochemical correlates of the animal spontaneous behavior after exposure to electromagnetic field of the ultralow intensity]
[Article in Russian]

Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM.

National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow, Russia.

Behavioral and neurochemical reactions of small laboratory animals (mice and rats of different age) under exposure to ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) were studied. The EMF basically inhibited the locomotor and exploratory activity in the “open-field” test. The species- and age-specific features rather than radiation conditions dominated. However, decrease in the EMF frequency considerably intensified the observed effect. Change in animal behavior was accompanied by shifts in neurochemical processes, i.e., sharp activation of serotoninergic and inhibition of morepinephrinergic system.

3: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1998 Nov-Dec;28(6):686-93.

Action of modulated electromagnetic fields on the emotional component of the
systems organization of behavioral acts in rats.

Sudakov KV.

P. K. Anokhin Science Research Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Academy
of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

This article reviews experimental data providing evidence on the effects of
modulated electromagnetic fields of 30-120 V/m with a carrier frequency of 30
MHz modulated sinusoidally at frequencies of 2-50 Hz on the emotional responses
accompanying various stages in the systems organization of behavior in rats. The
blocking effects of fields were demonstrated in self-stimulation models in
different types of conditioned reflex behavior, as well as during extinction of
conditioned reflex responses in individual conditions and emotional intercourse.
It is suggested that modulated electromagnetic fields which have information
effects on the body act on the information component of behavior, i.e., emotion.

PMID: 9850964 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 May-Jun;51(3):373-7.

[Modulation by ultralow intensity electromagnetic fields on pharmacologic
effects of psychotropic drugs]

[Article in Russian]

Shtemberg AS, Bazian AS, Shikhov SN, Cherniakov GM, Uzbekov MG.

National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Institute
of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Research Institute of Psychiatry, Russian Ministry of Public Health, Moscow.

The ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200, modulated
by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density of 15
microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) potentiated the
hypnogenic effect of hexenal. The exposure to the EMF shortened the time of
falling asleep induced by this drug and increased sleep duration in rats. The
exposure to the EMF also potentiated haloperidol catalepsy: it decreased the
drug threshold dose and increased the catalepsy duration. The EMF influence on
the haloperidol effects was of a prolonged character: it was manifest in a
selected suppression of the emotional excitation in the open-field test within
24 hours after the exposure.

PMID: 11550647 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(4):287-97.

Behavioral effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields in rats.

Trzeciak HI, Grzesik J, Bortel M, Kuska R, Duda D, Michnik J, Malecki A.

Department of Pharmacology, Silesian Academy of Medicine, Katowice, Poland.

Male rats and pregnant and nonpregnant female rats of the Wistar strain were
sham-exposed or exposed to static (0.49 T) or to extremely low frequency (50 Hz)
magnetic fields (0.018 T) 2 h per day for 20 consecutive days. Measures of
irritability, exploratory activity, and locomotion were made in that order
before and after the 4th, 10th, and 17th 2-h exposures. A reliable decrease in
the irritability of rats after repeated exposure to a static or undulating field
was found. No significant effects of treatment conditions on open-field behavior
and locomotor activity were observed. Pregnancy had no influence on the
behavioral end points. These results indicate that irritability of rats may be
used as a simple behavioral indicant of mammalian sensitivity to magnetic

PMID: 8216385 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Sep-Oct;50(5):867-77.

[The neurotropic effects of low-intensity electromagnetic waves in rats with
different typological characteristics of higher nervous activity]

[Article in Russian]

Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM.

National Research Center, Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow.

The effects of the ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of
4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of
20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to
4.5 mJ/kg) on the reactions of the central nervous system (CNS) of rats with
different types of behavior were studied. Some neurochemical and behavioral
mechanisms of rats’ reactions were investigated. It was shown that the EMF
produce pronounced changes in the state and activity of monoaminergic brain
systems. These changes, on the whole, correspond to the alterations at the
integrative level (predominantly, of the inhibitory character).

PMID: 11085002 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1997;31(5):70-5.

[Combined effect of hypokinesia of various duration and gamma-radiation on
central nervous system activity in rats]

[Article in Russian]

Shtemberg AS.

State Research Center “Institute of Medical Biological Problems”, RF.

There studied the effects of a combined effect of hypokinesia (HK) of various
duration (7 and 30 days, corresponding to the stages of anxiety and resistance
of general adaptation syndrome) and gamma-radiation dose of 3 Gy on the
formation of differentiated motor-drinking conditioned reflex (CR) in the rats.
It is demonstrated that the applied exposures lead to the various disorders of
the higher nervous activity of the test animals: after 7-day hypokinesia in the
behaviour there prevail the fear and emotional-vegetative components whereas
following 30-day hypokinetic exposure there occurs some stimulation of the
orientation-exploratory behaviour with concurrent enhancement of the inertness
of nervous processes and the tendency to formation of stringent behavioural
stereotypes slowing-down the conditioned reflex formation. A modifying effect of
radiation counts only after 30-day hypokinesia and consists in the development
of extra-limited inhibition (reaction of acquired helplessness) in the part of

PMID: 9508401 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Folia Med (Plovdiv). 1999;41(3):75-80.

Effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on behavioral activity of rats.

Kemerov S, Marinkev M, Getova D.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Higher Medical Institute,
Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

The present study aimed at comparative assessment of the changes in behavioral
activity of rats after exposing them to low intensity electromagnetic fields
(EMFs) in the meter, decimeter and centimeter ranges. The experiments were
carried out on 24 Wistar rats divided into 4 groups (1 control and 3
experimental), treated with different EMFs. The rats were irradiated on the head
area at power density of 10 mW/cm2. Using a conventional shuttle box, the
conditioned and non-conditioned responses and spontaneous motor activity of the
rats were studied. The results suggest that exposure to EMFs in the three ranges
can slow down the formation of conditioned responses–this was clearly marked in
the rats exposed to meter EMFs, whereas the effects of centimeter EMFs were
delayed in time. The behavioral effects were mild at athermal dosages and the
animals adapted easily to exposure conditions. This study shows that
determination of the effects of different EMFs should be done for each of the
ranges separately; determination of the exact dosage of the electromagnetic
fields can help to avoid their negative biological effects.

PMID: 10658372 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Jul-Aug;50(4):703-15.

[Species specificity, age factors, and various neurochemical correlates of the
animal spontaneous behavior after exposure to electromagnetic field of the
ultralow intensity]

[Article in Russian]

Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM.

National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow,

Behavioral and neurochemical reactions of small laboratory animals (mice and
rats of different age) under exposure to ultralow-intensity electromagnetic
fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic
signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body
absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) were studied. The EMF basically inhibited the
locomotor and exploratory activity in the “open-field” test. The species- and
age-specific features rather than radiation conditions dominated. However,
decrease in the EMF frequency considerably intensified the observed effect.
Change in animal behavior was accompanied by shifts in neurochemical processes,
i.e., sharp activation of serotoninergic and inhibition of morepinephrinergic

PMID: 10984915 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Gig Sanit. 1987 Jul;(7):26-9.

[Hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the 17-cm range based on
research data on behavioral reactions]

[Article in Russian]

Dumanskii IuD, Zotov SV.

PMID: 3666487 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Radiobiologiia. 1990 May-Jun;30(3):395-9.

[The effect of an SHF field on the dopamine-dependent behavior of rats]

[Article in Russian]

Andreeva LA, Konovalov VF.

A study was made of the influence of SHF radiation (8 mW/cm2, carrier frequency
0.88 Hz, modulation frequency 16 Hz) on rotation of rats induced by apomorphine.
A single exposure within an hour was shown to inhibit apomorphine-induced
rotation by 21%. Daily one-hour exposure within 5 days caused a more pronounced
inhibition of test-response. Different individual sensitivity to SHF radiation
was noted.

PMID: 2371398 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

12: Bioelectromagnetics. 1999 Sep;20(6):378-86.

Influence of combined DC and AC magnetic fields on rat behavior.

Zhadin MN, Deryugina ON, Pisachenko TM.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Moscow Region, Russia.

The action of combined parallel static (DC) and alternating (AC) magnetic fields
at the cyclotron frequencies for different biologically active ions,
specifically, calcium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium and lithium, on
rat behavior in the “open field” were investigated. It was shown that the DC and
AC fields at the calcium cyclotron frequency lower the locomotor and exploratory
activity of the rats, whereas action of the fields at the magnesium cyclotron
frequency enhances these forms of behavioral activity. The effects were
qualitatively alike at the weak (50 microT) and relatively strong (500 microT)
DC fields with proportional changes in the frequencies and amplitudes of the AC
fields. Statistically significant effects of cyclotron frequencies for other
ions studied were not observed. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 10453066 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1993 Nov-Dec;33(6):783-9.

[Radiation-induced changes of circadian dynamics in the behavioral reactions of
rats in the “open field”]

[Article in Russian]

Davydova OE.

The interaction of daily motor activity rythm within daily changes of early
transient neurological disorders (ENTD) symptoms has been evaluated. The highest
frequency of five ENTD symptoms was mainly observed in that daily periods when
behavior reactions were minimal. A difference was distinguished in circadian
radiosensitivity of some behavior reactions in “open field” (gamma-irradiation
60Co, 62.5 Gy). The most radiosensitive ENTD symptoms were “vertical set”,
“immobility” and “motion on the spot”, characterized emotional state and
orienting-locomotor animal reactions. Certain changes of orto- and paraphases of
these behavior reactions biorythms due to irradiation have been revealed.

PMID: 8293103 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Radiat Res. 1995 Jul;143(1):93-7.

Lack of behavioral effects in non-human primates after exposure to ultrawideband
electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range.

Sherry CJ, Blick DW, Walters TJ, Brown GC, Murphy MR.

Systems Research Laboratories, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base,
Texas 78235, USA.

The effect of acute exposure to ultrawideband (UWB) electromagnetic radiation on
the Primate Equilibrium Platform (PEP) task, where the monkey’s task is to
manipulate a joystick control to compensate for the random perturbations in the
pitch plane that are generated by a computer at unpredictable intervals, was
examined. The duration of the UWB exposure was 2 min at a pulse repetition rate
of 60 Hz (total of 7200 pulses). The bandwidth of the pulse was 100 MHz to 1.5
GHz (peak power between 250-500 MHz) with a peak E-field strength of 250 kV/m.
Each monkey was exposed twice. The interval between exposures was 6 days. The
exposure to UWB electromagnetic radiation had no effect on PEP performance when
tested immediately after exposure.

PMID: 7597150 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1995 Apr;81(4):21-31.

[The physiological mechanisms of the regulation of zoosocial behavior in rats
exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields]

[Article in Russian]

Sidiakin VG, Stashkov AM, Ianova NP, Chemodanova MA, Shumilina KA, Kirillova AV.

The infraslow frequency electromagnetic fields were shown to affect social
activity in rats: the changes induced by territorial priority and isolation were
eliminated, an interaction between the motor activity and the social status
appeared. The monoaminergic system of the rat brain seems to take part in
physiological mechanisms of regulation of the zoosocial behaviour according to
changes in ambient conditions.

PMID: 7581573 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1995 Nov;210(2):171-9.

Effects of prenatal ultrasound exposure on adult offspring behavior in the
Wistar rat.

Jensh RP, Lewin PA, Poczobutt MT, Goldberg BB, Oler J, Goldman M, Brent RL.

Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

An ultrasound exposure tank was specifically designed for experimental
bioeffects studies. Thirty-six pregnant rats were anesthetized, immersed to the
axilla in a water tank, and exposed on Day 15, 17, and 19 of gestation. Twelve
rats were exposed to 5.0 MHz pulsed ultrasound of effective pulse duration equal
to approximately 0.170 microseconds, pulse repetition rate (PRF) 1 kHz, and a
spatial peak, temporal peak intensity (lsptp) of 500 W/cm2, representing a
clinically appropriate exposure level. The spatial peak pulse average (lsppa),
spatial peak temporal average (lspta), and instantaneous maximum (lm)
intensities were determined to be 100 W/cm2, 24 mW/cm2, and 230 W/cm2,
respectively. The maximum rarefraction pressure, pr, was measured as 12.5 x
10(5) Pa, and the total power was 2.5 mW. Twelve other rats were exposed to 1500
W/cm2, lsptp, and 12 were sham insonified. Since the focal area was about 0.05
cm2, computer controlled stepper motors moved the rats through the ultrasound
field to ensure uniform exposure of the abdominal/pelvic region. Total exposure
time was 35 min. A miniature thermocouple was implanted in a few rats to verify
that no significant temperature increase took place due to exposure. A total of
278 offspring were maintained until postnatal Day 60 when they were subjected to
two of four behavioral tests in random order within sexes. The results indicate
no consistently observed dose-related alterations in adult behavior due to
prenatal fetal exposure to 5.0 MHz ultrasound below an intensity (lsptp) of 1500

PMID: 7568288 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Biofizika. 2002 Jan-Feb;47(1):71-7.

[Suppression of nonspecific resistance of the body under the effect of extremely
high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity]

[Article in Russian]

Kolomytseva MP, Gapeev AB, Sadovnikov VB, Chemeris NK.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow
Region, 142290 Russia.

The dynamics of leukocyte number and functional activity of peripheral blood
neutrophils under whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity
extremely-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0 GHz, 0.15
mW/cm2, 20 min daily) was studied. It was shown that the phagocytic activity of
peripheral blood neutrophils was suppressed by about 50% (p < 0.01 as compared
with the sham-exposed control) in 2-3 h after the single exposure to EHF EMR.
The effect persisted for 1 day after the exposure, and then the phagocytic
activity of neutrophils returned to the norm within 3 days. A significant
modification of the leukocyte blood profile in mice exposed to EHF EMR for 5
days was observed after the cessation of exposures: the number of leukocytes
increased by 44% (p < 0.05 as compared with sham-exposed animals), mostly due to
an increase in the lymphocyte content. The supposition was made that EHF EMR
effects can be mediated via the metabolic systems of arachidonic acid and the
stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity, with subsequent increase in the
intracellular cAMP level. The results indicated that the whole-body exposure of
healthy mice to low-intensity EHF EMR has a profound effect on the indices of
nonspecific immunity.

PMID: 11855293 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Vrach Delo. 1991 Mar;(3):49-51.

[The biological activity of a decameter-range electromagnetic field with a
frequency of 24 MHz]

[Article in Russian]

Bezdol’naia IS, Dumanskii IuD, Smolia AL.

A study of behavioural reactions indicates that the effect of 24 MHz frequencies
of the electromagnetic field results in changes of the ratio of excitatory and
inhibitory processes in the nervous system of white rats with prevalence of
inhibitory processes. By the 90-th day of effect of the above factor all changes
returned to the initial level. This indicates stability of the adaptative
reactions of the integrative level of the nervous system to the acting factor.

PMID: 2042349 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

19: Gig Sanit. 1991 May;(5):28-30.

[Late sequelae of the effect of electromagnetic field on animals]

[Article in Russian]

Gromyko NM, Krivodaeva OL, Zemskova VV.

Simple and complex forms of behaviour, gas composition and acid-alkaline blood
status in rats following exposure to the electro-static field (ESF) and
iraionization, as well as in their offspring were studied. It has been found
out, that ESF combined with the negative polarity air ionization damage motor
and sex activity, conditioned-reflectory activity, changes blood indices. The
observed disturbances in the organism of parent animals influenced fetus

PMID: 1916334 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

20: Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1979 Jan-Feb;51(1):14-7.

[Effect of high frequency electromagnetic fields on the processes of
transamination in the liver and small intestine tissues of rats]

[Article in Russian]

Faitel-berg-Blank VR, Lekhan IG.

The influence of electromagnetic waves of metrical and centimetrical range on
the transaminoferases activity was studied in the liver and small intestine of
69 rats. The experiment shows that the activity of aspartate and alanine
aminotransferases is dependent on the power and duration of the action. It is
established that the action of both the short-wave 160 mA diathermy and 30
MW/cm2 microwaves for 20 min is accompanied by inhibition of the liver and small
intestine aminotransferases activity. The 20 min action of 12 MW/cm2 microwaves
induces an increase in the aminotransferases activity of the liver, small
intestine and serum.

PMID: 425131 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

21: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999 Dec;64(4):731-8.

Factor analysis shows that female rat behaviour is characterized primarily by
activity, male rats are driven by sex and anxiety.

Fernandes C, Gonzalez MI, Wilson CA, File SE.

Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Neuroscience Research Centre, GKT School of
Biomedical Sciences, King’s College London, Guy’s Campus, UK.

This experiment explored sex differences in behaviour using factor analysis to
describe the relationship between different behavioral variables. A principal
component solution with an orthogonal rotation of the factor matrix was used,
ensuring that the extracted factors are independent of one another, and thus
reflect separate processes. In the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety, in male
rats factor 1 accounted for 75% of the variance and reflected anxiety, factor 2
represented activity, and accounted for 24% of the variance. This contrasted
with the finding in female rats in which factor 1 was activity, accounting for
57% of the variance, with the anxiety factor accounting for only 34% of the
variance. When behaviour in both the plus-maze and holeboard were analysed, a
similar sex difference was found with anxiety emerging as factor 1 in males and
holeboard activity as factor 1 in females. Locomotor activity in the inner
portion of the holeboard loaded on the anxiety factor for males, but on activity
for females. When behaviours in the plus-maze and sexual orientation tests were
analysed, anxiety emerged as factor 1 in males, sexual preferences factor 2, and
activity factor 3. In females, activity was factor 1, sexual preference factor
2, anxiety factor 3, and social interest factor 4. These results suggest caution
should be exercised in interpreting the results from female rats in tests
validated on males because the primary controlling factor may be different.

PMID: 10593196 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

22: Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1997 Sep;83(9):12-21.

[The action of a modulated electromagnetic field on the emotional component of
the systemic organization of behavioral acts in rats]

[Article in Russian]

Sudakov KV.

Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Acad. Med. Sci., Moscow, Russia.

Experimental findings are reviewed in respect to the effect of modulated
electromagnetic field (MEMF) upon emotional responses of rats accompanying
various phases of systemic organisation of their behaviour. Blocking effects of
the MEMF are shown in simulated self-stimulation and various conditioned types
of behaviour in rats. In author’s opinion, the MEMF affect the informative
component of behaviour: emotions.

PMID: 9487063 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2003 Jan-Feb;43(1):75-81.

[Effects of microwave radiation on conditioned behavior of rats]

[Article in Russian]

Zhavoronkov LP, Kolganova OI, Dubovik BV, Matrenina VL, Posadskaia VM.

Medical Radiological Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences,
Obninsk, 249036 Russia.

Research has been carried out to investigate the effects of microwave exposure
(7 GHz, surface energy density 10-50 mW/cm2, SAR 2.1-10.5 W/kg) on learned
behaviors of rats in the paradigm of conditioned avoidance reflex. It was shown
that transitory reductions in conditioned behavior after acute microwave
exposure occurred at an SAR equal to the intensity of rat basal metabolism. It
was found cumulative effects for intermittent exposures of rats at a power
density of 10 mW/cm2.

PMID: 12677663 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Jan-Feb;41(1):62-6.

[Effect of low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation on activity
of alkaline phosphatase in blood serum]

[Article in Russian]

Pashovkina MS, Akoev IG.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142292 Pushchino,
Moscow Region, 142292 Russia.

The change in alkaline phosphotase activity in vitro with frequencies modulation
at low intensity of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation was experimentally
shown (EMR, 2375 MHz, intensity: 0.8, 8.0; 40.0 microW/cm2; range modulation:
30-310 Hz; time of interaction: 1-3 min). Revealed effects could be regarded as
an evidence of informative character of interaction of modulated EMR.

PMID: 11253703 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Brain Res Bull. 2002 Jan 1;57(1):17-26.

Learned fear, emotional reactivity and fear of heights: a factor analytic map
from a large F(2) intercross of Roman rat strains.

Aguilar R, Gil L, Flint J, Gray JA, Dawson GR, Driscoll P, Gimenez-Llort L,
Escorihuela RM, Fernandez-Teruel A, Tobena A.

Medical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, School
of Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Anxiety-related behaviours were evaluated across various tests in a 800
F(2)-intercross of the Roman high- and low-avoidance inbred rats. These tests
either evoke unlearned (open field [OF]; plus-maze [PM]; hole-board [HB];
spontaneous activity [A]; and acoustic startle reflex [ASR]) or learned
(classical fear conditioning [CFC]; and shuttlebox avoidance conditioning
[SAC]), anxious/fearful responses. Using factor analysis (oblique rotation), we
obtained a six-fold solution with 14 variables derived from all tests. These six
factors represented SAC, CFC, PM anxiety, PM and OF activity, ASR anxiety, plus
a mixed whole of anxious and activity variables (from OF and A), respectively.
In searching for a smaller number of meaningful factors, we applied a
three-factor solution that coherently corresponded with differentiated facets of
fearfulness, rather than with the tests. Results showed that (1) measures of SAC
and CFC strongly loaded onto Factor 1, labelled as “Learned Fear”; (2) a blend
of almost all variables loaded onto Factor 2, called “Emotional Reactivity”; and
(3) open arm behaviour in the PM loaded onto Factor 3, called “Fear of Heights.”
After discussing limitations of this apparently consistent behavioural map of
anxiety, we advance some connections between those factors with quantitative
trait loci candidates (genetic markers) as detected in the same sample.

PMID: 11827733 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1995 Jan;29(1):41-3.

[Effects of pregnant exposure to electromagnetic field emitted by electric
blankets on brain catecholamine and behavior in offspring mice]

[Article in Chinese]

Yao G, Fu Y, Lu D.

Microwave Laboratory, Zhejiang Medical University, Hangzhou.

NIH pregnant mice were exposed to electromagnetic field emitted by electric
blankets with 1-1.2kV/m and 0.2-0.4microT for five hours daily during their
whole gestational period. Catecholamine (CA) content in the hypothalamus of
their newborn offsprings was quantitatively measured with histochemical methods,
and their varied behavioral activities were determined with behavioral
toxicological methods. Results showed catecholamine content in exposed
offsprings decreased significantly not only seven days but also 40 days after
delivery as compared with the controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively).

PMID: 7600890 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

27: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002 Mar-Apr;42(2):186-90.

[Dependence of microwave effect on the secondary structure of DNA on molecular
weight of polynucleotide]

[Article in Russian]

Semin IuA, Shvartsburg LK, Zhavoronkov LP.

Medical Radiological Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Science,
Obninsk, 249036 Russia.

The effect of ultralow power pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (average
power density 60 microW/cm2, carrying frequency 1.05; 2.12; or 2.39 GHz;
modulating pulses with frequency 4 Hz) on the secondary structure of DNA was
investigated. It was established that the exposure of beta-alanine and
formaldehyde containing aqueous DNA solution to electromagnetic radiation had
activated the process of DNA despiralization under the action of
beta-alanine–formaldehyde reaction product. The effect of electromagnetic
radiation on the secondary structure of DNA can be removed by lowering of
molecular weight of DNA to 0.46 x 10(6) (at carrying frequency 1.05 GHz), or to
0.25 x 10(3) (at carrying frequency 2.39 GHz).

PMID: 12004616 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

28: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2001 Sep-Oct;31(5):547-53.

Some neurotropic effects of low-intensity electromagnetic waves in rats with
different typological characteristics of higher nervous activity.

Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazyan AS, Chernyakov GM.

Institute of Medical-Biological Problems, State Scientific Center of the Russian
Federation, Moscow.

The effects of low-intensity electromagnetic waves (4200 MHz, modulated with
quasichaotic signals at 20-20,000 Hz, energy density 15 microW/cm2; specific
energy absorption not greater than 15 mJ/kg) on the neurochemical systems of the
brain and on behavioral reactions were studied in experimental animals with
different typological characteristics of higher nervous activity. These studies
showed that electromagnetic waves produced marked changes in the state and
activity of the monoaminergic mediator systems which were in general terms
concordant with changes at the integrative level (mostly selective inhibitory
effects). The nature of these processes depended to a significant extent on the
typological characteristics of the animals.

PMID: 11693480 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Mutat Res. 1998 Apr;410(2):185-220.

Animal and cellular studies on carcinogenic effects of low frequency (50/60-Hz)
magnetic fields.

Loscher W, Liburdy RP.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, School of Veterinary
Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 9637236 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

30: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1989 Jan-Feb;23(1):45-7.

[Effect of a hypogeomagnetic field on warm-blooded animals]

[Article in Russian]

Levina RV, Smirnov RV, Olimpienko TS.

This paper presents the study of the effect of a 3-month exposure of adult male
rats of the Wistar strain to the hypogeomagnetic field (the shielding factor =
172.5) on their behavior, learning ability, cardiovascular function and work
capacity. It was found that the exposure led to a significant decrease of work
capacity, endurance and behavioral activity as well as to a significant increase
of heart rate and time of conditioned reflex development. The above changes
remained within physiological limits due to which they can be viewed as
adaptation variations.

PMID: 2709751 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

31: Life Sci. 2003 Apr 18;72(22):2489-98.

Combined effects of complex magnetic fields and agmatine for contextual fear
learning deficits in rats.

McKay BE, Persinger MA.

Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Laurentian University, Ontario, P3E 2C6,
Sudbury, Canada.

Acute post-training exposures to weak intensity theta-burst stimulation (TBS)
patterned complex magnetic fields attenuated the magnitude of conditioned fear
learning for contextual stimuli. A similar learning impairment was evoked in a
linear and dose-dependent manner by pre-conditioning injections of the polyamine
agmatine. The present study examined the hypothesis that whole-body applications
of the TBS complex magnetic field pattern when co-administered with systemic
agmatine treatment may combine to evoke impairments in contextual fear learning.
Within minutes of 4 mg/kg agmatine injections, male Wistar rats were fear
conditioned to contextual stimuli and immediately exposed for 30 min to the TBS
patterned complex magnetic field or to sham conditions. TBS patterned complex
magnetic field treatment was found to linearly summate with the contextual fear
learning impairment evoked by agmatine treatment alone. Furthermore, we report
for sham-treated rats, but not rats exposed to the synthetic magnetic field
pattern, that the magnitude of learned fear decreased and the amount of
variability in learning increased, as the K-index (a measure of change in
intensity of the time-varying ambient geomagnetic field) increased during the
3-hr intervals over which conditioning and testing sessions were conducted.

PMID: 12650857 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

32: Behav Pharmacol. 1999 Mar;10(2):131-7.

Effects of GABA-transporter (GAT) inhibitors on rat behaviour in open-field and
elevated plus-maze.

Schmitt U, Hiemke C.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Germany.

The behavioural consequences of inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
uptake were studied. Two GABA uptake inhibitors, tiagabine and SKF 89976-A, were
administered to rats, and behaviour was analysed 30 min later in a standard open
field, an enriched open field, and an elevated plus-maze. Eight groups of
animals received either saline (0.9%), tiagabine, or SKF 89976-A. At a dose of
18.5 mg/kg, tiagabine, an established antiseizure drug, impaired motor
coordination, enhanced exploratory activity and reduced anxiety related
behaviour. SKF 89976-A exhibited minimal effects over the dose range tested.
These results indicate that inhibition of GABA uptake might be a pharmacological
strategy to treat not only epilepsy, but also anxiety disorders.

PMID: 10780826 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

33: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Jul-Aug;41(4):403-7.

[Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency on the
ultrastructure and proliferative activity of rat’s thymus cells]

[Article in Russian]

Zhitkevich TI, Bokut’ TB, Netukova NI.

Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk, 220072 Belarus.

Effects of two types of low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) of industrial
frequency (50 Hz) on the fine structure and proliferative activity of thymic
cells in white rats were studied. It was found that a weak EMF with a prevailing
electrical component (380-480 V/m, 120-140 nT1) did not affect the DNA synthesis
intensity. An EMF with a stronger magnetic induction (10-15 V/m, 800-1500 nT1)
diminished the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and proliferative
processes in cultured stimulated lymphocytes. Electron microscopic investigation
of the thymus after both types of exposure revealed an accumulation of
lymphocytes with pyknotic nuclei and electron-dense cytoplasm, as well as
hypoplasia of the vascular endothelium. At the same time, EMF with a prevailing
magnetic component produced a more marked negative effect on the ultrastructure
of thymic cells, which indicated a lowered secretory activity of epitheliocytes.

PMID: 11605242 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

34: Behav Brain Res. 2002 Jul 18;133(2):323-32.

Emotional changes related to age in rats–a behavioral analysis.

Boguszewski P, Zagrodzka J.

Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, 3
Pasteur St., 02-093, Warsaw, Poland.

The present study investigated age-related differences in the emotional behavior
of rats using factor analysis to identify motivational factors influencing
spontaneous behavior in open field with illuminated center (OF), plus maze (EPM)
and social interactions test. Animals of the same strain, bred under the same
conditions, formed two experimental groups: young adults (YA, N=20) tested at
the age of 4 months and old rats (OA, N=16) tested at the age of 24 months. The
computer video based tracking system EthoVision was used for automated
acquisition and analysis of data. The results of each test were analyzed
separately for YA and OA by factor analysis. Two main independent factors
emerged from the analysis of OF measures-factor 1, which appeared to reflect
motor activity, and factor 2, reflecting anxiety. The measures best reflecting
motor activity (distance moved in the peripheral zone) and anxiety (time spent
in central zone) decreased significantly with age. Factor analysis for EPM
measures revealed, in both groups, three independent factors. In YA, factor 1
reflected motor activity, factor 2-anxiety, in OA measures of anxiety loaded on
factor 1, measures of activity on factor 2. Factor 3 in both groups appeared to
represent a decision making process. The number of entries to the closed arms
declined significantly in OA, showing an age related decrease of motor activity.
Also, the ratio of open arms entries in relation to the total number of entries
decreased in OA, indicating a higher anxiety level. Three independent factors
emerged from the analysis of social interaction measures. The pattern of factor
loading was different in young and old animals, although the number and time of
social interactions did not show age-related differences. In addition to a
decrease of motor activity we conclude that old rats also differ from young
animals in emotional and social behavior.

PMID: 12110466 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

35: Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Jun;66(6):562-7.

No detectable bioeffects following acute exposure to high peak power ultra-wide
band electromagnetic radiation in rats.

Walters TJ, Mason PA, Sherry CJ, Steffen C, Merritt JH.

Systems Research Laboratories, Inc., Brooks AFB, TX 78235, USA.

A wide range assessment of the possible bioeffects of an acute exposure to high
peak power ultra-wide band (UWB) electromagnetic radiation was performed in
rats. The UWB-exposure consisted of 2 min of pulsed (frequency: 60 Hz, pulse
width: 5-10 ns) UWB (bandwidth: 0.25-2.50 GHz) electromagnetic radiation. Rats
were examined using one of the following: 1) a functional observational battery
(FOB); 2) a swimming performance test; 3) a complete panel of blood chemistries;
or 4) determination of the expression of the c-fos protein in
immunohistologically-stained sections of the brain. No significant differences
were found between UWB- or sham-exposed rats on any of the measured parameters.

PMID: 7646407 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Lab Anim. 1995 Oct;29(4):380-4.

Effects of gentling on open-field behaviour of Wistar rats in fear-evoking test

Hirsjarvi P, Valiaho T.

University of Kuopio, Department of Applied Zoology, Finland.

The effect of individual gentling on open-field behaviour of adult male Wistar
rats was studied. Dark open-field evoked prey-like behaviour both in the gentled
and in the nonhandled rats. Escape activity dominated in both groups although
some habituation as a function of trials occurred. The effects of gentling were
mainly seen in the quality of the fear-reaction as a result of reduced fear of
human contact. Parameters that differentiated the 2 groups were middle field
ambulation, middle field rearing and passive motionlessness.

PMID: 8558819 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

37: Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1993 Apr;54(4):186-96.

Biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields: in vivo

Anderson LE.

Bioelectromagnetics, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352.

This paper discusses the biological effects of exposure to extremely low
frequency electromagnetic fields observed in animal studies. Three areas of
investigation are reported: (1) studies on the nervous system, including
behavior and neuroendocrine function; (2) experiments on cancer development in
animals; and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal
models by exposure to external magnetic fields. An attempt is made to evaluate
experimental results and interpret them with respect to potential health

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 8480634 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

38: Sci Total Environ. 1996 Feb 2;180(1):35-42.

Experimental study of the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on
animals with soft tissue wounds.

Detlavs I, Dombrovska L, Turauska A, Shkirmante B, Slutskii L.

Latvian Medical Academy, National Hospital of Traumatology and Orthopaedics,

The effect of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) was studied on
Wistar rats with excised full-thickness dermal wounds in the interscapular
region. The wounded regions of experimental animals were subjected to EMF for 30
min daily during the first 5 days after wound infliction. Control animals
received no treatment. We used RF EMF with (1) frequency 53.53 GHz without
modulation; (2) frequency 42.19 GHz without modulation; (3) frequency 42.19 GHz,
but with a frequency modulation band 200-MHz wide. On the 7th day the animals
were terminated and the granulation-fibrous tissue (GFT) developed in the wounds
was subjected to complex quantitative biochemical analysis. RF EMF without
frequency modulation decreased the amounts of glycoprotein macromolecules,
diminishing the inflammatory exudation. In striking contrast, under the
influence of RF EMF with frequency modulation, hexoses and especially sialic
acid concentrations were significantly elevated (P < 0.001). This indicated
intensification of exudative phenomena. As a consequence of inflammation
inhibition in the treatment without frequency modulation, the total collagen
accumulation was lowered. However, when frequency was modulated, the
inflammatory phenomena were intensified, and pronounced accumulation of
collagenous proteins was noted. Thus, our experiments confirm the effects of
non-thermal EMF on the reparative-proliferative processes of animals with soft
tissue wounds.

PMID: 8717318 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

39: Behav Neurosci. 2001 Apr;115(2):429-36.

Dimensions of emotionality in a rat model of innate anxiety.

Ohl F, Toschi N, Wigger A, Henniger MS, Landgraf R.

Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich,

Emotionality is thought to be multidimensional, with “anxiety” representing one
dimension. Dissecting emotional dimensions in animal models is an essential
prerequisite for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie
anxiety. The authors used factor analysis to investigate emotional dimensions in
normal rats and rats bred for either high or low anxiety-related behavior.
Hyperanxious rats were reduced in emotional dimensions in the elevated plus-maze
by selection pressure, and a modified hole board test revealed a dissection of
their emotionality with precisely defined dimensions. This enabled clear
differentiation of “anxiety” from other emotional dimensions including risk
assessment behavior and exploration. Factors extracted by analyzing data from a
multiple-test battery corresponded to particular test characteristics rather
than to emotional dimensions. The approach used might help to develop specific
treatment strategies for anxiety disorders.

PMID: 11345967 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

40: Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1999 Oct;36(5):348-51.

Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on health.

Jain SC, Tyagi K.

Centre for Environment & Explosive Safety, Metcalfe House, Delhi.

This paper gives a brief review of the physical interaction and bio-effects of
exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) along
with guidelines on limits of exposure to 50/60 Hz electric and magnetic fields.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10844987 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

41: Environ Health Perspect. 1979 Jun;30:115-21.

Study of nonionizing microwave radiation effects upon the central nervous system
and behavior reactions.

Shandala MG, Dumanskii UD, Rudnev MI, Ershova LK, Los IP.

The biologic effect of an electromagnetic field of a frequency of 2375 +/- 50
MHz was studied in rats and rabbits in specially constructed absorbant chambers.
The results of the investigations have shown that microwave radiation of 10, 50,
500 mu W/cm2 for 30 days, 7 hr/day, causes a number of changes in bioelectric
brain activity and also in behavioral immunological, and cytochemical reactions.
It was found that levels of 10 and 50 mu W/cm2 stimulate the electric brain
activity at the initial stage of irradiation, while a level of 500 mu W/cm2
causes its suppression, as seen from the increase of slow, high amplitude
delta-waves. At 500 mu W/cm2 a decrease in capacity of work, in value of
unconditioned feeding stimulus, in investigating activity, electronic
irradiation threshold, and in inhibition of cellular and humoral immunity were
also observed.

PMID: 446442 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

42: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Sep-Oct;50(5):878-83.

[The dynamics of the manifestation of behavioral audiogenic seizure activity in
rats under the action of a modulated and a nonmodulated electromagnetic field]

[Article in Russian]

Konovalov VF, Serikov IS.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino.

It was shown that the electromagnetic field of low intensity modifies the evoked
epileptiform seizure activity in rats. Cumulative effect of the electromagnetic
field persisted over the course of 6 months. It was suggested that inhibition of
the increased motor activity under exposure to electromagnetic field is caused
by the involvement of dopaminergic brain systems and development of the
resonance effects in cortico-subcortical brain structures under the influence of
modulated electromagnetic fields.

PMID: 11085003 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

43: Lik Sprava. 1995 Jul-Aug;(7-8):37-9.

[The cytogenetic action of electromagnetic fields in the short-wave range]

[Article in Russian]

Timchenko OI, Ianchevskaia NV.

Electromagnetic field (EMF) at a frequency of 24 or 14 MEGC and intensity of 400
or 200 V/m, increases numbers of hepatocytes from rats with chromosomal
aberrations 1.4-1.5-fold. The magnitude of the response does not appear to
change with the increase in the field intensity EMF at the above frequencies and
intensity of 100 V/m does not cause any cytogenetic effects. No such effects
were notable with EMF-frequency of 4 MEGC.

PMID: 8846369 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

44: IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2002 Jan-Feb;21(1):90-1.

EMF cancer scares: epidemiology versus body power.

Deutsch S.

PMID: 11935994 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

45: Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1994 Jun;80(6):50-62.

[Intersystemic functional integration under the action on the body of
electromagnetic factors]

[Article in Russian]

Vediaev FP, Samokhvalov VG.

Frequency zones of the brain electrical activity, heart rate and respiration
were studied through certain parameters characterised by individual asymmetry
and low but stable intersystemic integration. Chronic electromagnetic
irradiation reduced a resistance against an emotional stress as manifested in a
“decay” of individual spatial-temporal infrastructure of informational
parameters of the EEG, heart rate and respiration.

PMID: 7531066 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

46: Peptides. 2001 Jul;22(7):1031-6.

Comparison of neurokinin SP with diazepam in effects on memory and fear
parameters in the elevated T-maze free exploration paradigm.

Echeverry MB, Hasenohrl RU, Huston JP, Tomaz C.

Laboratory of Psychobiology, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.

The elevated T-maze was combined with a free exploration protocol, which, in
contrast to the conventional procedure, dispenses with handling of the animals
during the experimental sessions. This allows measurement of fear indexes
derived from the elevated plus-maze as well as assessment of acquisition of open
arm avoidance and open arm escape in one continuous session. Retention of the
different fear-responses is measured 72 h later without drug treatment. In order
to assess the effects of two known anxiolytics in this paradigm, rats received
an IP injection of diazepam (1 to 4 mg/kg), substance P (5 to 500 microg/kg) or
vehicle (1 ml/kg) and were tested on the T-maze for 5 min. Diazepam elevated
open arm activity, indicative of an anxiolytic effect. The drug also increased
the latency to escape from the open arms, but did not significantly affect
acquisition of open arm avoidance. During the retention trial, diazepam in
higher doses impaired the performance of both fear-responses, suggestive of an
anterograde amnesic effect. Substance P did not influence acquisition and
retention of open arm avoidance and escape. However, in high doses, the peptide
increased the sojourn time in the central arena of the maze, indicating reduced
fear and, hence, a dissociation between anxiolytic and amnesic effects. The
present findings demonstrate that the elevated T-maze free exploration paradigm
is sensitive to anxiolytic and memory-modulating effects of drugs.

PMID: 11445230 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

47: Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 1995 Sep-Dec;31(5-6):573-83.

[A comparative histochemical study of cytochrome oxidase activity in the
somatosensory and auditory brain centers in the normal rat and after exposure to
superhigh-frequency electromagnetic fields]

[Article in Russian]

Krasnoshchekova EI, Rumiantseva TA, Kulikov GA.

Using histochemical method mitochondrial cytochrome oxydase (CO) in acoustic and
somatosensory centers of rat brain has been studied to reveal CO activity
distribution in norm and after impulse-modulated high-ultra-high frequency
influence. After ultra-high frequency influence the increase of enzymic activity
in a number of regions of rat brain centers with relationship to processing
ecologically important sensory signals is revealed.

PMID: 8714296 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

48: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002 Apr;71(4):581-7.

Anxiogenic-like effect of serotonin(1B) receptor stimulation in the rat elevated

Lin D, Parsons LH.

Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN-7, Division of Psychopharmacology, The
Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037,

Perturbations in serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] neurotransmission have
been implicated in several psychiatric illnesses including depression and
anxiety disorders. It is not yet clear, however, which of the 14 currently
identified 5-HT receptor subtypes in the brain participate in the regulation of
emotional states. This study investigates a role for the 5-HT(1B) receptor
subtype in anxiety-related behaviors using the elevated plus-maze paradigm in
rats. The selective 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist
3-(1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridyl)-5-propoxypyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine (CP 94,253;
1–5.6 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased the amount of exploration on the open
arms of the plus-maze without altering overall locomotor activity. This 5-HT(1B)
agonist-induced increase in anxiety-like behavior was dose-dependently reversed
by coadministration of the selective 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist
2′-methyl-4′-(5-methyl[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl)-biphenyl]-amide (GR 127,935). There
was no significant effect of GR 127,935 administration alone on plus-maze
behavior. These results indicate that 5-HT(1B) receptor activation increases
anxiety-like behavioral responses as measured by the elevated plus-maze. Since
5-HT(1B) receptors modulate the activity of multiple neurotransmitter systems
that have been implicated in anxiety disorders, these findings suggest that this
receptor subtype may represent an important therapeutic target for the treatment
of anxiety.

PMID: 11888549 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

49: Phytomedicine. 2000 Jun;7(3):199-203.

Agastache mexicana may produce anxiogenic-like actions in the male rat.

Molina-Hernandez M, Tellez-Alcantara P, Martinez E.

Instituto de Investigaciones Psicologicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico.

Behavioral effects of a water-soluble extract of Agastache mexicana, a plant
with purported anxiolytic actions, were studied in male Wistar rats. In the
elevated plus-maze test, various doses of the plant extract (3.0 mg/kg body wt.;
9.0 mg/kg body wt.; 12.0 mg/kg body wt.) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.)
decreased the exploration of open arms, showing an anxiogenic-like effect.
Agastache mexicana (12 mg/kg body wt.; i.p.) did not change immobility in the
forced swimming test (i.e., had no anti-depressant effect) but increased the
anti-immobility action of 32.0 mg/kg body wt. (i.p.) of desipramine (i.e.,
increased the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine). A. mexicana had no
effect on exploratory activity in an open field test, indicating that it had no
sedative effect at the doses used. It is concluded that effects of the water
extract of A. mexicana are more consistent with an anxiogenic-like property than
an anxiolytic-like one.

PMID: 11185730 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

50: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1999 May-Jun;(3):11-4.

[Changes in the proteinase-inhibitor system of rats with hyperlipoproteinemia
during transcerebral exposures to a 100-Hz-frequency pulse current and to an
ultrahigh-frequency field]

[Article in Russian]

Zubkova SM, Varakina NI, Mikhailik LV, Chabanenko SS.

Experiments on 36 male rats with experimental hyperlipoproteinemia demonstrated
that transcerebral exposure to impulse current (100 Hz, 2mA) aggravates
atherogenic alterations, provokes hyperactivation of kallikrein-kinin system and
unbalance of elastase inhibitory activity in the serum and myocardium. The
latter may contribute to better vascular permeability for low-density
lipoproteins, to development of edema of vascular intima, lability of cellular
and lysosomal membranes with hydrolysis of elastine and collagen fibers of
myocardial vessels and other organs. Transcerebral exposure to electromagnetic
UHF field (40.68 MHz) is not hypolipidemic but has no negative effect on
experimental atherosclerosis, promotes normalization of kallikrein-kinin system
in the serum, activation of this system in the myocardium and cerebral cortex,
correction of destructive processes in the serum and cerebral cortex with a risk
of their development in the myocardium.

PMID: 10429563 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

51: J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1975 Apr;89(2):183-8.

Avoidance by rats of illumination with low power nonionizing electromagnetic

Frey AH, Feld SR.

Rats spent more time in the halves of shuttle boxes that were shielded from
illumination by 1.2 GHz microwave energy than in the unshielded. In Experiment
1, rats avoided the energy when it was presented as 30-musec pulses with a pulse
repetition rate of 100 pulses per second (pps). The average power density was
about .6 mW/cm2, and the peak power density was about 200 mW/cm2. In Experiment
2, the energy was presented both continuously and in pulse-modulated form, i.e.,
.5-msec exponentially decaying pulses at a rate of 1,000 pps. The average power
density of the continuous energy was 2.4 mW/cm2, and the average power density
of the pulse-modulated energy was .2 mW/cm2. The peak power density of the
modulated energy was 2.1 mW/cm2. The rats avoided the pulsed energy, but not the
continuous energy.

PMID: 1133237 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

52: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1977 Aug;84(8):146-9.

[Hypnogenic action of a modulated electromagnetic field]

[Article in Russian]

Sudakov KV, Antimonii GD.

Behavioristic and electroencephalographic changes in rats under long-lasting
modulated electromagnetic field (frequency of 40 MHz, modulation frequency 50
Hz, intensity 100–120 V/m) were studied. Some phasic disorders in the
conditioned feeding and defense reactions were observed, including cataleptic
state as a result of the action of modulated electromagnetic field. These
behavioristic disorders are determined by the changes in the normal
cortico-subcortical relationships.

PMID: 561631 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

53: Bull Exp Biol Med. 2000 Aug;130(8):746-8.

Emotional state and one-trial learning in OXYS rats with hereditarily elevated
production of oxygen radicals.

Loskutova LV, Kolosova NG.

Institute of Physiology, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical
Sciences, Novosibirsk.

Comparative analysis of unconditioned and conditioned behavior of Wistar and
prematurely aging OXYS rats revealed that the latter have significantly reduced
locomotor and exploratory activities, increased anxiety in the elevated
plus-maze test, spatial disorientation, and abnormal associative learning. OXYS
rats can be used as a biological model for studying molecular, neurobiological,
and neurochemical mechanisms of brain aging.

PMID: 11177232 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

54: Z Naturforsch [C]. 1994 May-Jun;49(5-6):352-8.

Resonance effect of low-intensity millimeter waves on the chromatin
conformational state of rat thymocytes.

Belyaev SYa, Kravchenko VG.

Scientific Research Center Vidguk, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Russia.

The method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD) was modified for the
study of the changes in the chromatin conformational state (CCS) of rat
thymocytes of the Wistar line. The response of the thymocytes of male rats to
low-intensity millimeter waves (MMW) was examined. It was shown that MMW at
power densities (PD) of 1 microW/cm2 produced a resonance effect on the CCS in
the frequency range of 41.56-41.67 GHz. The resonance frequency of the cell
response did not vary significantly among five examined rats and was determined
to be 41.61 +/- 0.01 GHz. A halfwidth of resonances was averaged to 40 MHz. The
power dependence of the resonance effect was measured in the range of
10(-11)-10(-4) W/cm2. Statistically significant changes in CCS were registered,
starting with 10(-9) W/cm2. Right- and left-handed circularly polarized MMW were
shown to differ in efficiency at the resonance frequency. The established
regularities in the thymocyte response to low-intensity MMW was very similar to
those which have been previously found for E. coli cells.

PMID: 8060460 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

55: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Jul-Aug;41(4):399-402.

[Effect of low-frequency pulse-modulated 460 MHz electromagnetic irradiation on
Drosophila embryos]

[Article in Russian]

Bol’shakov MA, Kniazeva IR, Lindt TA, Evdokimov EV.

Tomsk State University, 634050 Russia.

Effect of electromagnetic radiation 460 MHz with 2.5-40 Hz pulse modulation rate
on Drosophila embryos of 15 h 10 m age was studied. It was demonstrated that a
5-min irradiation with 0.12 W/kg average SAR (3 W/kg pulsed SAR) alters the
Drosophila percentage of interrupted development. The effect strength depended
on the modulation rate with a pronounced decrease at 10 and 16 Hz. A hypothesis
about the presence of thermal and non-thermal mechanisms of action of
pulse-modulated microwave radiation diversely effecting the embryos has been put
forward and grounded.

PMID: 11605241 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

56: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1993 Mar-Apr;43(2):398-406.

[The effect of different motor regimens modulating spontaneous activity on rat

[Article in Russian]

Kulikov VP, Kiselev VI, Konev IV.

A method was developed of non-stressful modulation of spontaneous motor activity
of rats. Restraint of mobility was found to inhibit spontaneous activity.
Physiological stimulation of muscle activity by means of complication of
food-procuring behaviour was accompanied by increase of spontaneous activity.
Physiological stimulation of motor activity was characterized by stability of
orienting-exploratory behaviour, emotional reactivity, expression of “freedom
response”, the best learning and working abilities of the animals. Regimes with
imposing or restriction of muscle activity favoured the inhibition of
spontaneous activity and the decrease of efficiency of adaptive behaviour. Motor
regimes accompanied by increase of spontaneous activity were found to be optimal
for adaptive behaviour.

PMID: 8317168 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

57: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Mar-Apr;41(2):207-9.

[The delayed effects of modulated and non-modulated electromagnetic field on
epileptiformic activity in rats]

[Article in Russian]

Konovalov VF, Serikov IS.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, 142290

The modifying influence of the weak electromagnetic field on the development of
the audiogenic spasmodic activity in rats was shown. The decrease of lifetime of
experimental rats exposed to electromagnetic fields with different parameters
and development of tumours (in one set of experiments) was found.

PMID: 11402555 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

58: Acta Med Austriaca. 2000;27(3):69-77.

[Electromagnetic fields–effects on health]

[Article in German]

Stepansky R, Jahn O, Windischbauer G, Zeitlhofer J.

Universitatsklinik fur Neurologie, Wien.

This literature review shows the current knowledge of health effects on humans
concerning static, low frequency electric and magnetic fields and high frequency
electromagnetic fields up to 300 GHz. Basic physical knowledge and the current
thresholds are demonstrated. Different frequency ranges of electromagnetic
fields, their natural and technical origins and the different biological
effects, especially possible hazards such as cancerogenity or risks for the
brain, are discussed. Open questions and future research aspects are
demonstrated. Finally electrosensibility and psychological aspects are shown.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10897385 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

59: Life Sci. 2002 Mar 1;70(15):1751-62.

Validation of a behavioral recording automated system in the elevated plus-maze

Torres C, Escarabajal MD.

Departamento de Psicologia, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educacion,
Universidad de Jaen, Spain.

The elevated plus-maze test has been widely used for screening of anxiolytic
drugs and for exploring neurobiological bases of anxiety. In this study, we
validated a new automated system that enables to record exploratory behavior in
the elevated plus-maze test. This system, called cyberplus, consisted of ten
pairs of photoelectric cells strategically located in several parts of the
apparatus, and seemed to be sensitive to the position of the animal’s forepaws,
so it would yield scores in anxiety measurements and locomotor activity similar
to those obtained by following the traditional procedure, that is, by analyzing
videotapes by experienced observers. In order to assess this hypothesis, we
exposed rats to the elevated plus-maze test and compared the scores obtained by
cyberplus with the values recorded by two independent observers, conducting a
correlational study with both kinds of recording procedures. The results
obtained suggest the utility of cyberplus as a behavioral recording automated
system in the elevated plus-maze test, making data collection and data analysis
easier in exploring pharmacological and neurobiological bases of anxiety.

Publication Types:
Validation Studies

PMID: 12002520 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

60: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2002 Nov-Dec;52(6):743-9.

[Behavioral consequences of isolation in early ontogeny in rats: selectivity of
anxiety conditions]

[Article in Russian]

Khonicheva NM, Czabak-Garbacz R, Krupina NA.

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of
Sciences, Moscow.

Multiparameter scale for evaluation of anxiety-phobic state in rats reveals
significant enhancement of anxiety in rat pups after 6-week isolation (beginning
from the 21st day from birth) as compared to grouped controls of the same
litter: the locomotion and exploration that appear in test areas are suppressed,
and species-specific fear reactions are enhanced. These changes considered as
signs of situational anxiety are not eliminated by 2.5-month keeping in groups.
Nevertheless, they are not correlated with parameters of the acoustic startle
reflex that (by the data of literature) is thought to be related with fear and
anxiety. On the basis of the discrepancy it is proposed that state of anxiety is
selective. This suggestion is confirmed by individual behavioral variations
characterized by a combination of a low level of situational anxiety and a high
level of acoustic anxiety observed in both experimental and control groups.
These variations may explain the existence of atypical “emotional
resonance”-like behavior according to P.V. Simonov. Attention is given to
selectively enhanced acoustic startle reflex in the group of active control as
an evidence for critical importance of any manipulations with social context in
early ontogeny.

PMID: 12528379 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

61: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Apr;154(4):336-42.

Lack of consistent behavioural effects of Maudsley reactive and non-reactive
rats in a number of animal tests of anxiety and activity.

Paterson A, Whiting PJ, Gray JA, Flint J, Dawson GR.

Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Neuroscience Research Centre,
Terlings Park, Eastwick Road, Harlow, Essex CM20 2QR, UK.

RATIONALE: A number of previous studies have reported that the Maudsley reactive
(MR/Har) and non-reactive (MNRA/Har) strains of rats show behavioural and
physiological differences consistent with the hypothesis that these strains
differ in emotionality and could therefore be considered a model of trait
anxiety in humans. OBJECTIVES: We sought to confirm this observation by
determining their behaviour in various animal models of conditioned and
unconditioned fear. METHODS: Both strains were evaluated in the open field (OF),
conditioned avoidance (CA), elevated plus maze (EPM) and fear-potentiated
startle (FPS) tests. In the OF the behaviour of both strains was consistent with
previous results showing that reactive rats had significantly higher levels of
defecation and lower levels of activity than the non-reactive rats. However,
there were no significant strain differences in CA responses or in the time
spent on the open arms of the EPM. In addition, the full benzodiazepine receptor
agonist, chlordiazepoxide, induced quantitatively similar effects in both
strains of rats. In the FPS test, MNRA/Hars had a higher baseline level of
startle and fear potentiation than the MR/Har rats. CONCLUSIONS: These data show
that the behaviour of MR/Har and MNRA/Har rats in some models of conditioned and
unconditioned fear is inconsistent with that predicted by their behaviour in the
OF test, suggesting that they are not a model of trait fear.

PMID: 11349385 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

62: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1999 Nov-Dec;49(6):1039-45.

[The effect of different stages of the sex cycle on rat behavior in a plus maze]

[Article in Russian]

Vinogradova EP.

Department of Higher Nervous Activity and Psychophysiology, St.-Petersburg State

Anxiety and motor activity of female white rats in the elevated plus-maze were
studied at different stages of the reproduction cycle (estrus, diestrus,
pregnancy and lactation). The level of anxiety was lower, and that of locomotor
and exploratory activity was higher during estrus and lactation than during
diestrus and pregnancy. Exposure to chronic pain of threshold intensity did not
induce behavioral changes in pregnant rats. There was no difference between the
control and experimental animals in the level of plasma corticosterone.

PMID: 10693284 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

63: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1995 Jan-Feb;35(1):29-35.

[Motor activity of rabbits in conditions of chronic low-intensity pulse
microwave irradiation]

[Article in Russian]

Grigor’ev IuG, Luk’ianova SN, Makarov VP, Rynskov VV, Moiseeva NV.

Motor activity of rabbits under daily thirty-minute irradiation (1.5 GHz, pulse
duration 16 ms, pulse recurrence frequency 0.12 Hz, pulse intensity 0.3 mw/cm2)
for one month was studied. From 14th day the reliable disadaptation changes such
as an anxiety and alarm reaction were found. The importance of prolonged
irradiation is noted.

PMID: 7719427 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

64: Bioelectromagnetics. 2000 Oct;21(7):524-37.

Neural and behavioral teratological evaluation of rats exposed to ultra-wideband
electromagnetic fields.

Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Mason PA, Dooley MP, Miller SA, Ziriax JM, Murphy MR.

Air Force Research Laboratory, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Directed Energy
Bioeffects Division, Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Brooks AFB, Texas
78235-5324, USA.

Several investigators have reported teratologic effects of electromagnetic field
exposure. The majority of these studies have been performed at levels of
exposure that could produce substantial heating of the animals. New and unique
sources of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic fields are currently being
developed and tested that are capable of generating nonthermalizing,
high-peak-power, microwave (MW) pulses with nanosecond (ns) pulse widths,
picosecond (ps) rise times, and an UWB of frequencies. Our study was performed
to determine if teratological changes occur in rat pups as a result of (i) daily
UWB exposures during gestation days 3-18, or (ii) as a result of both prenatal
and postnatal (10 days) exposures. Dams were exposed either to (i) UWB
irradiation from a Kentech system that emitted a 55 kV/m-peak E field, 300 ps
rise time, and a 1.8 ns pulse width, average whole-body specific absorption rate
45 mW/kg; (ii) sham irradiation; or (iii) a positive control, lead (Pb) acetate
solution (2000 microg/ml) continuously available in the drinking water.
Offspring were examined for ontogeny (litter size, sex-ratios, weights, coat
appearance, tooth-eruption, eye-opening, air-righting, and ultrasonic stress
vocalizations). Male pups were tested on various performance measures
(locomotor, water-maze learning, and fertilization capabilities). The pups
postnatally exposed were examined for hippocampal morphology and operant
behavior. Behavioral, functional, and morphological effects of UWB exposure were
unremarkable with these exceptions: (i) The UWB-exposed pups emitted
significantly more stress vocalizations than the sham-exposed pups; (ii) the
medial-to-lateral length of the hippocampus was significantly longer in the
UWB-exposed pups than in the sham-exposed animals; (iii) male offspring exposed
in utero to UWB mated significantly less frequently than sham-exposed males, but
when they did mate there was no difference in fertilization and offspring
numbers from the sham group. There does not appear to be a unifying
physiological or behavioral relationship among the significant differences
observed, and our findings could be due to the expected spurious results derived
when a large number of statistical comparisons are made. Significant effects
found between our positive-controls and other groups on numerous measures
indicates that the techniques used were sensitive enough to detect teratological
effects. Bioelectromagnetics 21:524-537, 2000. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 11015117 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

65: Radiat Res. 2001 Feb;155(2):369-77.

Repeated exposure of C3H/HeJ mice to ultra-wideband electromagnetic pulses: lack
of effects on mammary tumors.

Jauchem JR, Ryan KL, Frei MR, Dusch SJ, Lehnert HM, Kovatch RM.

Air Force Research Laboratory, Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Directed Energy
Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Brooks Air Force Base,
Texas, USA.

It has been suggested that chronic, low-level exposure to radiofrequency (RF)
radiation may promote the formation of tumors. Previous studies, however, showed
that low-level, long-term exposure of mammary tumor-prone mice to 435 MHz or
2450 MHz RF radiation did not affect the incidence of mammary tumors. In this
study, we investigated the effects of exposure to a unique type of
electromagnetic energy: pulses composed of an ultra-wideband (UWB) of
frequencies, including those in the RF range. One hundred C3H/HeJ mice were
exposed to UWB pulses (rise time 176 ps, fall time 3.5 ns, pulse width 1.9 ns,
peak E-field 40 kV/m, repetition rate 1 kHz). Each animal was exposed for 2 min
once a week for 12 weeks. One hundred mice were used as sham controls. There
were no significant differences between groups with respect to incidence of
palpated mammary tumors, latency to tumor onset, rate of tumor growth, or animal
survival. Histopathological evaluations revealed no significant differences
between the two groups in numbers of neoplasms in all tissues studied
(lymphoreticular tissue, thymus, respiratory, digestive and urinary tracts,
reproductive, mammary and endocrine systems, and skin). Our major finding was
the lack of effects of UWB-pulse exposure on promotion of mammary tumors in a
well-established animal model of mammary cancer.

PMID: 11175673 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

66: Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2001 Oct;87(10):1450-6.

[Interleukin-1beta and depressive states]

[Article in Russian]

Zubareva OE, Efremov OM, Simbirtsev AS, Klimenko VM.

Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Acad. Med. Sci., St. Petersburg,
197376, Acad. Pavlov St., 12, Russia.

Administration of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in pyrogenic and subpyrogenic
doses induced a depression of social and exploratory behaviour in rats. A
reduction in locomotor activity only occurred with pyrogenic doses of the IL-1
beta. The low dose induced the reduction whereas the high dose the increase of
anxiety in elevated plus maze. The opposite effects of two doses of IL-1 beta
were observed also in a test with saccharine.

PMID: 11767459 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

67: Pol J Occup Med. 1988;1(4):329-39.

Influence of a static magnetic field on the reproductive function, certain
biochemical indices and behaviour of rats.

Grzesik J, Bortel M, Duda D, Kuska R, Ludyga K, Michnik J, Smolka B, Sowa B,
Trzeciak H, Zielinski G.

PMID: 2979568 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

68: Gig Sanit. 1989 Oct;(10):30-2.

[Hygienic evaluation and the problems of standardization of magnetic fields with
the frequency of 50 Hz]

[Article in Russian]

Ziubanova LF, Karamyshev VB, Shestakov VG.

It is established that some kinds of technological equipment are the sources of
the magnetic fields with the frequency of 50 Hz, their biologic activity being
identified. Hygienic classification and approaches to differentiated
standardization of the above factor are suggested with account of time and
energetic parameters.

PMID: 2599398 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

69: Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2000 Sep;86(9):1167-74.

[Effect of immunization to cholecystokinin fragment (30-33) on the behavior of
albino rats]

[Article in Russian]

Danilova RA, Rud’ko OI, Korotkova TM, Obukhova MF, Ashmarin IP.

Moscow State University, Vorobyevy Gory.

Active immunisation of albino rats by the BSA-conjugated CCK-4 induced formation
of antibodies to the CCK-4 and some long-term changes of the rat behaviour.
These changes were contrary to anxiogenic effect of the CCK-4 and demonstrated
an anxiolytic effect of the immunisation. The data obtained suggest a
possibility of an immunocorrection of pathological anxiety and fear by an
inverse immunoregulation.

PMID: 11081222 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

70: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1976 Sep-Oct;26(5):899-909.

[Modulated electromagnetic field as a factor of selective influence on animal
mechanisms of goal-directed behavior]

[Article in Russian]

Sudakov KV.

Proceeding from P.K. Anokhin’s theory of the functional systems, the paper
considers the action of a modulated electromagnetic field (MEMF) on different
stages of the central architectonics of purposeful behaviour of rats: afferent
synthesis, decisions making, acceptor of the action results. The action of MEMF
was studied in different experimental situations: choice of an alimentary or
defensive reaction to one conditioned stimulus in different situations;
extinction of conditioned alimentary reactions; elaboration and extinction of
alimentary conditioned reactions in animals group contacts; choice of the side
of reinforcement in a T-shaped maze, and, lastly, self-stimulation reactions.
The experiments have shown that MEMF has a selective effect on the animals’
emotional reactions. Greater disturbances are observed in the mechanisms of the
animals’ appraisal of the action of situational and trigger stimuli or
surrounding individuals of their species and, hence, of decisions making and
anticipation of future results of the action, the acceptor of the action

PMID: 997935 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

71: Med Pr. 1981;32(6):393-402.

[Glycosaminoglycans in the brain of rats subjected to electromagnetic field

[Article in Polish]

Matych S.

Investigations on changes of glucosaminoglycans content were carried out in the
brain of the rats irradiated once (30 min.) or several times (2-6 hours daily).
The following frequencies of e-m fields were used: 2880 MHz (pulse modulation
1000 Hz, pulse duration 1,5 mus); 150 MHz (50 V/m); 175 MHz (150 V/m); 3000 MHz
c.w. continuous wave). Control groups of animals were not subject to
irradiation. Statistically significant increase of GAG content was found in the
brain of the rats, irradiated in e-m field of frequency 2880 MHz in comparison
with GAG concentration in the controls. In the brains of animals exposed to e-m
fields of frequencies 150 and 175 MHz a statistically significant decrease of
GAG content was noted in comparison with GAG content in the controls. Whereas
e-m field of frequency 3000 MHz c.w. did not induce statistically significant
changes in GAG content in experimental animals as compared with the controls.

PMID: 6804742 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

72: Biofizika. 2002 Jul-Aug;47(4):759-68.

[A study of absorption of energy of the extremely high frequency electromagnetic
radiation in the rat skin by various dosimetric methods and approaches]

[Article in Russian]

Gapeev AB, Sokolov PA, Chemeris NK.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow
Region, 142290 Russia.

Using experimental and theoretical methods of dosimetry, the energy absorption
of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in the skin of
laboratory rats was analyzed. Specific absorption rate (SAR) in the skin was
determined on the basis of both microthermometric measurements of initial rates
of temperature rise in rat skin induced by the exposure and microcalorimetric
measurements of specific heat of the skin. Theoretical calculations of SAR in
the skin were performed with consideration for dielectric parameters of rat skin
obtained from the measurements of the standing wave ratio upon reflection of
electromagnetic waves from the skin surface and for the effective area of
stationary overheating measured by infrared thermography. A numerical method was
developed to determine electromagnetic wave energy reflected, absorbed, and
transmitted in the model of flat layers. The algorithm of the method was
realized in a computer program and used to calculate SAR in the skin on the
basis of the complex dielectric constant of rat skin. The SAR values obtained
from experimental measurements, theoretical calculations and numerical analysis
are in good mutual correspondence and make about 220-280 W/kg at a frequency of
42.25 GHz and a power of 20 mW at the radiator output. The results obtained can
be used for dosimetric supply of biomedical experiments on studying the
physicochemical mechanisms of the biological effects of EHF EMR.

PMID: 12298218 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

73: Gig Sanit. 1991 Aug;(8):52-3.

[Behavioral effects of the combined chronic action of 9375 and 1765 MHz

[Article in Russian]

Navakatikian MA, Nikitina NG, Zotov SV.

Combined pulse-discrete microwave irradiation (9375 and 1765 MHz, irradiance
flux density to 375 microW/cm2, by 12 h/day for 4 months) caused faint
inhibition of CNS in locomotion activity and defensive reflex parameters.

PMID: 1937100 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

74: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):722-6.

[Effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency
on the animal body within the framework of total low-dose x-ray irradiation]

[Article in Russian]

Gubkina EA, Kushnir AE, Bereziuk SK, Potapov VA, Lepekhin EA.

Effect of low-intensive electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency
(EMR EHF) on the rats, subjected to the low-dose X-ray irradiation (6.192 mC/rg)
was investigated. Content of glial fibrillary acidic protein as well as glucose
content and activity of glutamate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase was
studied. It was shown than EMR EHF modifies the X-ray irradiation effect:
filament GFAP concentration in brain and glucose content in serum were restored.
The authors suggest central nervous system participation in realization of EMR
EHF effects on the organism.

PMID: 9019284 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

75: Radiobiologiia. 1987 Jul-Aug;27(4):567-9.

[Effect of electromagnetic fields of UHF range on dopamine-dependent behavior of

[Article in Russian]

Andreeva LA, Konovalov VF, Podol’skii IIa.

SHF radiation of low intensity does not influence on a stereotyped behaviour of
rabbits induced by a dopamine receptor stimulator, apomorphine. However, 10% of
animals exhibited a marked decrease in the test-response after SHF-irradiation
(16 Hz) which was perhaps associated with the increased individual sensitivity
of some animals to SHF-radiation.

PMID: 3628743 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

76: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1998 Nov-Dec;48(6):1043-50.

[The characteristics of the effect of tuftsin on the behavior and on the level
of biogenic amines in the brain of rats with differing resistance to acoustic

[Article in Russian]

Ismailova KhIu, Semenova TP, Iskanderova MD, Fast AE.

Karaev Institute of Physiology, Azerbaijani Academy of Sciences, Baku.

The influence of tetrapeptide tuftsin (Tyr-Lys-Pro-Arg) on learning, exploratory
activity, emotional behavior, and hypothalamic monoamine content was studied in
Wistar rats with different resistance to stress induced by acoustic stimuli.
Positive effects of taftsin were more pronounced in low-resistant rats.
Administration of taftsin induced in these animals a significant increase in
reactivity to stimuli of different modalities, the open-field exploratory
activity, rate of alimentary conditioning and its modification in emotionally
negative situation. Biochemical examinations showed that in rats with high
resistance to stress taftsin administration led to a decrease in hypothalamic
noradrenaline level and increase in dopamine and serotonin levels. On the
contrary, in low-resistant animals taftsin increased the level of noradrenaline
and decreased that of dopamine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. It is
suggested that different behavioral effects of taftsin in stress-resistant and
nonresistant rats are caused by its different influence on hypothalamic biogenic

PMID: 9929913 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

77: Biofizika. 2000 Jan-Feb;45(1):130-6.

[Changes in serum alkaline phosphatase activity during in vitro exposure to
amplitude-modulated electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (2375 MHz) in
guinea pigs]

[Article in Russian]

Pashovkina MS, Akoev IG.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow
Region, Russia.

The activity of alkaline phosphatase by the action of pulse-modulated microwave
radiation was studied. The carrier frequency of radiation was 2375 MHz, the
range of modulation pulse rate was 10-390 Hz with the on-off time ratio 2, and
the specific absorption rate was 8 and 0.8 microW/cm2. Time of exposure was 1
and 3 min under conditions of continuous temperature control. It was shown that
the activity of alkaline phosphatase depends on both modulation frequency and
intensity of superhigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation. At a frequency of 70
Hz, the activity of alkaline phosphatases increased 1.8-2.0 times.

PMID: 10732222 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

78: Gig Sanit. 1983 Mar;(3):86-9.

[Age-related sensitivity of the body of an animal to superhigh-frequency
electromagnetic fields]

[Article in Russian]

Koziarin IP, Shvaiko II.

PMID: 6852577 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

79: Bioelectromagnetics. 1999 Oct;20(7):453-8.

Erratum in:
Bioelectromagnetics 2000 Jan;21(1):73.

Power frequency fields promote cell differentiation coincident with an increase
in transforming growth factor-beta(1) expression.

Aaron RK, Ciombor DM, Keeping H, Wang S, Capuano A, Polk C.

Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University School of Medicine Providence,
Rhode Island 02906, USA.

Recent information from several laboratories suggest that power frequency fields
may stimulate cell differentiation in a number of model systems. In this way,
they may be similar to pulsed electromagnetic fields, which have been used
therapeutically. However, the effects of power frequency fields on phenotypic or
genotypic expression have not been explained. This study describes the ability
of power frequency fields to accelerate cell differentiation in vivo and
describes dose relationships in terms of both amplitude and exposure duration.
No change in proliferation or cell content were observed. A clear dose
relationship, in terms of both amplitude and duration of exposure, was
determined with the maximal biological response occurring at 0.1 mT and 7-9
h/day. Because this study was designed to explore biological activity at
environmental exposure levels, this exposure range does not necessarily define
optimal dosing conditions from the therapeutic point of view. This study reports
the stimulation by power frequency fields of transforming growth factor-beta, an
important signalling cytokine known to regulate cell differentiation. The
hypothesis is raised that the stimulation of regulatory cytokines by
electromagnetic fields may be an intermediary mechanism by which these fields
have their biological activity.

PMID: 10495311 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

80: Aviat Space Environ Med. 1976 Jun;47(6):644-8.

Effect of electromagnetic pulse on avoidance behavior and electroencephalogram
of a rhesus monkey.

Mattsson JL, Oliva SA.

A 12-kg male rhesus monkey was exposed to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) at 266
kv/m, 5 pulses/s, for 1 h (18,700 pulses). The effects of EMP on Sidman
avoidance behavior and on post-exposure electroencephalogram were evaluated, and
no significant changes were detected. An analysis of an EMP showed that it
contained various frequency components extending from 0 Hz to 10(9) Hz. However,
the pulse configuration was such that its power was mainly confined to the
longer wave-lengths (less than 30 MHz). The lack of biologic effect was
attributed to the fact that the wavelengths were long relative to the size of
the monkey, and little energy deposition was likely to occur. In addition, the
electric field was evenly distributed across all lower frequencies so that only
a very small electric field component existed at any specific low frequency.

PMID: 820328 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

81: Bioelectromagnetics. 1989;10(1):111-3.

Intensity threshold for 60-Hz magnetically induced behavioral changes in rats.

Liboff AR, Thomas JR, Schrot J.

Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401.

Experiments were conducted to further investigate the effect of 60-Hz
cyclotron-resonance exposures on rats performing on a multiple FR-DRL schedule.
The previously reported temporary loss of DRL baseline response, when measured
as a function of A.C. magnetic intensity, was found to have a threshold.
Utilizing the component of A.C. magnetic intensity parallel to the D.C. field,
we report this threshold as (0.27 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) Trms.

PMID: 2712836 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

82: Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1998 Oct;84(10):1100-7.

[Anxiety-inducing and -inhibiting agents: differential effect of pentagastrins
on the white rat behavior]

[Article in Russian]

Danilova RA, Fedorova IM, Rud’ko OI, Kushnir EA, Ashmarin IP.

Moscow State University, Vorobyevy Gory, Russia.

Parenteral administration of des-BOC-Pentagastrin induced the anxiety and fear
manifestations, depressing also explorative behaviour in open field experiments
in rats. Intranasal administration evoked similar effects, whereas pentagastrin
reduced the anxiety level, increasing explorative behaviour. Pentagastrin and
des-BOC-Pentagastrin displayed antagonism at the receptor level.

PMID: 10097277 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

83: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1991 Feb;111(2):165-8.

[Changes in the emotionally conditioned behavior of rats under the influence of
the hexapeptide fragment GLLDLK of the protein inhibitor of diazepam binding]

[Article in Russian]

Zhdanova IV, Kordzadze RN, Pliashkevich IuG.

It is shown that suboccipital injection of 100 micrograms of the gexapeptide
GLLDLK (the fragment of endogenous peptide–the inhibitor of diazepam binding)
modified (for 1-3 days) the emotionally conditioned behaviour of the rats (the
test of “emotional resonance”). This modification was realized in some
reinforcement of different behavioural patterns and had signs of anxiety and
depression. In the test “social hierarchy” the injection of GLLDLK didn’t change
significantly the hierarchy in the whole rat society, but in the recipient
behaviour the exploratory activity has been changed, the time of grooming
increased and the quantity of social contacts decreased.

PMID: 1854959 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

84: Physiol Behav. 2001 Feb;72(3):403-7.

Exposure to a novel stimulus reduces anxiety level in adult and aging rats.

Darwish M, Koranyi L, Nyakas C, Almeida OF.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Health
Sciences, Semmelweis University, Szabolcs u. 33-35, H-1135 Budapest, Hungary.

Male Wistar rats aged 3, 15 and 24 months were isolated and housed individually
for 72 h prior to being subjected to inanimate objects (two objects per rat,
each 1.5 cm in diameter and 4 cm in length, made of surgical gauze). Following
the exposure to the objects, rats were subsequently tested in an elevated
plus-maze. The inanimate objects induced locomotor activity, chewing and
transportation of the object. This changed to social interaction and play-like
behavioral activity in rats of all ages that were kept in small groups with a
latency of 1 to 2 min. One hour after the start of exposure, the animals were
tested in the elevated plus-maze to measure anxiety behavior. It was found that
all age groups spent significantly more time in the open arm of the elevated
plus-maze than the corresponding controls. Latencies to first entry into open
arms were also significantly lowered. The number of entries to the open or to
the dark arm, however, did not show statistical difference, indicating that the
novel object-induced activity failed to exert influence on gross motor activity
in the elevated plus-maze. In conclusion, the stimulation elicited by the
exposure to novel stimulus (inanimate objects) resulted in a significant
reduction of anxiety level both in adult and in aging rats.

PMID: 11274684 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

85: Gig Sanit. 1993 Dec;(12):39-40.

[The effect of superhigh frequency electromagnetic radiation on the central
nervous system]

[Article in Russian]

Krylova IN, Iasnetsov VV, Pal’tsev IuP, Il’in AB, Kuznetsova EIu, Balaeva NV.

PMID: 8125368 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

86: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1997 Sep-Oct;37(5):756-61.

[Behavior reactions and lipids of brain synaptic membranes of rats under chronic
exposure to gamma irradiation]

[Article in Russian]

Semenova TP, Medvinskaia NI, Potekhina NI, Kolomiitseva IK.

The effects of low level chronic ionising irradiation (12.9 cGy/day on the
sensory attention to the stimuli of different modalities (somatosensory, visual,
odor) of Wistar rats were studied. Analysis of animals behaviour was made after
they had received the different doses of irradiation: 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 Gy.
It was founded, that the attention and exploratory activity of rats is
significantly decreased up to 20-30% after 4-6 Gy. The irradiation doses 8 Gy
did not change animal behaviour as compared to control animals, but doses 10, 15
and 20 Gy decreased the exploratory activity as well as sensory attention of
rats to 3-5-times as compared to previous dose. Such a wave-like way of
behaviour reflects the functioning of an adaptive mechanism. Biochemical data
indicated that after 5 months of the irradiation (dose 20 Gy) the level of
phospholipids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine,
phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol were decreased.

PMID: 9417305 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

87: Z Gesamte Hyg. 1991 Jan;37(1):4-7.

[Standardization of electromagnetic fields of 3-30 MHz with reference to the
time factor]

[Article in German]

Savin BM, Lobanova EA, Kosova IP, Sokolova IP, Rubcova NB, Lochodzej LV,
Klescenok OI.

Wissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut fur Arbeitshygiene und Berufskrankheiten,
Akademie der Medizinischen Wissenschaften, UdSSR, Moskau.

In chronic experiments (4 months) in rabbits, rats, and mice biological effects
were investigated from 7 exposure regimen of electromagnetic fields with a
frequency of 24 MHz at field strengths of the electric field component of 125,
250, 500, and 1,000 V/m, respectively, and an exposure time of 0.25, 1, and 4
hrs. respectively. The effects on the CNS, the immune and hormone systems, the
peripheral blood and on the spermato and embryo genesis were estimated. The
results delivered the basis for the introduction of an index. In point of time
different limit values are to be determined according to the energetic load. A
concrete value for the energetic load 7,200 (V/m)2.h is proposed as maximum
allowable field strength of the electric component 300 V/m.

PMID: 2028680 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

88: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1993 Aug;116(8):127-30.

[A new natural model of elevated anxiety in rats]

[Article in Russian]

Rodina VI, Krupina NA, Kryzhanovskii GN.

The levels of anxiety were determined in male Wistar rats using a complex
multiparameter method for evaluating anxiety-phobic states in rats based on
ranged scale. The effects of psychotropic drugs differed in rats with innate
high and low levels of anxiety. Anxiolytics sodium valproate (200 mg/kg),
phenazepam (0.05 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.1 and 0.6 mg/kg) reduced anxiety in rats
with innate high level of anxiety and prevented increase of anxiety induced by
saline in rats with innate low level of anxiety. Pentylenetetrazol (10 mg/kg)
and haloperidol at a large dose (0.5 mg/kg) increased anxiety in rats with
either high or low innate levels of anxiety. However sodium lactate (600 mg/kg)
increased anxiety only in rats with innate high level of anxiety. Haloperidol at
a small dose (0.01 mg/kg) and melipramin (10 mg/kg) were uneffective in rats
with innate high level of anxiety. Results believed the rats with innate high
level of anxiety to be used as a new natural animal model of anxiety.

PMID: 8274676 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

89: Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Mar;38(3):231-6.

Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy: effects on the offspring behaviour with special
reference to anxiety paradigms.

Ramanathan M, Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK.

Department of Pharmacology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

Maternal hyperglycemic effect was studied on the offspring behaviour. Offspring
were obtained from diabetic rats by mating a normal father with a diabetic
mother (NFDM), diabetic father with normal mother (DFNM) and diabetic father
with diabetic mother (DFDM). Rats were rendered diabetic by injecting
streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg i.p.) in citrate buffer. Offspring were subjected
to various anxiety parameters including open field exploratory behaviour,
elevated plus maze and zero maze behaviours, and the social interaction tests at
the age of 8 weeks. The results indicate that offspring of NFDM and DFDM showed
anxiogenic activity on the elevated plus maze zero maze and the social
interaction test. Offspring of NFDM and DFDM exhibited hyper and emotional
activity in the open field behaviour test. The behavioural alterations observed
in the offspring were comparable to the behavioural alterations noted in STZ
diabetic rat as reported earlier. Further offspring of NFDM and DFDM exhibited
mild hyperglycaemia. No significant behavioural alterations in the offspring of
DFNM were observed. It may be concluded, that exposure of offspring to diabetic
environment in their foetal life can lead to anxiogenic/emotional behaviours in
adult life.

PMID: 10927864 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

90: Biofizika. 2000 Sep-Oct;45(5):935-40.

[Effect of modified SHF and acoustic stimulation on spectral characteristics of
the electroencephalograms of the cat brain]

[Article in Russian]

Ivanova VIu, Martynova OV, Aleinik SV, Limarenko AV.

Ykhtomskii Research Institute of Physiology, St. Petersburg State University,

The effect of modulated electromagnetic fields on the spectral parameters of
bioelectric brain activity in awake cats was studied by registering the
electroencephalogram from the skin surface in the vertex area using carbon
electrodes. In the normal electroencephalogram, spectral components in the range
above 20 Hz predominated. It was shown that, upon irradiation with
electromagnetic field (basic frequency 980 MHz, power density 30-50 microW/cm2),
spectral components in the range of 12-18 Hz begin to prevail. A similarity in
the redistribution of the power of spectral components upon both acoustic and
modulated electromagnetic influences was revealed. The results suggest that
there is a a common neurophysiological mechanism by which modulated
electromagnetic radiation and acoustic stimulation affect the electrical
activity of the brain. This ia consistent with the assumption that the effect of
the electromagnetic field on the central nervous system is mediated through the
acoustic sensory system.

PMID: 11094726 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

91: Biofizika. 1996 May-Jun;41(3):762-4.

[Combined effect of variable and static magnetic fields on rat behavior in the
“open field “]

[Article in Russian]

Deriugina ON, Pisachenko TM, Zhadin MN.

The influence of combined alternating and static magnetic fields on rat behavior
in the “open field” test was studied. The action of the cyclotron and Larmor
frequencies of calcium, natrium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, lithium, and
zinc ions was investigated. The statistically significant influence of the
cyclotron frequencies of calcium and magnesium ions was revealed. The calcium
frequency caused depression of investigating activity of the animals and the
magnesium one evoked increasing moving and investigating activities. The rest of
frequencies did not significantly act on the animal behavior.

PMID: 8924481 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

92: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1994;(1):31-3.

[Effect of low intensity and ultra high frequency electromagnetic irradiation on
memory functions]

[Article in Russian]

Krylova IN, Ilin AB, Dukhanin AS, Paltsev IuP, Iasnetsov VV.

The experiments on rats proved that low intensity electromagnetic waves result
in retrograde amnesia due to benzodiazepine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and
cholinergic mechanisms. Nootropic drug pyracethamum was proved to reduce the
pathologic effect.

PMID: 7804712 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

93: Biomed Tech (Berl). 1997;42 Suppl:103-4.

[Current status of risk discussion of low frequency electric and magnetic fields
and high frequency electromagnetic radiation]

[Article in German]

Petrowicz O.

Institut fur Experimentelle Chirurgie, Technischen Universitat Munchen.

PMID: 9517067 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

94: Med Radiol (Mosk). 1984 Dec;29(12):46-9.

[Experimental study of the effects of acute uneven microwave irradiation]

[Article in Russian]

Zuev VG, Ushakov IB.

The purpose of the study was to reveal parts of the body affected by radiation
most of all in uneven microwave irradiation (current frequency of 2.4 GHz/s) by
the destruction criterion taking account of some indicators of the absorbed
power of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Uneven irradiation was achieved by the
screening of some parts of the body with radiopaque material leaving unshielded
parts subjected to irradiation. Control over the redistribution of absorbed
energy was exercised by means of multichamber phantoms. In experiments on
animals (female rats) within the range of specific absorbed power of 15-40 mWg
the utmost affection of the cranial segment was revealed. The results show good
correlation with a curve of the effect of 50% destruction criterion in total EMR

PMID: 6513752 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

95: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 Jan-Feb;51(1):114-6.

[Motor activity and emotional response in the open field test in rats after
pharmacologic stimulation or blockade of neuropeptides in terminals of primary
sensory neurons]

[Article in Russian]

Zhukova EM.

Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch,

Effects of high and low doses of capsaicin on the open-field behavioral patterns
were examined in Wistar rats. The treated animals exhibited a significant
increase in locomotion, grooming, and exploratory activity.

PMID: 11253389 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

96: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1997 May-Jun;37(3):336-42.

[The dependence of the biological effect of electron radiation on the pulse
repetition rate. The characteristics of the clinical manifestations in rats
after irradiation at superlethal doses]

[Article in Russian]

Darenskaia NG, Nasonova TA, Aleshin SN.

A comparison between biological effects of electron radiation (25 and 50 MeV) at
doses of 100-300 Gy and with pulse recurrence frequencies from 3 to 2400 s-1,
using general damage severity, distinctiveness of separate clinical
manifestations and incidence of extremely severe forms of radiation sickness as
criteria, has demonstrated some peculiarities of radiation pathology in rats
under these circumstances. The pulse recurrence frequency influence varies with
the criterion applied.

PMID: 9244520 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

97: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1996 Nov-Dec;26(6):565-6.

Device for artifact-free recording of brain electrical activity during exposure
of rats to UHF fields in conditions of free behavior.

Vorob’ev VV, Gorelkova TF, Konovalov VF.

Laboratory of Medical Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino.

PMID: 9121634 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

98: Gig Sanit. 1982 Feb;(2):7-11.

[Meteorological radars as an energy source of a superhigh-frequency range
electromagnetic field and environmental hygiene problems]

[Article in Russian]

Dumanskii IuD, Nikitina NG, Tomashevskaia LA, Kholiavko FR, Zhupakhin KS.

PMID: 7075987 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

99: Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 1984 May-Jun;(3):13-6.

[Effect of a modulated UHF field on the behavior and hormone level of female
rats under emotional stress]

[Article in Russian]

Rasulov MM.

PMID: 6540858 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

100: Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Sep;39(9):853-7.

Effect of environmental deprivation on anxiety in rats.

Jaiswal AK.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi, India.

Environmental deprivation (ED) induced a significant increase in open-field
ambulation, rears, self-groomings, faecal pellets and decrease in activity in
centre in Charles Foster albino rats of 30, 45 and 60 days age groups. In
elevated plus maze, significant attenuation of open arm time/entries and
augmentation of enclosed arm time/entries were noted in ED rats of all the three
age groups. Similarly ED rats also showed significant decrease in time spent on
open arms, entries, head dips and stretched attend postures in comparison to age
matched rats reared under normal environmental conditions. The results indicate
that imposition of environmental deprivation in rats’ life consistently resulted
in significant anxiogenic behaviour on all the tests. However, the anxiogenic
effect of ED was less marked when it was imposed at 60th day of life in rats.

PMID: 11831364 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

101: Bioelectromagnetics. 2000 Dec;21(8):566-74.

Prenatal exposure to 900 MHz, cell-phone electromagnetic fields had no effect on
operant-behavior performances of adult rats.

Bornhausen M, Scheingraber H.

Institut fur Toxikologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum fur Umwelt und Gesundheit,
Neuherberg, Germany.

To clarify potential health risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields
(EMFs) used in cellular telephone technology to the developing brain, Wistar
rats were continuously exposed during pregnancy to a low-level (0.1 mW/cm(2))
900 MHz, 217 Hz pulse modulated EMF that approximated the highest legal exposure
of normal populations to the radiation of base antennas of the GSM digital
cell-phone technology. Whole body average specific absorption rate (SAR) values
for the freely roaming, pregnant animals were measured in models; they ranged
between 17.5 and 75 mW/kg. The offspring of exposed and of sham-exposed dams
were coded and tested later as adults in a battery of ten simultaneously
operated test chambers (Skinner boxes) during night time. Eight groups of ten
coded animals in each group were tested for learning deficits in a sequence of
nine, computer-controlled, 15 h sessions of the food-reinforced contingency
Differential Reinforcement of Rate with increasing performance requirements. Two
different sets of events were recorded: The food-reinforced lever-pressing
activity of the animals and the inter-response intervals (IRIs) between
consecutive lever presses. IRI-occurence patterns discriminated consistently
between “learners” and “non-learners”. Analyses of performance scores and of
IRI-patterns both showed that exposure in-utero to the GSM field did not induce
any measurable cognitive deficits. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 11102946 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

102: Med Pr. 2000;51(6):637-52.

[Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and its health effects in
electric energy workers]

[Article in Polish]

Szadkowska-Stanczyk I, Zmyslony M.

Zakladu Epidemiologii Srodowiskowej, Instytutu Medycyny Pracy w Lodzi im. prof.
dra med. Jerzego Nofera w Lodzi.

Power frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) are briefly
characterised, EMF sources occurring in the electromagnetic industry are
discussed, and methods for and problems involved in the evaluation of individual
occupational EMF exposure are also presented. The results of certain cohort
industrial and case-referent studies indicate slightly enhanced risk of brain
cancer and leukaemia in the group under study. The meta-analysis of the results
obtained from numerous studies, published recently, showed a relative risk (RR)
of 1.1-1.3 for leukaemia, and of 1.1-1.2 for brain cancer. Only a few studies
demonstrate a dose-effect relationship for malignant neoplasms which decreases
the power of the hypothesis on the cause-effect relationship. Among health
effects of EMF exposure in electric utility workers, other than malignant
neoplasms, an increased risk of certain diseases of the circulatory and
neurological systems has been reported. The difficulty in the assessment of
individual exposure is the main problem in evaluating the relationship between
EMF exposure and adverse health effects in electric utility workers. We hope to
investigate this further.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 11288692 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

103: Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;132(7):1389-95.

Social isolation modifies nicotine’s effects in animal tests of anxiety.

Cheeta S, Irvine E, File SE.

Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Centre for Neuroscience, GKT School of
Biomedical Sciences, King’s College London, Hodgkin Building, Guy’s Campus,
London, SE1 1UL.

1. These experiments determined whether the housing conditions of rats
influenced the effects of nicotine in two animal tests of anxiety, social
interaction and elevated plus-maze tests. 2. In animals housed singly for 7
days, (-)nicotine (0.025 mg kg(-1) s.c.) was ineffective, but 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25
mg kg(-1) (s.c.) significantly increased the time spent in social interaction,
without changing locomotor activity, thus indicating anxiolytic actions.
(-)Nicotine (0.45 mg kg(-1) s.c.) significantly reduced social interaction,
indicating an anxiogenic effect. 3. However, in group-housed animals,
(-)nicotine (0.025 mg kg(-1) s.c.) had a significant anxiolytic effect in the
social interaction test, but 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.45 mg kg(-1) were
ineffective. (-)Nicotine (1 mg kg(-1)) reduced motor activity and social
interaction in the group-housed animals. 4. In the elevated plus-maze, the
time-course and the dose-response curve to nicotine were investigated. In both
singly- and group-housed rats, (-) nicotine (0.1 – 0.45 mg kg(-1) s.c.)
decreased the per cent entries into, and per cent time spent on, the open arms,
indicating anxiogenic effects. 5. The housing condition influenced the time
course, with significant effects at 5 and 30 min after injection in group-housed
rats, and significant effects at 30 and 60 min in singly-housed rats. 6. In the
social interaction test there was no difference in the scores of the first and
last rats removed from group cages, whereas the order of removal from the cages
did affect the scores in the elevated plus-maze. 7. These results provide
further evidence that the two animal tests model distinct states of anxiety, and
show how social isolation powerfully modifies both anxiolytic and anxiogenic
effects of nicotine.

PMID: 11264231 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

104: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 Jan-Feb;38(1):110-5.

[Radioprotective effect of weak ultra-low frequency alternating magnetic field
in adrenalectomized mice]

[Article in Russian]

Stashkov AM.

Simferopol State University, Krym, Ukraine.

PMID: 9606412 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

105: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1998;(11):6-8.

[The evaluation of the body response of experimental animals to exposure to the
magnetic component of electromagnetic radiation for setting a hygiene standard]

[Article in Russian]

Bogdanov AA, Bukharin EA, Davydova OK, Plakhov NN.

Acute and subacute experiments were conducted to evaluate threshold response of
white rats to variable magnetic intensity of magnetic section of electromagnetic
irradiation with fixed frequency (3 MHz).

PMID: 9885494 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

106: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Sep-Oct;39(5):583-7.

[Biological and ecological aspects of the effects combined electromagnetic rays
on farm animals]

[Article in Russian]

Ipatova AG, Ivanov VL, Koz’min GV, Kozlov VA.

Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk.

The study of a biological effect of ultraviolet, ultrahigh frequency and
gamma-radiation, as well as combinations of these, on the functional status of
the sheep body systems has made it possible to evaluate the sensitivity of a
body exposed to these factors and its adaptive potentials. The pattern of
variations in the body systems when a combined EMR is applied depends on to
which extent one or another factor dominates the others. It is however possible
that the effect of the leading factor is modified by that of a less severe
radiation, energy characteristics of which differ from those of the dominating

PMID: 10576032 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

107: Fiziol Zh. 2003;49(1):87-93.

[Changes in reactions in rats during hypokinesia and electromagnetic irradiation
of ultrahigh frequency]

[Article in Ukrainian]

Temur’iants NA, Chuian OM, Verko NP, Moskovchuk OB, Tumaniants OM, Shyshko OIu,
Min’ko VA, Kurtseitova EE.

Tavritcheskiy University by V.I. Vernadsky, Sympheropol.

The effects of low intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the hypokinetic
stress were studied on rats. It has been shown that exposure to EMF, combined
with hypokinesia or without it, prevented the typical stress reaction on the
limited motility. EMF was determined to modify the adaptive processes which
resulted in the adaptive activation and limiting stress reaction. Adaptation was
characterized with lower anxiety and excitability of the central nervous system,
and a higher level of non-specific resistance, as compared to the stress

PMID: 12669526 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

108: Percept Mot Skills. 1999 Dec;89(3 Pt 1):1023-4.

Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXXVII. Effects of synthetic and natural
geomagnetic patterns on maze learning.

McKay BE, Persinger MA.

Department of Psychology, Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada.

12 normal male albino rats were exposed or not exposed in their home cages for 5
min. and 50 sec. once every hour 8 times per night to a 7-Hz square-wave
magnetic field whose amplitudes were shifted by about 50 nT approximately every
10 sec. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the
two groups for numbers of working errors, numbers of reference errors, or speed
during the acquisition of an Olton (8-arm) maze, the strength of the group
differences (F ratios) for daily working errors was reduced (rho = .70) if there
had been enhanced geomagnetic activity during the time of the night when the
experimental fields were present.

PMID: 10665038 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

109: Neuroreport. 2001 Oct 8;12(14):3081-4.

Hyperanxiety produced by periaqueductal gray injection of chondroitin sulphate

De Araujo JE, Hasenohrl RU, Huston JP, Brandao ML.

Laboratorio de Psicobiologia, FFCLRP, campus USP, Av. Bandeirantes 3900,
14049-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.

We examined the effects of chondroitin sulphate C (CSC) on fear and anxiety
parameters following injection of the glycosaminoglycan into the dorsal
periaqueductal gray. Rats with chronically implanted cannulae were administered
CSC (0.4 or 4.0 nmol) or vehicle (saline, 0.2 microl) and exposed to the
elevated plus-maze test of emotionality. Intra-periaqueductal gray injection of
CSC produced a dose-dependent anxiogenic effect as indicated by reduced entries
into and time spent on the open arms, fewer excursions into the end of the open
arms and by increased stretched attend posture, flat back approach and closed
arm peeping-out behaviour. The behavioural effects of CSC appeared to be
anxioselective, since the glycosaminoglycan did not influence measures of
general (exploratory) activity, such as number of entries into the enclosed arms
and amount of scanning, rearing and grooming. The present results show that CSC
can produce an anxiogenic-like profile after injection into the dorsal
periaqueductal gray. This is the first such report implicating an endogenous
matrix glycosaminoglycan in neural mechanisms governing fear and anxiety.

PMID: 11568641 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

110: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001 Feb;68(2):255-62.

Behavioral effects of buspirone in the marmoset employing a predator
confrontation test of fear and anxiety.

Barros M, Mello EL, Huston JP, Tomaz C.

Primate Center and Department of Physiological Sciences, Institute of Biology,
University of Brasilia, Brazil, CEP 70910-900, DF, Brasilia, Brazil.

In order to further validate the recently developed marmoset (Callithrix
penicillata) predator confrontation model of fear and anxiety, we investigated
the behavioral effects of buspirone with this method. The apparatus consisted of
three parallel arms connected at each end to a perpendicular arm, forming a
figure-eight continuous maze. A taxidermized wild oncilla cat (Felis tigrina)
was positioned facing a corner of the parallel arms, alternating between the
left or right side of the maze among animals tested. All subjects were first
submitted to seven 30-min maze habituation trials (HTs) in the absence of the
predator, and then to five randomly assigned treatment trials (TTs) in the
presence of the predator: three buspirone sessions (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg),
saline and sham injection controls. Twenty minutes after treatment
administration, the animal was released into the maze and had free access to the
apparatus for 30 min. All trials were taped for later behavioral analysis.
Buspirone significantly decreased the frequency of scent marking, while
increasing the time spent in proximity to the ‘predator’ stimulus, indicating an
anxiolytic effect. Neither locomotor activity, exposure to a novel environment,
stimulus location and habituation, nor gender influenced the effects of the drug
treatments. These results further validate this method and demonstrate the
potential usefulness of this ethologically based paradigm to test anxiety and
fear-induced avoidance in nonhuman primates and its susceptibility to anxiolytic
pharmacological manipulations.

PMID: 11267630 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

111: Gig Sanit. 1992 Mar;(3):46-9.

[The sensitizing action of a high-frequency electromagnetic field]

[Article in Russian]

Nogachevskaia SI.

PMID: 1427198 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

112: Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(3):257-71.

Perturbations of plant leaflet rhythms caused by electromagnetic radio-frequency

Ellingsrud S, Johnsson A.

Department of Physics, University of Trondheim, Norway.

The minute-range up and down rhythms of the lateral leaflets of Desmodium gyrans
has been studied when exposed to electromagnetic radiation in the
radio-frequency (RF) range. The RF radiation was applied as homogeneous 27.12
MHz fields in specially-designed exposure cells(and in some cases as
non-homogeneous radiation of 27 MHz, amplitude modulated by 50 Hz, in front of
commercial diathermy equipment). All fields were applied as pulses. We report
effects in the leaflet rhythms such as temporary changes in the amplitude,
period, and phase. The radiation could also cause temporary or complete
cessations of the rhythms. The lowest dose (8 W/cm2) used was still effective.

PMID: 8323575 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

113: Toxicol Lett. 2000 Dec 20;118(1-2):9-19.

Differential effects of low frequency, low intensity (<6 mG) nocturnal magnetic
fields upon infiltration of mononuclear cells and numbers of mast cells in Lewis
rat brains.

Cook LL, Persinger MA, Koren SA.

Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Biology, Laurentian
University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6.

Immediately after inoculation to induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis,
64 female Lewis rats were exposed to either a reference condition (<10 nT) or to
one of two frequencies (7 Hz, 40 Hz) of magnetic fields whose two intensities
(either 50 nT or 500 nT) were amplitude-modulated for 6 min once per hour
between midnight and 8 h for 15 nights. Rats that had been exposed to the 7 Hz,
low intensity fields displayed fewer numbers of foci of infiltrations of
mononuclear cells compared to all other groups that did not differ significantly
from each other. Rats exposed to the 5 mG (500 nT), 40 Hz magnetic fields
displayed more foci in the right thalamus while those exposed to the 5 mG, 7 Hz
fields displayed more foci in the left thalamus. Numbers of mast cells within
the thalamus were also affected by the treatments. These results suggest that
weak magnetic fields can affect the infiltration of immunologically responsive
cells and the presence of mast cells in brain parenchyma. Implications for the
potential etiology of ‘electromagnetic sensitivity’ symptoms are discussed.

PMID: 11137304 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

114: Gig Sanit. 1986 Jul;(7):34-6.

[Biological action and hygienic significance of the electromagnetic field
created by coastal radar facilities]

[Article in Russian]

Tomashevskaia LA, Solenyi EA.

PMID: 3758706 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

115: Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001 May;34(5):675-82.

Strain-dependent effects of diazepam and the 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist SB
206553 in spontaneously hypertensive and Lewis rats tested in the elevated

Takahashi RN, Berton O, Mormede P, Chaouloff F.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina,
Florianopolis, SC, Brasil.

The 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist SB 206553 exerts anxiolytic effects in rat
models of anxiety. However, these effects have been reported for standard rat
strains, thus raising the issue of SB 206553 effects in rat strains displaying
different levels of anxiety. Herein, the effects of SB 206553 in a 5-min
elevated plus-maze test of anxiety were compared to those of the reference
anxiolytic, diazepam, in two rat strains respectively displaying high (Lewis
rats) and low (spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR) anxiety. Diazepam (0.37,
0.75, or 1.5 mg/kg; 30 min before testing) increased in a dose-dependent manner
the behavioral measures in SHR, but not in Lewis rats. On the other hand, SB
206553 (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg; 30 min before testing) failed to alter the
anxiety parameters in both strains, whereas it increased closed arm entries in
Lewis rats, suggesting that it elicited hyperactivity in the latter strain.
Accordingly, the hypolocomotor effect of the nonselective 5-HT2B/2C receptor
agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (1.5 mg/kg ip 20 min before a 15-min exposure
to an activity cage) was prevented by the 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg doses of SB 206553
in Lewis rats and SHR, respectively. Compared with SHR, Lewis rats may display a
lower response to benzodiazepine-mediated effects and a more efficient control
of locomotor activity by 5-HT2B/2C receptors.

PMID: 11323756 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

116: Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1992;(1):38-40.

[Electromagnetic radiations from computer video terminals and their effect on

[Article in Russian]

Lazarenko NV.

The paper is concerned with a brief analysis of the reported data on hygienic,
epidemiological and experimental estimation of the electromagnetic radiation
(EMR) of a video-terminal (VDT). The results of the author’s investigations are
presented. Based on the data obtained it is concluded that low-intensity
wide-band EMR occurs in work places of VDT users. One should bear in mind that
the biological action of EMR has not been studied so far.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 1585729 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

117: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1993 Sep-Oct;43(5):1006-17.

[A multiparameter method for the complex evaluation of anxiety-phobic states in

[Article in Russian]

Rodina VI, Krupina NA, Kryzhanovskii GN, Oknina NB.

A new multiparameter method is elaborated for evaluating the anxiety-phobic
states in rats. The method is based on a ranged scale of parameters which
characterize the species-specific responses of an animal to the series of
ethologically adequate test-stimuli inducing manifestation of the anxiety-phobic
states. The method makes it possible to evaluate an individual anxiety-phobic
level of a rat, to form experimental groups of rats with known individual
anxiety-phobic levels, to conduct repeated observations of the same animals. The
method is easy to introduce into laboratory practice and makes it possible to
obtain results quickly.

PMID: 8249450 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

118: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 May-Jun;50(3):500-8.

[Modulation of the activity of monoaminergic brain systems and emotional
condition by dalargin in rats during development of emotional resonance

[Article in Russian]

Bazian AS, Orlova NV, Getsova VM.

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of
Sciences, Moscow.

Rats were divided in two groups by the reaction of emotional resonance (RER):
with emotionally positive reactions (I, with fast RER acquisition, up to 100 s)
and with emotionally negative reactions (II, with slow RER acquisition, more
than 200 s). After the RER acquisition, the activity of 5-hydroxitryptophan
(5-HT) system of the I group of animals was lower than in the II group. The
activity of noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) systems of the I group of
animals was higher than in the II group. The between-group differences were
enhanced by subcutaneous injection of dalargin. In some brain structures
dalargin reversed these relations. These findings point to a complicated
interpenetrating character of emotionally positive and emotionally negative
states. Emotionally positive states include components of emotionally positive
states, and emotionally negative states include components of emotionally
positive states. Increase in 5-HT activity and decrease in activity of NA, DA,
and opioid (OP) systems induce formation of emotionally negative states.
Decrease in 5-HT activity and increase in activity of NA, DA, and OP systems
induce formation of the emotionally positive state. It is suggested that 5-HT,
NA, and DA systems play the central role in the processes of reinforcement,
acquire the evaluative function, and are included in realization of all types of
behaviors. OP is a primary modulator system which accompanies the unconditioned
pain stimulus and connects it with systems of evaluative function.

PMID: 10923388 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

119: Pol J Pharmacol. 2001 May-Jun;53(3):245-52.

AIDA influences behavior in rats pretreated with baclofen.

Car H, Nadlewska A, Oksztel R, Wisniewski K.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical Academy, Bialystok, Poland.

The influence of the blockade of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (I
mGluRs) by AIDA on some behavioral effects of rats pretreated with baclofen, an
agonist of GABA-B receptor, was investigated using behavioral tests: the open
field, the passive avoidance response and the elevated “plus” maze. Baclofen,
applied intraperitoneally (ip) at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg, increased the number of
crossed fields and bar approaches in rats in the open field test, and prolonged
the time spent in the closed arms, shortened the time spent in the open arms and
decreased the number of entries to the open arms in the elevated “plus” maze,
but did not affect retrieval in the passive avoidance response. AIDA
administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) alone at a dose of 100 nmol reduced
crossings and rearings in the open field test, however, it had no effect on
retrieval in the passive avoidance situation, nor did it show any influence in
the elevated “plus” maze. AIDA given 15 min after baclofen significantly
decreased mobility of rats (in the case of crossings to the level observed when
AIDA was given alone), i.e. AIDA changed the effects of baclofen in the open
field test. We also noted significant impairment of retrieval in rats pretreated
with baclofen, which later received AIDA. AIDA significantly reduced the effect
of baclofen on this memory process. In the elevated “plus” maze test, AIDA did
not influence the behavior of rats pretreated with baclofen in comparison with
the group treated with baclofen alone.

PMID: 11785925 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

120: Int J Dev Neurosci. 2001 Feb;19(1):37-45.

Prenatal stress and postnatal development of neonatal rats–sex-dependent
effects on emotional behavior and learning ability of neonatal rats.

Nishio H, Kasuga S, Ushijima M, Harada Y.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Fukuyama University, Fukuyama, 729-0292, Hiroshima, Japan.

Maternal sound stress (800 Hz; 77 dB, every other minute for 15 min/day, from
day 10 to 18 of gestation), combined with forced swimming stress (15 min/day),
was found to cause potentiation of sound-induced loss of locomotor activity,
referred to as emotional behavior, of male offspring, but not that of female
offspring, at 4 weeks of age. Maternal stress also caused an increase in the
total number of errors by male, but not female offspring in the water-maze test
at 6 weeks of age. These effects of stress on emotional behavior and learning
behavior were abolished when dams were pretreated with buspirone (30 min before
the stress, from day 8 to 18 of gestation). Thus, prenatal stress might have
sex-dependent effects on emotional behavior and learning ability of neonatal

PMID: 11226753 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

121: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1992 Jul;114(7):52-4.

[Dynamics of calmodulin in cerebral structures under the action of modulated UHF
electromagnetic fields]

[Article in Russian]

Katkov VF, Pavlovskii VF, Poltavchenko GM.

The influence of modulated UHF-electromagnetic fields (low intensity) on
calmodulin levels in several brain structures was studied. It was shown that
UHF-electromagnetic fields influence calmodulin levels in the hypothalamus and
sensorimotor cortex. Its effect depends on modulation regimes.

PMID: 1421308 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

122: Radiobiologiia. 1982 Sep-Oct;22(5):687-90.

[Effect of magnetic fields on the radiation sensitivity of mice. 1. Effect of
infra-low frequency of magnetic fields of low intensity on survival of
experimental animals after x-ray irradiation]

[Article in Russian]

Kopylov AN, Troitskii MA.

PMID: 7178445 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

123: Neurosci Lett. 2000 Oct 13;292(3):171-4.

Suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis is specific to the
frequency and intensity of nocturnally applied, intermittent magnetic fields in

Cook LL, Persinger MA.

Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory and Department of Biology Laurentian
University, Sudbury, P3E 2C6, Ontario, Canada.

Female Lewis rats (n=72) were inoculated with an emulsion of spinal cord and
complete Freund’s adjuvant. They were then exposed for approximately 6 min every
hour between midnight and 08:00 h for 2 weeks to either 7 or 40 Hz
amplitude-modulated magnetic fields whose temporal pattern was designed to
simulate a (geomagnetic) storm sudden commencement. The peak strengths of the
fields averaged between either 30-50 nT (low intensity) or 500 nT (high
intensity). Rats exposed to the 7 Hz, low intensity magnetic fields displayed
significantly less severe overt signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
than rats exposed to either of the two intensities of the 40 Hz fields, the high
intensity 7 Hz field, or the reference (<10 nT) condition. The latter groups did
not differ significantly from each other. Predicted severity based upon the
numbers of foci of infiltrations of lymphocytes within the brains of the rats
also demonstrated the ameliorating effects of the low intensity, 7 Hz exposures.
These results suggest very specific characteristics of complex, weak magnetic
fields within the sleeping environment could affect the symptoms of

PMID: 11018304 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

124: IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 2002;80:1-395.

Non-ionizing radiation, Part 1: static and extremely low-frequency (ELF)
electric and magnetic fields.

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans.

Publication Types:
Review, Academic

PMID: 12071196 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

125: Biofizika. 1996 Jul-Aug;41(4):866-9.

[Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation and ultra-violet
radiation on aggregation of thymocytes and erythrocytes]

[Article in Russian]

Roshchupkin DI, Kramarenko GG, Anosov AK.

Electromagnetic radiation of superhigh frequencies (46.12 and 46.19 GHz, 0.3-1
mV/cm2) at an incident dose of about 12 kJ/m2 enhances the ability of isolated
rabbit thymocytes for aggregation interaction with homologous erythrocytes. In
the case of 46.19 GHz frequency, the stimulatory effect disappears as radiation
dose in increased. A radiation of 46.12 GHz stimulates thymocytes also at high
radiation doses. Superhigh-frequency radiation enhances the sensitivity of
thymocytes to the damaging effect of UV radiation.

PMID: 8962885 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

126: Gig Sanit. 1989 Oct;(10):82-5.

[Use of the parameters of the locomotor activity of animals in experimental and
hygienic studies of microwave radiation]

[Article in Russian]

Navakatikian MA, Nogachevskaia SI.

PMID: 2599414 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

127: Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002 Apr;35(4):451-7.

Effects of elevated calcium on motor and exploratory activities of rats.

Godinho AF, Trombini TV, Oliveira EC.

Centro de Assistencia Toxicologica (CEATOX), Instituto de Biociencias,
Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

The effects of serum and brain calcium concentration on rat behavior were tested
by maintaining animals on either distilled water (N = 60) or water containing 1%
calcium gluconate (N = 60) for 3 days. Animals that were maintained on high
calcium drinking water presented increased serum calcium levels (control = 10.12
+/- 0.46 vs calcium treated = 11.62 +/- 0.51 microg/dl). Increase of brain
calcium levels was not statistically significant. In the behavioral experiments
each rat was used for only one test. Rats that were maintained on high calcium
drinking water showed increased open-field behavior of ambulation (20.68%) and
rearing (64.57%). On the hole-board, calcium-supplemented animals showed
increased head-dip (67%) and head-dipping (126%), suggesting increased
ambulatory and exploratory behavior. The time of social interaction was normal
in animals maintained on drinking water containing added calcium. Rats
supplemented with calcium and submitted to elevated plus-maze tests showed a
normal status of anxiety and elevated locomotor activity. We conclude that
elevated levels of calcium enhance motor and exploratory behavior of rats
without inducing other behavioral alterations. These data suggest the need for a
more detailed analysis of several current proposals for the use of calcium
therapy in humans, for example in altered blood pressure states, bone mineral
metabolism disorders in the elderly, hypocalcemic states, and athletic

PMID: 11960194 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

128: Neuropharmacology. 2001 May;40(6):818-25.

Leptin decreases feeding and exploratory behaviour via interactions with CCK(1)
receptors in the rat.

Buyse M, Bado A, Dauge V.

INSERM U410, IFR02 Cellules Epitheliales, Faculte de medecine Xavier Bichat, 16
rue Henri Huchard, 75018 Paris, France.

We assessed the effects of peripheral leptin on anxiety and exploratory
behaviour in the elevated plus-maze and in the four-hole box or Y-maze tests, in
rats fed 80% of normal daily food intake and rats fed ad libitum. In the Y-maze
test, i.p. injection of 0.4 or 1 mg/kg leptin into rationed rats significantly
decreased the percentage of spontaneous alternation behaviour and increased the
number of visits. In the elevated plus-maze test, rationed rats spent
significantly more time in the open arms (aversive part of the maze) than did
rats fed ad libitum. This difference in behaviour was abolished by injecting 0.4
mg/kg leptin. In the four-hole box test, i.p. administration of 1 mg/kg leptin
significantly reduced the duration and number of hole visits in rationed and ad
libitum fed rats. As with leptin inhibition of food intake, these behavioural
changes caused by leptin were prevented by a CCK(1) receptor antagonist
(L364,718), at a dose that had no effect by itself. Finally, a 20-min stress
that increased corticosterone and ACTH levels had no effect on circulating
leptin levels and on the leptin content of epididymal fat tissue, stomach and
brain. Thus, leptin induces hypoexploration and decreases spontaneous
alternation in rats and these effects are partly dependent on nutritional
status. These results also suggest that the CCK system may be involved in the
induction of these behavioural changes in rats by leptin, via the CCK(1)

PMID: 11369035 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

129: Biomed Tech (Berl). 1997;42 Suppl:105-6.

[Exposure facilities for study of the effect of high frequency electromagnetic
fields on biological systems]

[Article in German]

Streckert J, Hansen V.

Lehrstuhl fur Theoretische Elektrotechnik, Bergische
Universitat-Gesamthochschule Wuppertal.

PMID: 9517068 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

130: Behav Res Ther. 2002 Mar;40(3):279-87.

Mother knows best: effects of maternal modelling on the acquisition of fear and
avoidance behaviour in toddlers.

Gerull FC, Rapee RM.

Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of parental
modelling on the acquisition of fear and avoidance towards novel, fear-relevant
stimuli in a sample of 30 toddlers. The toddlers were shown a rubber snake and
spider, which were alternately paired with either negative or positive facial
expressions by their mothers. Both stimuli were presented again after a 1- and a
10-min delay, while mothers maintained a neutral expression. The children showed
greater fear expressions and avoidance of the stimuli following negative
reactions from their mothers. This was true for both genders although the degree
of modelled avoidance was greater in girls than in boys. The strong
observational learning results are consistent with views that modelling
constitutes a mechanism by which fear may be acquired early in life.

PMID: 11863238 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

131: Prog Clin Biol Res. 1988;257:367-76.

Possible physiological mechanisms for neurobehavioral effects of electromagnetic

Shandala MG.

A. N. Marzeev Research Institute of General and Communal Hygiene, Kiev, USSR.

PMID: 3344276 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

132: Physiol Behav. 1993 Apr;53(4):827-9.

Is prolactin related to activity and emotional reactivity in rats?

Marti-Carbonell MA, Darbra S, Garau A, Sanz C, Balada F.

Department de Psicobiologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra,
Catalonia, Spain.

Recent studies have shown different relationships between hormones and
personality in humans, including a relationship between prolactin levels and
impulsivity. The aim of the present work was to study the relationships between
basal levels of prolactin and some measures of activity and emotional reactivity
in rats. One of the most consistent results showed a negative correlation
between basal prolactin levels and activity. This finding is in line with the
serotonergic theories of impulsive behavior and with the effects of dopamine
upon activity.

PMID: 8511191 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

133: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1996 Nov-Dec;46(6):1109-14.

[The behavior of the progeny of prenatally irradiated rats]

[Article in Russian]

Sakharov DG, Dygalo NN.

Ambulation and rearing in the open field were decreased in adult male offsprings
of rats which were exposed to moderate doses of gamma-irradiation during the
last third of their intrauterine development. Single combined external and
internal irradiation of the ancestors in the middle of the intrauterine period
resulted in increased ambulation in the open field (and its decreased latency)
and activity in the wheel in their adult offsprings. The obtained evidence
suggests that exposure of parents to harmful factors has its impact on behaviour
of offsprings depending on the characteristics of such factors.

PMID: 9054164 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

134: Int J Biometeorol. 1977 Dec;21(4):357-65.

Behavioral effects in monkeys exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic

de Lorge JO, Grissett JD.

PMID: 413798 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

135: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 Jan-Feb;38(1):116-20.

[Modification of radiosensitivity of mice by combination of alternating magnetic
field and fractionated irradiation with small daily doses over many days]

[Article in Russian]

Stashkov AM, Gorokhov IE.

Simferopol State University, Krym, Ukraine.

Everyday before radiation combination of weak magnetic field and fractioned
radioactive irradiation in dose of 0.5 Gy up to total doses of 6.0-8.0 Gy
increased surviving of mice by 34-53%, prolonged the life-time 1.5 times as much
(half as much). It also decreased the rate of accumulation of damaged systems,
extended average time of death and the value of dose changing factor, and
reduced the gradient of damaged systems.

PMID: 9606413 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

136: Physiol Behav. 2000 Dec;71(5):509-16.

Behavioral profile of wild mice in the elevated plus-maze test for anxiety.

Holmes A, Parmigiani S, Ferrari PF, Palanza P, Rodgers RJ.

Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, Universita di Parma, Viale di
Scienze, 43100, Parma, Italy.

Systematic observations of the defensive behavior of wild rodents have greatly
informed the experimental study of anxiety and its neural substrates in
laboratory animals. However, as the former work has been almost exclusively
carried out in rats, few data are available concerning the reactivity of wild
mice to standardized tests of anxiety-related behavior. In the present
experiments, we employed ethological measures to examine the behavioral
responses of a wild-derived population of house mice (Mus musculus) in the
elevated plus-maze. In direct comparisons with laboratory Swiss mice, male wild
mice exhibited substantially elevated levels of exploratory activities and an
overall “preference” for the open arms of the plus-maze. On re-exposure to the
plus-maze, male wild mice showed further increases in open arm exploration,
while Swiss mice showed a marked shift to the enclosed parts of the plus-maze.
Tested over a single session, female wild mice also exhibited a profile of high
open arm exploration, but showed levels of exploratory behaviors and locomotor
activity similar to female Swiss counterparts. While exploratory patterns in
wild mice show similarities to profiles seen in certain laboratory strains
(e.g., BALB/c), wild mice displayed a number of additional behaviors that are
unprecedented in plus-maze studies with laboratory mice. These included actual
and attempted jumps from the maze, spontaneous freezing, and exploration of the
upper ledges of the closed arms. Thus, while in conventional terms the behavior
of wild mice was consistent with one of low anxiety-like behavior, the presence
of these unique elements instead indicates a profile more accurately
characterized by high reactivity and escape motivation. We discuss how the use
of an ethological approach to measuring plus-maze behavior can support accurate
interpretation of other exceptional profiles in this test, such as those
possibly arising from phenotyping of transgenic and gene knockout mice.

PMID: 11239669 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

137: DLR Nachr. 1996 Feb;81:22-6.

[Effect of low-frequency magnetic fields on the orientation behavior of
unicellular organisms: new findings on the biological effect of electromagnetic
alternating fields]

[Article in German]

Becker E, Hemmersbach R, Stockem W.

Institut fur Zellbiologie der Universitat, Bonn.

PMID: 11542970 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

138: Bioelectromagnetics. 2001 Apr;22(3):200-4.

Why arguments based on photon energy may be highly misleading for power line
frequency electromagnetic fields.

Vistnes AI, Gjotterud K.

Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

When evaluating possible mechanisms by which low frequency electromagnetic
fields may have a biological effect, arguments based on photon energy have often
been used in a misleading way. For visible light the concept of photons has
proved to be very useful in explaining experimental findings. However, the
concept of photons cannot be used without major modifications in describing
phenomena related to near field problems at power frequency (50 or 60 Hz)
electric and magnetic fields. For this regime, the photon description is very
complex. A very high number of highly coherent photons must be used in a quantum
electrodynamic description of low frequency electromagnetic field phenomena.
Thus, one-photon interaction descriptions must be replaced by multiple-photon
interaction formalism. However, at low frequencies, a classical electromagnetic
field description is far more useful than quantum electrodynamics. There is in
principle no difference in how much energy an electron can pick up from a low
frequency electric field as compared to from a high frequency photon. Thus, the
total gain in energy is not limited to the energy carried by a single photon,
which is E = hv, where h is Planck’s constant and (v) is the frequency of the
radiation. However, the time scale of the primary event in a mechanism of action
is very different for ionizing radiation compared to power line frequency
fields. The advice is to consider the time scale given by the inverse of the
frequency of the fields, rather than photon energy, when one use physics as a
guidance in evaluating possible mechanisms for biological effects from low
frequency electromagnetic fields. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 11255216 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

139: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001 Oct-Nov;70(2-3):411-20.

Different effects of diazepam in Fischer rats and two stocks of Wistar rats in
tests of anxiety.

Bert B, Fink H, Sohr R, Rex A.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Freie
Universitat Berlin, Koserstr. 20, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.

The behaviour of animals in tests of anxiety varies between strains, even in
identical tests and surroundings. To evaluate the results obtained, a more
detailed knowledge of the behaviour of different rat strains is indispensable.
Identically raised Fischer 344 rats and two stocks of Wistar rats were examined
in two animal tests of anxiety: the X-maze and a modified open-field test
following diazepam treatment (0.5-4.0 mg/kg). Harlan-Wistar rats were the least
‘anxious’ when the behaviour of vehicle treated controls was compared. The
largest effect of the anxiolytic diazepam, however, was observed in
Harlan-Fischer rats. To determine possible reasons for strain and stock
differences, plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites and
concentrations of serotonin (5-HT) in the CNS were measured. Plasma
concentrations of diazepam and metabolites differed between the strains with the
Harlan-Fischer rats showing higher diazepam concentrations. 5-HT levels in
discrete brain regions varied with Harlan-Fischer rats having higher 5-HT
concentrations. Strain differences influence the anxiety-associated behaviour of
untreated animals and the effect of anxiolytics.

PMID: 11701214 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

140: Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2000 Apr;26(1):27-32.

Isolation modifies the behavioural response in rats.

Karim A, Arslan MI.

Pharmacology Department, SSMC, Mitford, Dhaka.

Twenty-four male wister rats were reared from weaning either alone (isolation
reared) or in groups of five (socially reared) for 6 weeks. Thereafter, the
present study examined and compared the behaviour of isolation and socially
reared rats in the test of social interaction, in the elevated plus-maze test of
anxiety, in the open field behavior of exploration and locomotion activity, and
the depressive behaviour in forced swim test. Under high light in unfamiliar
conditions isolation reared rats spent significantly more time in aggressive
interactions (P < 0.05) and high levels of aggressive behaviour compared to the
socially reared rats (P < 0.05). Isolation reared rats had spent less time in
the open arms than the socially reared rats in the maze test (P < 0.05).
Isolation reared rats were more exploratory than the socially reared rats in the
open field test and the defaecation scores were less compared to the socially
reared controls (P < 0.05). Isolated rats spent less time immobile on the rats’
forced swim test behaviour but the difference was not statistically significant.
These findings suggest that isolation reared rats are nervous, aggressive and
hyperactive animals in a novel field. It appears that isolation rearing in the
early stages of life has modified a variety of behaviour in the adult rats, and
the investigation of the pattern of behavioural changes in isolation reared rats
may help to explore the environmental influences on the development of human

PMID: 11192492 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

141: Vrach Delo. 1983 Mar;(3):109-11.

[Effect of different doses of a UHF field on the morphofunctional state of the

[Article in Russian]

Belokrinitskii VS, Grin’ AN.

PMID: 6858083 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

142: Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2002 Jul;78(1):11-22.

Fischer 344 and wistar rats differ in anxiety and habituation but not in water
maze performance.

Bert B, Fink H, Huston JP, Voits M.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Free
University Berlin, Koserstr. 20, Berlin, 14195, Germany.

The fact that various neuropharmacological substances have anxiolytic as well as
amnesic effects suggests that neuronal mechanisms of anxiety and learning/memory
closely interact. Hence, we hypothesized that differences in anxiety-related
behavior could be accompanied with differences in cognition or habituation. Two
rat strains with different levels of anxiety, more anxious Fischer 344 rats by
Charles River (FC) and less anxious Wistar rats by Winkelmann (WW), were tested
in the Morris water maze task and an open field test for habituation learning.
Additionally, we investigated the effect of different light intensities on the
performance in the Morris water maze and the elevated plus maze. The results of
the water maze task indicate that differences in anxiety-related behavior do not
go along with differences in this performance of learning/memory. Moreover, the
test was not affected by different light intensities. In contrast, illumination
did affect performance in the elevated plus maze test, wherein dim light
provoked an anxiolytic effect in both rat strains. The findings that neither
different baseline levels of anxiety nor fear modulating light conditions were
accompanied by changes in the performance of rats in the Morris water maze led
us to the suggestion that there is no connection between anxiety and
learning/memory in this task. Contrarily, anxiety might be associated with
habituation learning in the open field test, shown by the superior habituation
of the anxious FC rats in comparison to the less anxious WW rats. In sum, these
results indicate that anxiety and learning/memory seem to be independently
regulated behaviors, whereas habituation might be more closely correlated with
anxiety. Nevertheless, a general statement about the relation between
emotionality and learning/memory mechanisms would be premature and the link
between behaviors remains to be clarified. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science

PMID: 12071664 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

143: Physiol Behav. 1999 Jan 1-15;65(4-5):753-61.

Corrected and republished in:
Physiol Behav. 1999 Sep;67(3):753-61.

Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats.

Lu ST, Mathur SP, Akyel Y, Lee JC.

McKesson BioServices, U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Microwave
Bioeffects Branch, Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235, USA.

The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in
radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise
time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated
heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological
effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for
these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the
cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were
selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB
radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was
used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m,
180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption
rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse
width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6
min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after
exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was
found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB
radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect.

PMID: 10073476 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

144: Lik Sprava. 1992 Oct;(10):69-71.

[The brain function of animals exposed to the action of centimeter
electromagnetic waves]

[Article in Russian]

Smolia AL, Bezdol’naia IS.

It was established that centimeter electromagnetic waves (EMW) are a
biologically active factor. Dynamic of changes of behavioural reactions under
the effect of EMW evidences instability of the functional state of the brain EMW
densities of 1000, 1500 mW/cm2 produce a response characterized by inhibition of
motor activity.

PMID: 1485453 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

145: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001 Sep;70(1):123-31.

Cannabinoid effects on anxiety-related behaviours and hypothalamic

Arevalo C, de Miguel R, Hernandez-Tristan R.

Departamento de Biologia Animal II (Fisiologia Animal), Facultad de Biologia,
Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the cannabinoid
agonist CP 55,940 and the antagonist SR 141716A, alone and in combination, on
rat exploratory and anxiety-like behaviour in the holeboard and elevated
plus-maze tests. A further aim was to evaluate the effects of these treatments
on hypothalamic neurotransmitters. Animals treated with CP 55,940 doses of 0.125
and 0.1 mg/kg exhibited less exploration and an increase in anxiety-like
behaviour accompanied by great motor inhibition. No hypoactivity was seen at
0.075 mg/kg dosage, but anxiety and neophobic responses persisted, indicating
independent and specific effects. Motor activity effects induced by CP 55,940
were reversed by pretreatment with SR 141716A (3 mg/kg). Surprisingly, when
administered on its own, the antagonist also induced a reduction in exploratory
parameters and an increase in anxiety-like responses. These apparently similar
effects might be caused by different neural mechanisms. Finally, CP 55,940
increased hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin levels. These increases might be
involved in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis described
for cannabinoids.

PMID: 11566149 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

146: Physiol Behav. 1999 Sep;67(3):753-61.

Corrected and republished from:
Physiol Behav. 1999 Jan 1-15;65(4-5):753-61.

Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats.

Lu ST, Mathur SP, Akyel Y, Lee JC.

McKesson BioServices, U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Microwave
Bioeffects Branch, Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235, USA.

The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in
radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise
time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated
heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological
effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for
these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the
cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were
selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB
radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was
used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m,
180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption
rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse
width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6
min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after
exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was
found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB
radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect.

Publication Types:
Corrected and Republished Article

PMID: 10497968 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

147: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 May-Jun;51(3):324-8.

[Analysis of possibility of genotypic correlation between fear and anxiety]

[Article in Russian]

Khrapova MV, Popova NK, Avgustinovich DF.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian
Branch, Novosibirsk.

Special features of anxious behavior in the elevated plus maze test and acoustic
startle response were analyzed in 11 inbred mouse strains. A significant
influence of the genotype both on the startle amplitude and behavior in the
elevated plus maze was found. However, analysis of covariance did not reveal a
genotype-related association between anxiety and startle amplitude. The data
indicates that the fear-induced acoustic startle response and anxious behavior
in the elevated plus maze (agoraphobia) are not genetically related.

PMID: 11550640 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

148: Shinrigaku Kenkyu. 1997 Dec;68(5):339-45.

[A temporary reduction of emotional reactivity in postweaning, prejuvenile rats:
examination by the Runway Test]

[Article in Japanese]

Miyamoto K.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Letters, Tokai Women’s College,
Kakamigahara, Japan.

Developmental change of emotional reactivity in Wistar rats was investigated by
two experiments using the Runway Test. Rats were tested at 20, 30, 40, 60, and
90 days of age for three successive days. First, a cross-sectional comparison of
behavior in the Runway Test showed that 30-day-old rats were faster to enter the
runway region, faster to reach the end section, and traversed more sections than
other age groups. Rats at 60 and 90 days of age defecated more bolles and
urinated more. Second, longitudinal comparisons showed that the ambulation of
30- and 40-day-old rats increased gradually over test days, suggesting lowered
emotional reactivity. But 60- and 90-day-old rats showed asymptotic level of
ambulation and no increase between days and less defecation. These results
suggested that postweaning prejuvenile rats showed a temporary reduction of
emotional reactivity in novel environments. Also, their emotional reactivity
elevated gradually, and remained stable in each individual level.

PMID: 9551536 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

149: Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2001 Aug 23;129(2):189-99.

Prenatal exposure to ethinylestradiol elicits behavioral abnormalities in the

Dugard ML, Tremblay-Leveau H, Mellier D, Caston J.

Laboratoire PSY.CO, U.F.R. de Psychologie, Universite de Rouen, 76821
Mont-Saint-Aignan Cedex, France.

Pregnant rats were i.p. injected with a solution of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (15
microg kg(-1)) every day between day 9 and day 14 of pregnancy and the behavior
of the offspring was compared to that of rats born from dams injected with the
vehicle only during the same gestational period. The percentage of neonatal
death was dramatically high in the prenatally treated group. Growth of the
surviving animals was even better than that of controls, but when adult, they
exhibited a number of behavioral abnormalities: increased spontaneous motor
activity, decreased exploratory behavior, impaired cognitive processing,
qualitatively different exploratory drive, and/or persevering behavior,
increased anxiety-like behavior and social neophobia. These behavioral
alterations, which resemble a number of psychiatric syndromes, suggest that
ethinylestradiol altered the ontogenesis of different parts of the central
nervous system involved in cognitive and emotional processes. However, it cannot
be excluded that the changes in behavior of ethinylestradiol exposed offspring
were due to the abnormal maternal behavior of the estradiol treated dams.

PMID: 11506863 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

150: Gig Sanit. 1982 Oct;(10):38-41.

[Genetic hazard of microradiowaves of nonheat intensity and its hygienic

[Article in Russian]

Shandala MG, Antipenko EN, Koveshnikova IV, Timchenko OI.

PMID: 7173645 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

151: Radiobiologiia. 1986 May-Jun;26(3):365-71.

[Systemic effects of the interaction of an organism and microwaves]

[Article in Russian]

Suvorov NB, Vasilevskii NN, Ur’iash VV.

A study was made of the dynamics of neurophysiological processes, the autonomic
nervous system reactions, and the behaviour of cats during long-term
electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure (500 mu W/cm2, 2375 MHz). Revealed were the
synchronization of the brain bioelectrical activity at 6-10 Hz and 12-16 Hz,
different EMF sensitivity of the brain structures, the heart rate decrease, and
the increase in the mobility and aggression of the animals. A complex of
interrelated changes occurring virtually in all functional systems of the
organism should be considered as a specific EMF effect.

PMID: 3737885 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

152: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1980 Nov;90(11):602-5.

[Effect of fluctuating electromagnetic fields on the processes of growth and

[Article in Russian]

Iur’ev VN, Krasnogorskaia NV.

Rats were exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic field, adequate to the
natural background, with Gaussian energy distribution, spectrum width 15 kHz,
and field intensity 5 V/cm. Electric fluctuations were shown to have an
inhibitory action on the normal growth of the animals and on blastoma
development. This action reaches maximum with the greatest build-up gradient. As
the frequency band of the field of action increase, the inhibitory effect

PMID: 7004528 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

153: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2002 Mar-Apr;32(2):189-94.

The effects of immunization against cholecystokinin fragment 30-33 in the
behavior of white rats.

Danilova RA, Rud’ko OI, Korotkova TM, Obukhova MF, Ashmarin IP.

M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia.

Active immunization of white rats with cholecystokinin-4 covalently linked to
the antigen carrier BSA evoked long-lasting changes in the rats’ behavior, which
were in the opposite direction to the anxiogenic effects of cholecystokinin-4
itself, showing that immunization had anxiolytic effects. Immunoenzyme analysis
demonstrated the presence of antibodies to cholecystokinin-4 in the serum of
immunized rats. These data are interesting from the point of view of correcting
pathological anxiety and fear states by inverse immunoregulation.

PMID: 11942698 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

154: Genome Res. 2002 Apr;12(4):618-26.

A quantitative trait locus influencing anxiety in the laboratory rat.

Fernandez-Teruel A, Escorihuela RM, Gray JA, Aguilar R, Gil L, Gimenez-Llort L,
Tobena A, Bhomra A, Nicod A, Mott R, Driscoll P, Dawson GR, Flint J.

Medical Psychological Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Autonoma de
Barcelona, Barcelona E-08143, Spain.

A critical test for a gene that influences susceptibility to fear in animals is
that it should have a consistent pattern of effects across a broad range of
conditioned and unconditioned models of anxiety. Despite many years of research,
definitive evidence that genetic effects operate in this way is lacking. The
limited behavioral test regimes so far used in genetic mapping experiments and
the lack of suitable multivariate methodologies have made it impossible to
determine whether the quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected to date
specifically influence fear-related traits. Here we report the first
multivariate analysis to explore the genetic architecture of rodent behavior in
a battery of animal models of anxiety. We have mapped QTLs in an F2 intercross
of two rat strains, the Roman high and low avoidance rats, that have been
selectively bred for differential response to fear. Multivariate analyses show
that one locus, on rat chromosome 5, influences behavior in different models of
anxiety. The QTL influences two-way active avoidance, conditioned fear, elevated
plus maze, and open field activity but not acoustic startle response or
defecation in a novel environment. The direction of effects of the QTL alleles
and a coincidence between the behavioral profiles of anxiolytic drug and genetic
action are consistent with the QTL containing at least one gene with a
pleiotropic action on fear responses. As the neural basis of fear is conserved
across species, we suggest that the QTL may have relevance to trait anxiety in

PMID: 11932246 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

155: Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2001 May;25(3):235-60.

A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of
diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field.

Choleris E, Thomas AW, Kavaliers M, Prato FS.

Room 9222D, Department of Psychology, Social Science Center, University of
Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2.

The open field test (OFT) is a widely used procedure for examining the
behavioral effects of drugs and anxiety. Detailed ethological assessments of
animal behavior are lacking. Here we present a detailed ethological assessment
of the effects of acute treatment with the benzodiazepines, diazepam (DZ,
1.5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg), as well as exposure to
a non-pharmacological agent, a specific pulsed extremely low frequency magnetic
field (MAG) on open field behavior. We examined the duration, frequency and time
course of various behaviors (i.e. exploration, walk, rear, stretch attend,
return, groom, sit, spin turn, jump and sleep) exhibited by male mice in
different regions of a novel open field. Both DZ and CDP consistently reduced
the typical anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and wall-following
(thigmotaxis), along with that of an additional new measure: ‘returns’, without
producing any overall effects on total locomotion. The drugs also differed in
their effects. CDP elicited a shift in the locomotor pattern from a ‘high
explore’ to a ‘high walk’, while DZ mainly elicited alterations in sit and
groom. The MAG treatment was repeated twice with both exposures reducing
horizontal and vertical (rearing) activity and increasing grooming and spin
turns. However, the anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and return were
marginally reduced by only the first exposure. We conclude that a detailed
ethological analysis of the OFT allows not only the detection of specific
effects of drugs and non-pharmacological agents (i.e. pulsed magnetic field) on
anxiety-like behaviors, but also permits the examination of non-specific
effects, in particular those on general activity.

PMID: 11378179 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

156: Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2001;37(2):213-24.

[Infantile leukemia and exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields: review of
epidemiologic evidence in 2000]

[Article in Italian]

Lagorio S, Salvan A.

Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma.

We review the epidemiological evidence on childhood leukemia and residential
exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields. The possibility of carcinogenic effects of
power frequency magnetic fields (ELF-EMF), at levels below units of micro tesla
(microT), was first raised in 1979 by a case-control study on childhood cancer
carried out in Denver, USA. In that study, excess risks of total cancer and
leukemia were observed among children living in homes with “high or very high
current configuration”, as categorised on the basis of proximity to electric
lines and transformers. Many other epidemiological studies have been published
since then, characterised by improved–although still not optimal–methods of
exposure assessment. At the end of 2000, the epidemiological evidence to support
the association between exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields and
the risk of childhood leukemia is less consistent than what was observed in the
mid 90s. At the same time, a growing body of experimental evidence has
accumulated against both a direct and a promoting carcinogenic effect of
ELF-EMF. Such “negative” experimental evidence hampers a causal interpretation
of the “positive” epidemiological studies.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 11758279 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

157: Eur J Neurosci. 2002 Apr;15(7):1206-18.

Contribution of amygdala neurons containing peptides and calcium-binding
proteins to fear-potentiated startle and exploration-related anxiety in inbred
Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

Yilmazer-Hanke DM, Faber-Zuschratter H, Linke R, Schwegler H.

Otto-von-Guericke Universitat, Institut fur Anatomie, Leipziger Strasse 44,
D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

The purpose of this study was to investigate amygdala-related fear and anxiety
in two inbred rat lines differing in emotionality (RHA/Verh and RLA/Verh), and
to relate the behaviour of the animals to neuronal types in different nuclei of
the amygdala. The behavioural tests used were the motility test, elevated
plus-maze and fear-potentiated startle response. The neurons investigated were
immunoreactive for the anxiogenic peptide corticotropin-releasing factor
(CRF-ir), the anxiolytic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY-ir), and the
calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PARV-ir) and calbindin (CALB-ir). The
NPY-ir, PARV-ir and CALB-ir neurons studied were subpopulations of GABAergic
neurons. RLA/Verh rats, which showed a significant fear-potentiation of the
acoustic startle response, had more CRF-ir projection neurons in the central
nucleus of the amygdala. The same RLA/Verh rats were either less or equally
anxious in the motility test (similar to open field) and elevated plus-maze as
compared with RHA/Verh rats. In accordance with this behaviour, the RLA/Verh
rats had more NPY-ir neurons in the lateral, and more PARV-ir neurons in basal
nuclei of the amygdala than RHA/Verh rats, but no differences were detected in
the number of CRF-ir and CALB-ir neurons of the basolateral complex. In
conclusion, the RLA/Verh rats displayed an opposite behaviour in the
fear-potentiated startle model and the exploratory tests measuring anxiety based
on choice behaviour. Thus, the anxiogenic systems in the central nucleus and
anxiolytic systems in the basolateral complex of the amygdala might be
differentially involved in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm and exploratory
tests in the Roman rat lines.

PMID: 11982631 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

158: Lik Sprava. 1998 Oct-Nov;(7):71-3.

[The effect of ultrahigh-frequency radiation on adaptation thresholds and the
damages to blood system cells]

[Article in Ukrainian]

Obukhan KI.

Cytologic investigations designed to study bone marrow, peripheral blood,
spleen, and thymus of albino rats irradiated by an electromagnetic field, 2375,
2450, and 3000 MEGS, revealed structural and functional changes in populations
of megakaryocytes, immunocompetent cells as well as of undifferentiated cells,
and of other types of cells that are dependent on the intensity of irradiation
and permit establishing the probability-threshold levels of exposure taking
account of reactions of perception and physiologic adaptation together with
compensatory and regenerative processes and the injury sustained. It is shown
that changes in bone marrow cells differentiation and reproduction rather than
integral shifts in the peripheral blood that acquire the utmost significance.
Subjected to a particular scrutiny in the paper are blast cells, which cells’
repopulation was noted to be getting increased in low-intensity exposure as were
disturbances in their mitosis pattern.

PMID: 10050464 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

159: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1999 Mar-Apr;49(2):321-30.

[Changes in the behavior and EEG of rats administered penicillin and a
physiological solution into the amygdalar basal nuclei]

[Article in Russian]

Pankova NB, Kryzhanovskii GN, Kuznetsov IuB, Latanov AV.

Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Academy of Medical
Sciences, Moscow.

Three weeks after implantation of the electrodes for EEG recording,
hyperactivation of the basal nucleus of rat’s amygdala was produced by a local
injection of penicillin (0.5 mcl, 1% solution). Saline injection of the same
volume served as control. The hyperactivation of the amygdala resulted in a
long-lasting (at least for 3 weeks) increase in the locomotor activity against
the background and deficit in exploratory behavior and rise of the level of
anxiety and fear. The behavioral changes were accompanied by a long-term
disruption of the hippocampal theta rhythm, appearance and slowing of the
immobility-related high-voltage spindles, and increase in the EEG dominant
frequency in the state of emotional tension. Saline injection led to a
short-time (up to 1 week) decrease in locomotor and exploratory activity and
increase in anxiety. These phenomena were accompanied by a short-time disruption
of the theta rhythm and appearance of the 10-13-Hz oscillations characteristic
for the state of emotional tension.

PMID: 10486901 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

160: Pol J Pharmacol. 2001 May-Jun;53(3):235-43.

Examination of the influence of 3,5-DHPG on behavioral activity of angiotensin

Holy Z, Wisniewski K.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical Academy of Bialystok, Poland.

The effects of the class I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) stimulation
on the behavioral activity of angiotensin II (Ang II) was investigated in the
present study. The experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats.
Stimulation of the group I of mGluR receptors was evoked by icv injection of
(S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (3,5-DHPG) at the dose of 0.01 and 1 nmol per
rat. Fifteen minutes later, the animals were given icv solution containing 1
nmol of Ang II. Memory motivated affectively was evaluated in passive avoidance
and active avoidance responses (CARs). Moreover, the speculative influence of
the treatment on anxiety and motor activity was tested in elevated plus-maze and
in open field, respectively. We observed that both compounds did not have
statistically significant influence on motor activity of rats in open field
test. However, 3,5-DHPG at the dose of 0.01 nmol given alone and combined with
Ang II tended to increase locomotor activity. 3,5-DHPG, given alone,
significantly facilitated consolidation process in a passive avoidance situation
(only at the dose of 0.01 nmol) but had no influence on acquisition and recall
of information. Examination of the influence of 3,5-DHPG on the acquisition and
extinction of CAR proved that it did not alter acquisition and extinction of
these responses. In the elevated plus-maze, 3,5-DHPG had anxiogenic-like
profile. Ang II, as repeatedly shown before, greatly increased passive avoidance
latency, rate of acquisition of CARs and decreased their extinction. On the
other hand, Ang II induced anxiolytic-like effect in elevated plus-maze. The
pre-treatment of rats with 3,5-DHPG tended to attenuate behavioral effects of
the Ang II administration.

PMID: 11785924 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

161: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 May;155(3):251-9.

Effects of central noradrenaline depletion by the selective neurotoxin DSP-4 on
the behaviour of the isolated rat in the elevated plus maze and water maze.

Lapiz MD, Mateo Y, Durkin S, Parker T, Marsden CA.

School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham Medical School, Queen’s
Medical Centre,  UK.

RATIONALE: Social isolation of the rat from weaning influences behaviour
following central noradrenaline (NA) depletion by the selective neurotoxin
N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4). OBJECTIVES: The study
characterised the effects of DSP-4 on the behaviour of isolates in the elevated
plus maze and water maze. METHODS: Male Lister hooded rats were reared singly or
in groups after weaning. Two weeks postweaning, the rats were injected with
DSP-4 (25 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. From week 4, rats were tested in the plus maze
and in the water maze. RESULTS: DSP-4 significantly reduced cortical and
hippocampal NA but had no effect on hypothalamic NA. Isolation rearing alone had
no significant effects on behaviour in the elevated plus maze but enhanced
retention of platform placement in the water maze as measured by increased
entries to the platform annulus during the probe test. DSP-4 in group-reared
rats increased activity in the open arms and increased general activity in the
elevated plus maze with no effect on water maze performance. DSP-4-treated
isolates spent less time in the open arms and were hypoactive in the plus maze
compared to group-reared DSP-4-treated rats, and had impaired retention of
spatial memory in the water maze compared to isolate controls. CONCLUSIONS:
DSP-4 treatment had an ‘anxiolytic’ effect in group-reared rats in the elevated
plus maze. In the water maze, isolation rearing enhanced retention of spatial
information, an effect normalised by NA depletion. The results demonstrate the
importance of noradrenergic function in the regulation of responsiveness to
environmental cues.

PMID: 11432687 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

162: Behav Brain Res. 2002 Feb 1;129(1-2):203-10.

Does head-only exposure to GSM-900 electromagnetic fields affect the performance
of rats in spatial learning tasks?

Dubreuil D, Jay T, Edeline JM.

Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de l’Apprentissage, de la Memoire, et de la
Communication, CNRS-UMR 8620, bat. 446, Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France.

The rapid expansion of mobile communication has generated intense interest, but
has also fuelled ongoing concerns. In both humans and animals, radiofrequency
radiations are suspected to affect cognitive functions. More specifically,
several studies performed in rodents have suggested that spatial learning can be
impaired by electromagnetic field exposure. However, none of these previous
studies have simulated the common conditions of GSM mobile phones use. This
study is the first using a head-only exposure system emitting a 900-MHz GSM
electromagnetic field (pulsed at 217 Hz). The two behavioural tasks that were
evaluated here have been used previously to demonstrate performance deficits in
spatial learning after electromagnetic field exposure: a classical radial maze
elimination task and a spatial navigation task in an open-field arena (dry-land
version of the Morris water maze). The performances of rats exposed for 45 min
to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field (1 and 3.5 W/kg) were compared to those of
sham-exposed and cage-control rats. There were no differences among exposed,
sham, and cage-control rats in the two spatial learning tasks. The discussion
focuses on the potential reasons that led previous studies to conclude that
learning deficits do occur after electromagnetic field exposure.

PMID: 11809512 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

163: Behav Brain Res. 2002 May 14;132(2):135-43.

Behavioral profile of rats submitted to session 1-session 2 in the elevated
plus-maze during diurnal/nocturnal phases and under different illumination

Bertoglio LJ, Carobrez AP.

Departamento de Farmacologia, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Rua
Ferreira Lima 82, Florianopolis, SC 88015-420, Brazil.

The elevated plus-maze (EPM) model usually employs nocturnal species (e.g. rats
and mice) and the tests are almost exclusively performed during the diurnal
phase (lights on), leading some laboratories to perform experiments with animals
under a reversed light cycle to overcome this problem. However, it is
questionable whether the artificial reversal of the light cycle for short
periods guarantees modifications in all the physiological parameters found in
normal subjects. The present study evaluated the session 1-session 2 (S1-S2) EPM
profile in rats during their normal diurnal or nocturnal phase using different
illumination conditions. Prior exposure to the EPM decreased open arm
exploration for all groups in S2, regardless of the circadian phase and
illumination condition; however, this behavior was decreased in subjects tested
during the nocturnal phase, when compared to the diurnal phase. Risk assessment
(RA) behavior was decreased under high illumination for both circadian phases in
S1 and increased in the first minute of S2, when compared to the last minute of
S1. Although open arm exploration and RA behavior were decreased under high
illumination, when compared to low illumination conditions in both circadian
phases, general locomotor activity was only decreased during the nocturnal
phase. The results are discussed in terms of circadian variations in the
behavioral profile and as a possible source of variability in pre-clinical
models of anxiety.

PMID: 11997144 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

164: J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994 Apr;76(4):489-501.

Low-power electromagnetic stimulation of osteotomized rabbit fibulae. A
randomized, blinded study.

Pienkowski D, Pollack SR, Brighton CT, Griffith NJ.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether low-power-consuming
symmetrical-waveform electromagnetic stimuli could increase the stiffness of
fracture sites in a rabbit fibular-osteotomy model. Both active and placebo
devices were used in a blinded study protocol. Dose-response studies of pulse
amplitude and pulse width were performed by continuous application (twenty-four
hours a day) of repetitive (fifteen-hertz), bursted (five-millisecond-long)
symmetrical, rectangular electromagnetic stimulus waveforms. The power consumed
by these stimuli is approximately one-fifth that consumed by the pulsing
electromagnetic field devices that are in current clinical use. Significant
increase of callus bending stiffness was produced by pulse widths of five to
seven microseconds and pulse amplitudes of fifty to 100 millivolts.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 8150816 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

165: Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 May 18;420(1):33-43.

Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and
the underlying mechanism.

Nakamura K, Kurasawa M.

CNS Supporting Laboratory, Nippon Roche Research Center, 200 Kajiwara, Kamakura,
247-8530, Kanagawa, Japan.

The anxiolytic effects of aniracetam have not been proven in animals despite its
clinical usefulness for post-stroke anxiety. This study, therefore, aimed to
characterize the anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in different anxiety models
using mice and to examine the mode of action. In a social interaction test in
which all classes (serotonergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic) of compounds were
effective, aniracetam (10-100 mg/kg) increased total social interaction scores
(time and frequency), and the increase in the total social interaction time
mainly reflected an increase in trunk sniffing and following. The anxiolytic
effects were completely blocked by haloperidol and nearly completely by
mecamylamine or ketanserin, suggesting an involvement of nicotinic
acetylcholine, 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors in the anxiolytic mechanism.
Aniracetam also showed anti-anxiety effects in two other anxiety models
(elevated plus-maze and conditioned fear stress tests), whereas diazepam as a
positive control was anxiolytic only in the elevated plus-maze and social
interaction tests. The anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in each model were
mimicked by different metabolites (i.e., p-anisic acid in the elevated plus-maze
test) or specific combinations of metabolites. These results indicate that
aniracetam possesses a wide range of anxiolytic properties, which may be
mediated by an interaction between cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic
systems. Thus, our findings suggest the potential usefulness of aniracetam
against various types of anxiety-related disorders and social

PMID: 11412837 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

166: Vrach Delo. 1980 Oct;(10):103-9.

[Biomedical evaluation of electromagnetic fields]

[Article in Russian]

Serdiuk AM.

PMID: 7434689 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

167: Physiol Bohemoslov. 1981;30(2):149-55.

Contactless method for the continuous and selective study of motor activity in
the laboratory rat.

Rech F.

The author suggests a system for the continuous, direct, long-term recording of
the motor activity of a particular laboratory rat in a group. A pickup of the
animal’s presence and its motor activity in the given space supplies a desired
signal coded by frequency modulation of the carrier frequency. Detection is
effected by a phase lock. The carrier frequency of a controlled oscillator is
altered within small limits by means of inductive coupling between the tuning
coil of the oscillator and a shading ring. The shading ring, which marks the
experimental animal, is oval and is made of thin insulated litz wire sutured in
place subcutaneously on the animal’s back. The coil of the controlled oscillator
surrounds the whole of the space in which motor activity is recorded. As an
example, in a study of maternal behaviour, the presence or absence of the female
in the nest and the motor activity of the lactating female typical of washing
the young and of suckling them are identified and compared with direct

PMID: 6454153 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

168: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1976 Oct;82(10):1163-5.

[Changes in the selfexcitation reaction in rats under the effect of modulated
electromagnetic field]

[Article in Russian]

Antimonii GD, Badikov VI, Kel’ AA, Krasnov EA, Sudakov SK.

The effect of electromagnetic field with various modulation frequencies (2, 7,
and 50 hertz) on the reaction of selfstimulation was studied in rats. The
frequency of 2 hertz proved to cause a primary increase in the incidence of the
selstimulation reaction, followed by its depression; the frequency 7 hertz at
first failed to alter the selfstimulation intensity and then led to the gradual
reduction of the incidence of the selfstimulation reaction; the frequency of 50
hertz depressed the selfstimulation reaction practically from the very
beginning. The changes in the selfstimulation reaction were independent of the
localization of the stimulating electrodes, but were determined by the frequency
of the EMF modulation.

PMID: 1029490 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

169: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002 May-Jun;42(3):260-7.

[Prediction of the severity of damage and disruption of work ability in reaction
of the body to alcohol load prior to radiation exposure in the superlethal

[Article in Russian]

Darenskaia NG, Korotkevich AO, Maliutina TS, Nasonova TA, Bulgakov AI.

State Research Center-Institute of Biophysics, Ministry of Health of Russia,
Moscow, 123182 Russia.

In experiments on 121 white non-linear rats, 44 Papio hamadryas and 29 Macaca
fascicularis, animals’ reactions on the alcohol impact (AI) and following
exposure to supralethal doses were compared. The animals were intravenously
injected with 5% ethanol in the glucose solution, 2.1 g/kg for rats and
0.46-0.51 g/kg for monkeys. Monkeys’ response to AI was scored in four-point
scale by estimating of abnormalities in motor activity, coordination of motion
and changes in conditioned reflex activity. It was shown that changes in the
ability of alcohol-injected rats to perform the learnt exercises in the “jump
box” could be used for prediction of their response to the exposure to
supralethal doses of ionizing radiation. Observing the AI-response in monkeys
along with a method “function of spying for moving object” made possible to
predict not only a general degree of loss of working ability but also to
estimate individual impairments of spying functions. In 65% monkeys high
similarity of the reactions to AI and ionizing radiation was observed.

PMID: 12125263 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

170: Physiol Behav. 2001 Jan;72(1-2):99-106.

Influence of circadian phase and test illumination on pre-clinical models of

Jones N, King SM.

Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E
6BT, UK.

Pre-clinical models of anxiety, particularly the elevated plus-maze (EPM), have
been shown to be sensitive to a variety of methodological variations. Recent
research has implicated circadian phase of testing in influencing the
behavioural profile of 5-HT(1A) ligands on the EPM. The present study
investigated the effects of testing animals during the dark and light phases and
in light and subjective dark test conditions on baseline behaviour in animal
models of anxiety. Eighty singly housed male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to
a battery of unconditioned, exploratory tests (EPM, open field arena, holeboard)
and a new model of extreme anxiety, the unstable elevated exposed plus-maze
(UEEPM). Circadian phase of testing failed to consistently alter behaviour on
any model. Level of test illumination had no effect on subjects’ response to the
open field arena, holeboard or UEEPM. Dark testing increased locomotor activity
on the EPM (total arm entries, closed arm entries and distance moved) without
decreasing open-arm avoidance. The construct of anxiety as measured by a number
of different paradigms withstood major intra-laboratory manipulation of
circadian phase of testing and illumination of apparatus. It is suggested that
the effects of circadian rhythmicity may be confined to the behavioural profiles
of serotonergic, particularly 5-HT(1A), ligands on the EPM.

PMID: 11239986 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

171: Brain Res. 2001 Jun 1;902(2):135-42.

Antagonism of CRF(2) receptors produces anxiolytic behavior in animal models of

Takahashi LK, Ho SP, Livanov V, Graciani N, Arneric SP.

Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, 96822, Honolulu, HI, USA.

Two pharmacologically distinct CRF receptors are distributed in different brain
regions and peripheral tissues. Studies suggest that CRF(1) receptors play an
important role in mediating the anxiety provoking effects of CRF. In contrast,
far less functional information is available on CRF(2) receptors. Therefore, we
conducted dose response studies using antisauvagine-30 (anti-SVG-30, 0-20
microg, 20-min pretreatment, i.c.v.), a potent CRF(2) peptide antagonist, and
tested rats in three models of anxiety – the conditioned freezing, the elevated
plus maze, and the defensive-withdrawal test. Anti-SVG-30 produced a significant
dose-dependent reduction in conditioned freezing. In the elevated plus maze
test, administration of anti-SVG-30 effectively increased the number of entries
and time spent in the open arms. In the defensive-withdrawal test, anti-SVG-30
treatment facilitated exploratory activity in a large illuminated open field.
Thus, in all three animal models, administration of anti-SVG-30 was consistent
in producing an anxiolytic-like behavioral effect. In addition, a dose of
anti-SVG-30 (10 microg) that produced anxiolytic-like behavior had no
significant effects on locomotor activity measured in an automated activity box.
This latter finding suggests that antagonism of CRF(2) receptors is not
associated with a non-specific increase in behavioral movements. These results
provide evidence that, in addition to CRF(1) receptors, CRF(2) receptors may
play an important role in the mediation of anxiety behavior.

PMID: 11384606 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

172: Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002 Feb;10(1):18-25.

Anxiolytic effects of mecamylamine in two animal models of anxiety.

Newman MB, Manresa JJ, Sanberg PR, Shytle RD.

Center for Aging and Brain Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, University of
South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa 33612, USA.

Clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that mecamylamine, a nicotinic
receptor antagonist, may have anxiolytic properties. The purpose of this study
was to further investigate the anxiolytic properties of mecamylamine in rats as
measured by the Elevated Plus Maze and the Social Interaction models of anxiety
and to determine if manipulation of the testing environment (either brightly lit
or dimly lit conditions) influenced the results. Results indicated that
mecamylamine had significant anxiolytic effects in both the Elevated Plus Maze
and Social Interaction Tests and that these effects were dependent on dose
administered and the level of anxiety produced under different testing
conditions. If confirmed by further clinical research, nicotinic receptor
antagonists like mecamylamine may represent a novel class of anxiolytics.

PMID: 11866248 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

173: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Nov-Dec;50(6):991-8.

[Characteristics of behavior of knockout mice with genetic monoamine oxidase A

[Article in Russian]

Popova NK, Skrinskaia IuA, Amstislavskaia TG, Vishnivetskaia GB, Seif I, De
Mayer E.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian
Branch, Novosibirsk.

The effect of deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) in the gene encoding on
behavior of transgenic Tg8 mice was studied. A decrease in the amplitude of
acoustic startle reflex rather than the prepulse inhibition was found in lacking
MAO A Tg8 mice, as compared with the control C3H strain. The exploratory
activity in the hole-board test in Tg8 was decreased as well as the number of
crossed lines in the light-dark test. Tg8 mice showed decreased latency and
increased intensity of intermale aggression. At the same time, no difference was
found between Tg8 and C3H mice in locomotor activity, in the expression of
sexual motivation, and in the behavior in the elevated plus-maze test. No
predisposition to catalepsy was shown.

PMID: 11190099 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

174: Gig Sanit. 1989 Oct;(10):80-1.

[Changes in enzyme activity of the lymphocytes in animals in the evaluation of
the adaptive reactions to electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency]

[Article in Russian]

Dyshlovoi VD, Ianovskaia AS, Chaplinskaia TS.

PMID: 2599412 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

175: Behav Brain Res. 2002 Apr 15;132(1):85-93.

Estrogen’s effects on activity, anxiety, and fear in two mouse strains.

Morgan MA, Pfaff DW.

Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York
Avenue, Box 275, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Estrogen has effects on activity levels and emotional reactivity in both humans
and rats. In a recent study conducted in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6 (C57) mice
we found that treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) increased anxiety, fear
learning, and running wheel activity relative to vehicle control (Veh). The
present study was conducted to examine the stability of these findings across
mouse strains (C57 and Swiss-Webster; SW), to get a better sense of the
magnitude of the anxiety response by reducing baseline anxiety levels, and to
discover if EB affects activity levels in a safe environment other than the
home-cage running wheel. Mice of both strains treated with EB (s.c. implant, 25
microg in sesame oil, which enters the body over 5 weeks) were more anxious than
Veh animals in the open field, elevated plus, and dark-light transition tests.
SW animals were less anxious than C57 in the elevated plus. EB-treated animals
of both strains were more active in the running wheel than Veh animals, and more
active in the test of spontaneous activity in the home cage. EB-treatment also
increased fear learning in a step-down avoidance task. EB appears to have a
consistent but moderate effect in elevating anxiety and in increasing fear
learning in two strains of mice. It is also involved in increasing activity in
two different types of locomotion in the safer home cage. We conclude that these
results of increased anxiety/fear and increased activity are suggestive of a
general increase in arousal, with both sets of responses increasing the
likelihood of reproductive behaviors occurring only when the environment
predicts success.

PMID: 11853861 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

176: Med Pregl. 2001 Mar-Apr;54(3-4):119-27.

Morphophysiological status of rat thyroid gland after subchronic exposure to low
frequency electromagnetic field.

[Article in English, Croatian]

Rajkovic V, Matavulj M, Lukac T, Gledic D, Babic L, Lazetic B.

Institut za biologiju, Prirodno-matematicki fakultet, 21000 Novi Sad.

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of low-frequency
electromagnetic field on male rat thyroid gland of Mill Hill strain. Animals
were exposed to 50 Hz frequency, of decaying intensity from 500 microT to 50
microT and 10 V/m field, beginning 24 hours after birth, 7 hours a day, 5 days a
week during three months. Results of histological and stereological analysis
showed increased volume density of thyroid follicles, decreased thickness of the
follicular epithelium, intrafollicular colloid content in lumen, decreased
thyroid activation index, increased volume density of parafollicular cells,
decreased volume of interfollicular connective tissue and increased number of
degranulated mast cells in exposed animals in regard to control animals.
Radioimmunologic assays were used to examine thyroid hormone concentrations in
the blood serum revealing decrease of the total T4 as well as of total T3 in
animals exposed to electromagnetic field in regard to controls. The obtained
results show that a three month-exposition of animals to low frequency
electromagnetic field led to morphofunctional alterations of the thyroid gland
that can be referred to as reduced activity of the gland.

PMID: 11759202 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

177: J Microw Power. 1976 Jun;11(2):145-6.

Proceedings: Comparative study of the action of three types of microwave fields
upon the behavior of the white rat.

Servantie B, Gillard J, Servantie AM, Obrenovitch J, Bertharion G, Perrin JC,
Creton B.

PMID: 1047672 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

178: Lik Sprava. 1993 Jan;(1):65-9.

[Changes in the immune status under the influence of high-frequency
electromagnetic radiation]

[Article in Russian]

Dumanskii IuD, Nogachevskaia SI.

Experiments on white rats showed that electromagnetic radiation (24 MHz, 400 W/m
and 20 W/m) caused leucopenia, reduction of E and EAC rosette formation of
lymphocytes, functional activity of neutrophils within 2 months of radiation. No
immunosuppressive effect was seen with 24 MHz, 100 W/m radiation, while 400 W/m
inhibited E-rosette formation in the presence of tissue antigens.

PMID: 8379142 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

179: Neuropsychobiology. 2001;43(3):192-9.

Dopaminergic lateralisation in the forebrain: relations to behavioural
asymmetries and anxiety in male Wistar rats.

Thiel CM, Schwarting RK.

Institute of Physiological Psychology I, Heinrich-Heine-University of
Dusseldorf, Germany.

Neurochemical lateralisation has been demonstrated in dopaminergic systems in
the rat brain, and it has been suggested that such lateralisation might
contribute to asymmetric and emotional behaviour. Here, we investigated
dopaminergic brain lateralisation in relation to spontaneous and drug-induced
behavioural asymmetries, and to emotional behaviour in a sample of 24 male
Wistar rats. Asymmetric behaviour was measured in the open field in the
undrugged state and after a systemic challenge with the muscarinic receptor
antagonist scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg). Emotional behaviour was measured in the
elevated plus-maze. Dopaminergic lateralisation was assessed by means of a
post-mortem analysis of tissue dopamine (DA) and dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid
(DOPAC) content. We found higher DOPAC/DA ratios in the neostriatum, ventral
striatum, frontal cortex and amygdala of the right hemisphere. In the open
field, the complete sample of rats did not show a left/right asymmetry in
spontaneous behaviour, whereas systemic scopolamine induced a left-sided
preference in thigmotactic scanning. A correlational analysis yielded individual
relationships between behaviour and post-mortem neurochemistry, since
lateralisation of DOPAC/DA ratios in favour of the right ventral striatum was
related to right-side thigmotaxis. Furthermore, a right dopaminergic
lateralisation in the frontal cortex was associated with lower anxiety. The
study indicates that asymmetries in ventral striatal dopamine might contribute
to side preferences in thigmotactic scanning while frontal dopaminergic
lateralisation might influence emotional processing. Copyright 2001 S. Karger
AG, Basel

PMID: 11287799 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

180: Pharmacol Res. 2001 Oct;44(4):329-35.

Baclofen prevents hypoxia-induced consolidation impairment for passive avoidance
in rats.

Car H, Oksztel R, Nadlewska A, Wisniewski K.

Medical Academy of Bialystok, Department of Pharmacology, Mickiewicza 2c, 15-222
Bialystok, Poland.

We investigated the effects of baclofen, a selective GABA-B receptor agonist, on
certain behaviours in rats after short-term hypoxia, as a model of
experimentally induced amnesia. Baclofen given intraperitoneally (i.p.) in a
dose of 0.25 mg kg(-1) increased the number of crossings and bar approaches in
the open field, but was ineffective in the passive avoidance tests; it also
shortened the time spent in open arms and reduced the number of open arms
entries in an elevated ‘plus’ maze, being a measure of anxiety. Hypoxia (2% O2,
98% N2) within 4 min profoundly impaired locomotor activity, consolidation and
retrieval of conditioned responses, and exhibited a proaxiogenic effect in the
elevated ‘plus’ maze in rats–it reduced the time spent in open arms and the
number of entries to closed and open arms. Baclofen’s effect on locomotor and
exploratory activity was substantially impaired after hypoxia, i.e. rats
exhibited a significant reduction in those activities. This agonist of GABA-B
receptor used before hypoxia significantly improved consolidation, but had no
effect on retrieval. In the elevated ‘plus’ maze rats pre-treated with baclofen
and then subjected to hypoxia prolonged the time spent in open arms, reduced the
time spent in closed arms, and increased the number of entries to the arms, i.e.
exhibited anxiolytic effect. We conclude, therefore, that baclofen improved
consolidation of passive avoidance in rats undergoing hypoxia. Copyright 2001
Academic Press.

PMID: 11592869 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

181: Physiol Behav. 2002 Feb 1-15;75(1-2):15-23.

Spatial memory deficit and emotional abnormality in OLETF rats.

Li XL, Aou S, Hori T, Oomura Y.

Department of Integrative Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences,
Kyushu University 60, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is deeply involved in the control of learning and
emotional behaviors. The authors characterize the behavioral properties of
Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which lack the CCK-A receptor
because of a genetic abnormality. In the Morris water-maze task, the OLETF rats
showed an impaired spatial memory. In the inhibitory avoidance test, they showed
facilitating response 24 h after training. Hypoalgesia was observed in a
hot-plate test. In the elevated plus-maze and food neophobia test, OLETF rats
showed an anxiety-like response. In addition, OLETF rats were hypoactive in the
Morris water-maze and the elevated plus-maze. The results suggest that the OLETF
rats showed a spatial memory deficit, hypoactivity and anxiety due, at least in
part, to the lack of CCK-A receptors.

PMID: 11890948 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

182: Neuropeptides. 2001 Apr;35(2):100-9.

The effects of CRA 1000, a non-peptide antagonist of corticotropin-releasing
factor receptor type 1, on adaptive behaviour in the rat.

Harro J, Tonissaar M, Eller M.

Department of Psychology, University of Tartu, Estonia.

Intracerebrally administered CRF has been demonstrated to elicit several
behavioural deficits in novel and potentially stressful experimental paradigms,
and to promote activity in familiar situations. This study examined the effect
of CRA 1000, a novel non-peptide antagonist of CRF(1)receptors, on rat behaviour
in tests of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity and novelty-oriented
behaviour. CRA 1000 (1.25-10 mg/kg) had no major effect in elevated plus-maze
and social interaction tests. However, CRA 1000 (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced
immobility in the forced swimming test, suggesting an antidepressant-like
effect. In the exploration box test, CRA 1000 (1.25 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic
effect on rat exploratory behaviour both in intact rats and after lesioning of
the projections of locus coeruleus by DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) treatment. A higher dose
of CRA 1000 (5 mg/kg) tended to have anxiolytic-like effects in DSP-4 pretreated
rats, but in intact animals this dose prevented the increase in exploration
which develops with repeated exposure to initially anxiety-provoking situations.
Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that CRF1 receptor blockade by CRA
1000 has antidepressant-like effects, does not have a robust anti-anxiety effect
in non-stressed animals, but does have anxiolytic-like effects in more complex
tasks, which can be observed also after denervation of the locus coeruleus
projections. However, large doses of CRF1 receptor antagonists may reduce
motivation of exploratory behaviour in familiar environments. Copyright 2001
Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

PMID: 11384205 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

183: In Vivo. 2001 Nov-Dec;15(6):489-94.

In vivo modulation of ETS genes induced by electromagnetic fields.

Mucci N, Ianni A, Ursini CL, Arzani D, Bhat NK, Navarra P, Romano-Spica V.

Department of Occupational Medicine, I.S.P.E.S.L., Rome, Italy.

We have previously shown that electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure induces ETS1
oncogene overexpression in different cell lines. In order to investigate in vivo
EMF effects, BALB/c mice were exposed at different times to 50 MHz radiation,
modulated (80%) at 16 Hz. The exposed and control animals were sacrificed and
the spleen excised for rt-pcr and western blot analysis. We observed an increase
in ETS1 mRNA and protein expression, but a decrease in ETS2 protein levels.
Preliminary results from this experimental model show in vivo evidence of the
effect of EMF on ETS oncogene expression.

PMID: 11887334 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

184: Toxicol Pathol. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):286.

Comment on:
Toxicol Pathol. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):267-78.
Toxicol Pathol. 1999

Rodent carcinogenicity studies on magnetic fields.

Schwetz B.

FDA (HF-32), Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA.

Publication Types:

PMID: 10356704 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

185: Exp Neurol. 2001 May;169(1):96-104.

Enhanced excitability induced by ionizing radiation in the kindled rat.

Jenrow KA, Ratkewicz AE, Elisevich KV.

Epilepsy Research Laboratory, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit,
Michigan, 48202, USA.

Evidence derived from both clinical and experimental investigations has
suggested an influence of ionizing radiation on focal epileptogenicity. To
better characterize this influence we applied focal ionizing radiation to a
kindled epileptic focus in the rat amygdala. The right and left basolateral
amygdala and right frontal cortex were implanted with concentric bipolar
electrodes. Rats were kindled through a minimum of 10 stage 5 seizures by
afterdischarge-threshold electrostimulation of the left amygdala, after which
generalized seizure thresholds were determined prior to irradiation. The left
amygdala was exposed to single-fraction central-axis doses of either 18 or 25 Gy
using a beam-collimated (60)Co source (1.25 MeV). Generalized seizure thresholds
were then redetermined at weekly intervals for 10 weeks and at monthly intervals
for an additional 3 months. We observed no significant changes in seizure
threshold during the postirradiation interval; however, we did observe
persistent changes in seizure dynamics manifesting within the first week
postirradiation. These consisted of an increased tendency for seizure activity
to propagate into brain stem circuits during the primary ictus (i.e., “running
fits”) and an increased tendency for secondary convulsions to emerge
postictally. These effects involving seizure dynamics have not been reported
previously and appear to represent a radiation-induced disinhibition of one or
more neural circuits. The disparity between these effects and earlier reports of
seizure-suppressive effects resulting from analogous radiation exposures is
discussed in relation to kindling and status epilepticus-induced pathogenesis
within the hippocampus. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

PMID: 11312562 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

186: Acta Physiol Pol. 1975 Sep-Oct;26(5):523-7.

Changes in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of psycholeptic drugs in
radiation-sickness. Effect of x-ray radiation on pharmacodynamic activity of
nitrazepam in animals.

Szczawinska K, Chodera A, Wojciak Z, Kozaryn I.

PMID: 1224989 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

187: Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 2001 Nov;11(65):447-51.

[Immunotropic effects of electromagnetic fields in the range of radio- and
microwave frequencies]

[Article in Polish]

Dabrowski MP, Stankiewicz W, Sobiczewska E, Szmigielski S.

Zaklad Ochrony Mikrofalowej Wojskowego Instytutu Higieny i Epidemiologii w

On the grounds of reviewed literature and the results of own experiments, the
authors present current views on the possible immunotropic influence of low
energy electromagnetic fields, in the range of radio- and microwave frequencies.
They conclude, that a more systematic and multidisciplinary investigations
should be undertaken, comprising the wide spectrum of immune homeostatic tasks,
including defensive, immunoregulatory and pro-regenerative capabilities of
immune system exposed to rapid environmental spread of different electromagnetic

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 11852821 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

188: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1997 May-Jun;37(3):328-35.

[The dependence of the biological effect of electron radiation on the pulse
repetition rate. The dependence of mortality and life span in rats on the
radiation dose and pulse repetition rate]

[Article in Russian]

Darenskaia NG, Nasonova TA, Aleshin SN, Vainer EA, Grinev MP.

Quantitative regularities have been established for mortality and life-span of
rats in relation to the pulse recurrence frequency (3-2400 s-1) of electron
radiation with electron energies of 25 and 50 MeV. Electrons with pulse
recurrence frequencies of 600 and 1200 s-1 have shown a higher biological

PMID: 9244519 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

189: Diabetes Obes Metab. 1999 Sep;1(5):281-4.

Intracerebroventricularly administered corticotropin-releasing factor inhibits
food intake and produces anxiety-like behaviour at very low doses in mice.

Momose K, Inui A, Asakawa A, Ueno N, Nakajima M, Fujimiya M, Kasuga M.

Metabolic Disease Research, Pharmacology Laboratories, Institute for Drug
Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Tsukuba, Japan.

AIM: Previous studies have demonstrated that corticotropin-releasing factor
(CRF) produces behavioural, physiological and immunological responses similar to
those induced by stress. However, these findings have been validated largely in
laboratory rats. METHODS: We examined the effects of intracerebroventricular
(i.c.v.) administration of CRF on anxiety and food intake in mice. Using the
elevated-plus maze, we measured anxiety levels after i.c.v. CRF in mice. We also
measured food intake for 2 h after i.c.v. CRF. RESULTS: CRF increased the normal
preference for the closed arms of the maze at a very low dose of 3 pmol,
indicating an anxiogenic effect. CRF powerfully suppressed food intake at the
doses of 3-300 pmol for over 2 h. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that
i.c.v. CRF evokes anxiogenic behaviour and suppresses feeding with the same
dose-response relationships in mice. CRF may thus play a role in integrating the
overall responses to stress through co-ordinated actions in the brain of this

PMID: 11225639 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

190: Biofizika. 1999 Sep-Oct;44(5):931-2.

[Change in the percent of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme level in testes of
animals exposed to superhigh frequency radiation]

[Article in Russian]

Afromeev VI, Tkachenko VN.

Research Production Venture Stek, Tula, Russia.

The content of six lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in testes of rats exposed to
electromagnetic field of 3-cm wavelength range was studied. The changes in their
percent contents were found to be inhomogeneous compared with control. It is
assumed that electromagnetic radiation affects the organs of the human
urinogenital system. The results can be used for estimating the safety of
persons professionally exposed to electromagnetic radiation of the industrial
frequency range and in the therapy of diseases of the urinogenital system.

PMID: 10624539 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

191: Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 1999 Mar;50(1):5-11.

Animal study on electromagnetic field biological potency.

Trosic I, Matausicpisl M, Radalj Z, Prlic I.

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia.

This recent basic research study used an animal model protocol to assess
specific biomarkers of the effect of non-ionising, non-thermal radiation (2450
MHz microwave radiation at 5-15 mW/cm2) on bone marrow, peripheral blood, and
bronchoalveolar free cell populations. Of 40 male Wistar rats taken in the
study, 20 animals of the experimental group were irradiated for 2 hours a day, 5
days a week, and subsequently killed on days 1, 8, 16, and 30 of the experiment.
The remaining 20 rats served as control. All animals were previously
intratracheally instilled with biologically inert microspheres to see the
influence of irradiation on lung retention kinetics. The cell response to chosen
electromagnetic irradiation was followed quantitatively and qualitatively using
the standard laboratory methods. The results of peripheral blood cell response
suggested a decreasing tendency in total leukocyte count and in relative
lymphocyte count in the treated group. A slight increase was also observed in
granulocyte count and in the absolute count of peripheral blood erythrocytes
over control animals.

PMID: 10457649 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

192: Bioelectromagnetics. 1995;16(5):335-6; discussion 337-8.

Do rats show a behavioral sensitivity to low-level magnetic fields?

Stern S.

Department of Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry,
University of Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

PMID: 8554636 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

193: Bioelectromagnetics. 2002 Jan;23(1):68-82.

Health and safety implications of exposure to electromagnetic fields in the
frequency range 300 Hz to 10 MHz.

Litvak E, Foster KR, Repacholi MH.

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

An international seminar on health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields
(EMF) in the frequency range from 300 Hz to 10 MHz (referred to as the
Intermediate Frequency (IF) range) was held in Maastricht, Netherlands, on 7-8
June 1999. The seminar, organized under the International EMF Project, was
sponsored jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO), the International
Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and the Government of
the Netherlands. This report does not attempt to summarize all of the material
presented at the conference, but focuses on sources of exposure, biophysical and
dosimetric considerations pertinent to extrapolating biological data from other
frequency ranges to IF and identifies potential health concerns and needs for
developing exposure guidelines. This paper is based on presentations at the
conference and reports of working groups consisting of the speakers and other
experts. It concludes with recommendations for further research aimed at
improving health risk assessments in this frequency range. Copyright 2002
Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Publication Types:

PMID: 11793407 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

194: Eur J Cell Biol. 2001 Aug;80(8):562-6.

Stimulation of phagocytosis and free radical production in murine macrophages by
50 Hz electromagnetic fields.

Simko M, Droste S, Kriehuber R, Weiss DG.

University of Rostock, Institute of Cell Biology and Biosystems Technology,
Division of Environmental Physiology, Germany.

Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on phagocytosis and free radical
production were examined in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Macrophages
were in vitro exposed to electromagnetic fields using different magnetic field
densities (0.5-1.5 mT). Short-time exposure (45 min) to electromagnetic fields
resulted in significantly increased phagocytic uptake (36.3% +/- 15.1%) as
quantified by measuring the internalization rate of latex beads. Stimulation
with 1 nM 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) showed the same increased
phagocytic activity as 1 mT electromagnetic fields. However, co-exposure to
electromagnetic fields and TPA showed no further increase of bead uptake, and
therefore we concluded that because of the absence of additive effects, the
electromagnetic fields-induced stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived
macrophages does not involve the protein kinase C signal transduction pathway.
Furthermore, a significant increased superoxide production after exposure to
electromagnetic fields was detected.

PMID: 11561907 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

195: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):700-5.

[Effects of 2375 MHz pulse-modulated microwave radiation on ATPase activity of
the rat muscle actomyosin]

[Article in Russian]

Pashovskina MS, Akoev IG.

Solution of rat muscle actomyosin (AM) was exposed to pulse-modulated microwave.
Carried frequency was 2375 MHz. The rectangular pulse modulation was in the
range of 50-300 pulses per second. It was shown that AM activity was dependent
both on modulation frequency as well as on microwave intensity. It was shown the
frequencies of modulation which were changed ATP-ase activity of AM.

PMID: 9019280 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

196: Science. 1983 Jun 17;220(4603):1283-5.

Pulsing electromagnetic fields induce cellular transcription.

Goodman R, Bassett CA, Henderson AS.

Weak, pulsing electromagnetic fields can modify biological processes. The
hypothesis that responses to such induced currents depend on pulse
characteristics was evaluated by using transcription as the target process. Two
pulses in clinical use, the repetitive single pulse and the repetitive pulse
train, were tested. These pulses produced different results from each other and
from controls when transcription in dipteran salivary gland cells was monitored
with tritiated uridine in transcription autoradiography, cytological nick
translation, and analysis of isolated RNA fractions. The single pulse increased
the specific activity of messenger RNA after 15 and 45 minutes of exposure. The
pulse train increased specific activity only after 45 minutes of exposure.

PMID: 6857248 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

197: Farmakol Toksikol. 1980 Jul-Aug;43(4):334-8.

[Pharmacological characteristics of the tranquilizing action of hydiphen]

[Article in Russian]

Zainkonnikova IV, Val’dman AV, Kozlovskaia MM, Rzhevskaia GF.

Hydiphen–hydrazide of diphenylphosphinylacetic acid–is a new Soviet
tranquilizer having an original spectrum of psychotropic activity. It depresses
an aroused emotional state of fear-anxiety, decreases the state of conflict in
group interaction. It produces neither myorelaxation nor increase in positive
emotions. The drug is not toxic. It possesses the central N-cholinolytic,
antiadrenergic and antiserotonin effects.

PMID: 7439361 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

198: Bioelectromagnetics. 2002 Jan;23(1):2-6.

Effect of short duration electromagnetic field exposures on rat mass.

Sandrey MA, Vesper DN, Johnson MT, Nindl G, Swez JA, Chamberlain J, Balcavage

School of Physical Education, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West
Virginia 26506, USA.

Daily preexposure and postexposure mass measurements of 65 rats (young males and
females, old males) a proprietary pulsed wound healing field, pulsed
electromagnetic field, (PEMF), or their control fields for 4 h/day for 21 days.
Statistical analysis of mass changes over time showed that young rats exposed to
PEMF lost more mass and recovered it more slowly compared to controls (2-4% more
loss) than did older PEMF exposed rats or any 60 Hz exposed rats. We conclude
that daily preexposure and postexposure mass measurements are needed to
adequately assess the effects of electromagnetic fields on body mass. Copyright
2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 11793400 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

199: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2000;(5):8-11.

[Changes in gastric electric activity and serum catecholamine level under the
influence of electromagnetic microwaves (experimental studies)]

[Article in Russian]

Kulkybaev GA, Pospelov NI.

Chronic experiments on 17 dogs revealed that ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic
waves applied on epigastric area and head induce a double-phase response:
depressed electric activity of gaster and increased total catecholamines level
during exposure, but higher gastric activity and lower levels of epinephrine and
norepinephrine in 24 hours after each of 10 procedures and during 7 days after
10 procedures. Double-phase changes in electric activity of gaster could be
explained by double-phase fluctuations of humoral division in chromaffin system.

PMID: 10881538 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

200: Behav Brain Res. 2001 Aug 1;122(2):169-74.

Vibrissal sense is not the main sensory modality in rat exploratory behavior in
the elevated plus-maze.

Cardenas F, Lamprea MR, Morato S.

Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao
Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-901, Brazil.

Four groups of male Wistar rats were submitted to acute bilateral removal of
mystacial vibrissae at different lengths from the follicle. Each group was
divided into two subgroups, tested under high (150 Lux) and low environmental
illumination (2 Lux). All the subjects were allowed to freely explore an
elevated plus-maze for 5 min. Results indicated that rats tested under low
illumination tended to explore the open arms more frequently and longer then
rats tested under high illumination. When tested under low illumination, rats in
the group that suffered whole vibrissa removal stayed longer in the open arms
than those in the other groups but did not differ in the number of entries. The
average increase in the length of open arm entries, rather than a decrease in
aversion to the open arms, may be due to the need of more time to obtain
information about the environment since there is no light and the vibrissae were
removed. This effect was not seen with rats tested under high illumination,
possibly because vision could be used to obtain relevant information.

PMID: 11334647 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

201: Biofizika. 1995 Sep-Oct;40(5):969-73.

[Modification of reactions of rats to the effect of weak variable magnetic
fields using a stress factor]

[Article in Russian]

Temur’iants NA, Mikhailov AV, Malygina VI.

Stress-factor (hypokinesia) modifies the reaction of the adaptation, which
develops under the changeable magnetic fields influence with 8 Hz frequency and
5 microT induction. It’s being corroborated by the decrease of nonspecific
resistance in the initial adaptation period, by the increase of central nervous
system excitability, by the absence of catecholamines accumulation in the
hypothalamus and in adrenal glands.

PMID: 8555295 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

202: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1995;(7):40-2.

[A neuropharmacological study of amnesia in animals induced by ultra high
frequency electromagnetic irradiation]

[Article in Russian]

Iasnetsov VV, Pal’tsev IuP, Popov VM, Levina AV.

PMID: 7551702 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

203: Pol J Pharmacol. 2000 Jul-Aug;52(4):247-54.

3,5-DHPG influences behavioral effects of baclofen in rats.

Car H, Nadlewska A, Wisniewski K.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical Academy, Bialystok, Poland.

The role of 3,5-DHPG, an agonist of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (I
mGluRs) in certain behavioral effects of baclofen, an agonist of GABA-B
receptor, was assessed. Baclofen, given intraperitoneally (ip) at the dose of
0.25 mg/kg, enhanced the number of crossings and bar approaches in the open
field and was ineffective in the passive avoidance tests, and it prolonged time
spent in closed arms and shortened time spent in open arms, reduced number of
entries into open arms in the elevated “plus” maze, measuring anxiety. 3,5-DHPG
given intracerebroventricularly (icv) alone at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 nmole
did not change locomotor activity in the open field test, except bar approaches:
when 3,5-DHPG was given at the dose of 0.01 nmole it enhanced the activity of
rats. At doses of 0.01 and 1.0 nmole it improved, but at the dose of 0.1 nmole
it significantly impaired retrieval in the passive avoidance situation. All used
doses of 3,5-DHPG did not influence the time spent in closed or open arms and
the number of entries into open or closed arms in the elevated “plus” maze.
3,5-DHPG, given at the doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 nmole 10 min after baclofen
significantly changed the effect of baclofen decreasing crossings and rearings
in the open field, while 3,5-DHPG used at the doses of 0.01 and 1.0 nmole in
rats pretreated with baclofen reduced bar approaches. Rats which received
baclofen and, 10 min later, 3,5-DHPG at doses of 0.1 and 1.0 nmole, showed
significantly improved retrieval in the passive avoidance response. The effect
of 3,5-DHPG and baclofen were changed, i.e. 3,5-DHPG and baclofen can cooperate
in retrieval process. Coadministration of baclofen and 3,5-DHPG at the dose of
1.0 nmole reduced time spent in the open arms in comparison with baclofen, i.e.
this dose of 3,5-DHPG changed the effect of baclofen evaluated in the “plus”
maze. Summary, the activation of I mGluR by 3,5-DHPG modulates GABA-B
neurotransmission stimulated by baclofen, which is reflected by changing
behavioral activity of rats.

PMID: 11345480 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

204: Biofizika. 1994 May-Jun;39(3):515-8.

[Controlled effect of an impulse electromagnetic field on the central nervous

[Article in Russian]

Pestriaev VA.

Faint influences of impulses (1 ms) electromagnetic fields (173 A/m) with
dynamic frequency-impulse modulation, which is regulated by feedback from
electrocorticogram, and influences with fixed frequency of impulses run
infra-low range affect on changing of current function state of central nervous
system in different ways, is established. The white rats in the sleep-wake cycle
were used in experiments. Besides, the first regimen of influence is more
effective for changing of character of bioelectrical activity of cortex of head
brain. The second one-for support of current processes of synchronization.

PMID: 8043642 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

205: Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Dec 14;433(1):91-9.

Increased anxiety and impaired memory in rats 3 months after administration of
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”).

Morley KC, Gallate JE, Hunt GE, Mallet PE, McGregor IS.

Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Male Wistar rats were administered either (a) a high dose regime of
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (4 x 5 mg/kg, i.p. over 4 h on each of
2 consecutive days), (b) a moderate dose regime of MDMA (1 x 5 mg/kg on each of
2 consecutive days), (c) D-amphetamine (4 x 1 mg/kg over 4 h on each of 2 days),
or (d) vehicle injections. The high MDMA dose regime and the amphetamine
treatment both produced acute hyperactivity and hyperthermia. Twelve weeks
later, all rats were tested in the drug-free state on a battery of anxiety tests
(elevated plus maze, emergence and social interaction tests). A further 2 weeks
later they were tested on a novel object recognition memory task. Rats
previously given the neurotoxic dose of MDMA showed greater anxiety-like
behaviour on all three anxiety tests relative to both controls and
D-amphetamine-treated rats. Rats given the moderate MDMA dose regime also showed
increased anxiety-like behaviour on all three tests, although to a lesser extent
than rats in the high dose group. In the object recognition task, rats given the
high MDMA dose regime showed impaired memory relative to all other groups when
tested at a 15-min delay but not at a 60-min delay. Rats previously exposed to
amphetamine did not differ from saline controls in the anxiety or memory tests.
These data suggest that moderate to heavy MDMA exposure over 48 h may lead to
increased anxiety and memory impairment 3 months later, possibly through a
neurotoxic effect on brain serotonin systems.

PMID: 11755138 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

206: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1990 May-Jun;(3):58-66.

[The experimental and clinical aspects of the action of electromagnetic fields
on the endocrine glands and brain]

[Article in Russian]

Bogoliubov VM, Karpukhin IV, Maliavin AG.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 2219822 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

207: Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2002 May;79(1):25-31.

The effect of melatonin on morphological changes in liver induced by magnetic
field exposure in rats.

Gokcimen A, Ozguner F, Karaoz E, Ozen S, Aydin G.

Department of Histology and Embryology, S. Demirel University, School of
Medicine, Isparta, Turkey.

In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible effect of melatonin on
morphological changes in liver induced by magnetic fields exposure. Thirty
albino young male Wistar Albino rats were used in the study. They were divided
into 3 groups. Control group (C) (n: 10) received daily intraperitoneal
injections of saline (0.1 ml/100 g) containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. Only
magnetic field exposed (MF) group (n: 10); only magnetic field exposed had daily
intraperitoneal injections of physiologic saline (0.1 ml/100 g) containing 5%
ethanol for two weeks. Magnetic field exposed and melatonin treated (MF+m) group
(n: 10); melatonin was dissolved in ethanol with further dilution in
physiological saline. The animals in this group were exposed magnetic fields for
two weeks. The magnetic fields exposed animals had intraperitoneal single dose
of 4 mg/kg melatonin (0.1 ml/100 g) at 10:00 o’clock daily for two weeks
following magnetic fields exposure. We used commercial CB handheld portable
transceiver, Midland (USA) labelled, of 4 Watts, 40 channel. This channel
frequency has been measured 27.17 MHz with frequency counter. According to the
IRPA exposure standards; for 27 MHz, for 6 min, exposure limit is 0.2 mW/cm2.
This value is for General Public. For occupational exposure limit is 1 mW/cm2.
We have to consider General Public exposure limit. Therefore our limit is 0.2
mW/cm2. In other words; in this study; our exposure is always over the
recommended limit. All the animals were decapitated. Liver samples were fixed in
buffered neutral formalin. Paraffin sections were dyed with hematoxylen-eosin.
Sections were examined under light microscopy. In MF group; sinusoidal
dilatations, mixed cell infiltrations noticed in the periportal area, necrosis
and vacuoler degeneration were determined in liver samples. However, parenchymal
and stromal structures were observed to be prevented partially from effects of
magnetic fields in melatonin treated group. In conclusion, it is suggested that
melatonin has a mild preventive effect on magnetic field exposed changes in
liver tissue in the rats.

PMID: 12199535 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

208: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1991 Nov-Dec;25(6):30-3.

[Grooming and motor activity of rats during hyperbaric exposure]

[Article in Russian]

Sledkov AIu.

An experiment was performed in which Wistar male rats were exposed to a N2-O2
atmosphere at 10 kgf/sm2 or He-O2 atmosphere at 10 and 40 kgf/cm2. During the
experiment grooming and motor activity as well as plasma corticosterone were
investigated. Irrespective of the atmosphere composition, behavioural and
biochemical parameters were found to increase significantly. At 10 kgf/cm2, the
grooming frequency returned to normal faster than at a higher pressure. These
observations give evidence for a nonspecific effect of the above hyperbaric
factors on the parameters taken under study.

PMID: 8577160 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

209: Med Pregl. 1997 Sep-Oct;50(9-10):357-62.

[The effect of low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine

[Article in Croatian]

Lazetic B, Kozarcic T, Stankov K.

Zavod za fiziologiju, Medicinski fakultet, Novi Sad.

This paper presents literature data about effects of low-intensity variable
electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system of experimental animals. We
mostly paid attention to electromagnetic fields frequently found in our
environment, in technological processes, even in our everyday life. This study
shows that the regulatory systems (nervous and endocrine) are extremely
sensitive to effects of electromagnetic fields. In regard to structures of the
central nervous system hypothalamus shows particularly high sensitivity whereas
we can consider a hypothesis that effects of this physical factor may be
expected in other systems too. It has been emphasized that the effects of
electromagnetic fields on regulatory mechanisms may be connected with primary
disturbances on the cellular and subcellular (mitochondrial) level.

Publication Types:
Review, Academic

PMID: 9471530 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

210: Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 1998;(8):27-32.

[Induction of long-term depression (with anxiety and fear components) by
immunization of rats against pargyline]

[Article in Russian]

Ashmarin IP, Danilova RA, Obukhova MF, Belopol’skaia MV.

The active immunization of albino rats against pargyline (a MAO B inhibitor)
induced the formation of antibody to pargyline and results in deep depressive
changes and fear. These changes were observed within 6 weeks after the first
immunization. Therefore, it opens the possibility to model depression long by
exerting the minimum influences. There was also a long-term modulation of
craving for alcohol.

PMID: 9771127 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

211: J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2000 Winter;10(4):277-86.

Effects of subchronic methylphenidate hydrochloride administration on the
locomotor and exploratory behavior of prepubertal mice.

Carrey N, McFadyen MP, Brown RE.

Department of Outpatient Psychiatry, IWK-Grace Hospital, Halifax, Nova Scotia,

The increasing use of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) in children led us to
examine the effects of MPH administration in developing mice. Male CD-1 mice
were administered MPH (40 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or saline daily from postnatal
days 26-32. The mice were then tested from postnatal days 33-37 for locomotion
and exploration in the open field, anxiety in the elevated plus maze, and
learning in the Morris water maze. The results indicate that MPH-pretreated mice
were more exploratory and less fearful in the open field, entering more center
squares than saline controls. MPH-pretreated mice also exhibited less anxiety,
spending more time in the open arm and exhibiting more head dips in the elevated
plus maze than controls. There was no significant difference between MPH and
saline-treated mice in the time taken to find the visible or hidden platform in
the water maze task. The results indicate that treatment with MPH has
significant effects on later behavior, reducing fear and anxiety, and increasing
exploration, but no effect on performance in a spatial learning task.

PMID: 11191688 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

212: Biofizika. 2001 Jul-Aug;46(4):753-60.

[Effect of extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity
on parameters of humoral immunity in healthy mice]

[Article in Russian]

Lushnikov KV, Gapeev AB, Sadovnikov VB, Cheremis NK.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow
Region, 142290 Russia.

The modification of indices of the humoral immune response to thymus-dependent
antigen (sheep erythrocytes) after a whole-body exposure of healthy mice to
low-intensity extremely-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation was studied.
Male NMRI mice were exposed in the far-field zone of horn antenna at a frequency
of 42.0 GHz and energy flux density of 0.15 mW/cm2 under different regimes: once
for 20 min, for 20 min daily during 5 and 20 successive days before
immunization, and for 20 min daily during 5 successive days after immunization
throughout the development of the humoral immune response. The intensity of the
humoral immune response was estimated on day 5 after immunization by the number
of antibody-forming cells of the spleen and antibody titers. Changes in
cellularity of the spleen, thymus and red bone marrow were also assessed. The
indices of humoral immunity and cellularity of lymphoid organs changed
insignificantly after acute exposure and series of 5 exposures before and after
immunization of the animals. However, after repeated exposures for 20 days
before immunization, a statistically significant reduction of thymic cellularity
by 17.5% (p < 0.05) and a decrease in cellularity of the spleen by 14.5% (p <
0.05) were revealed. The results show that low-intensity
extremely-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation with the frequency and energy
flux density used does not influence the humoral immune response intensity in
healthy mice but influences immunogenesis under multiple repeated exposures.

PMID: 11558390 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

213: Biofizika. 2001 Nov-Dec;46(6):1096-102.

[Degranulation of skin mast cells caused by high frequency electromagnetic
irradiation of low intensity]

[Article in Russian]

Popov VI, Rogachevskii VV, Gapeev AB, Khramov RN, Fesenko EE.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow
Region, 142290 Russia.

It was shown by light and electron microscopy that local exposure of the
projection of the MC-8 lao-gun acupuncture point in rat pad to low-intensity
(0.05 mW/cm2) extremely high-frequency (42.0 GHz) electromagnetic radiation
caused a degranulation of derma mast cells. It was suggested that the response
of skin mast cells is an important amplifying mechanism in the chain of events
leading to a systemic response of the organism to low-intensity electromagnetic

PMID: 11771285 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

214: Gig Sanit. 1981 Oct;(10):35-8.

[Effect of a superhigh-frequency electromagnetic field on animals of different

[Article in Russian]

Shutenko OI, Koziarin IP, Shvaiko II.

PMID: 7308758 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

215: Gig Sanit. 1990 Aug;(8):62-3.

[Hygienic standardization of electromagnetic radiation from two-channel
meteorological radar stations]

[Article in Russian]

Nikitina NG, Tomashevskaia LA.

The study was designed to analyze the impact of the combined electromagnetic
fields (EMF) with the wavelength of 10 and 0.8 cm and various levels of energy
current density on the central nervous system, metabolic processes, immune
resistance and reproductive function. Proceeding from the obtained data maximum
allowable levels of EMF produced by the prospective two-channel meteorological++
radars were established.

PMID: 2283071 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

216: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Oct;157(4):388-94.

The effect of glucocorticoids on the anxiolytic efficacy of buspirone.

Haller J, Leveleki C, Halasz J, Baranyi J, Makara GB.

Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Science, P.O. Box 67,
1450 Budapest, Hungary.

RATIONALE: The serotonergic system and the
hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenocortical axis reciprocally influence each other.
Therefore, the interaction between stress and serotonergic anxiolytics should be
of major concern for both laboratory investigations and clinical treatment.
OBJECTIVES: We have studied the effects of the serotonergic anxiolytic buspirone
in rats in which basal levels of glucocorticoids were low and stable, while
acute stress reactions were inhibited or exogenously induced. METHODS: Rats were
adrenalectomised. Subcutaneous corticosterone pellets maintained basal
glucocorticoid concentrations while acute changes were mimicked by
corticosterone injections. Anxiety was assessed by the social interaction test.
Temporal changes were evaluated by submitting rats to the same manipulations
three times at two-day intervals. RESULTS: Buspirone applied to animals with
stable and low plasma glucocorticoid concentrations induced a dramatic increase
in social interactions. A slight locomotor suppressive effect was also noticed.
The effects of buspirone proved to be stable over time in these animals. Acute
treatment with corticosterone doubled the locomotor suppressive effects of
buspirone and reversed its anxiolytic effects: the buspirone-corticosterone
combination was anxiogenic after the first application. During the second and
third treatment, the impact of corticosterone on buspirone efficacy gradually
decreased, but the combined treatment remained about half as effective in
reducing anxiety as buspirone alone.

PMID: 11605098 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

217: Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001 Aug 15;92(1-2):78-84.

Altered emotional behavior in PACAP-type-I-receptor-deficient mice.

Otto C, Martin M, Wolfer DP, Lipp HP, Maldonado R, Schutz G.

Division Molecular Biology of the Cell, German Cancer Research Center, Im
Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

PAC1 (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide type I receptor) is a
G-protein-coupled receptor that binds the strongly conserved neuropeptide PACAP
(pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) with a thousandfold higher
affinity than the related peptide VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide). PAC1
shows strong expression in brain areas which have been implicated in the
emotional control of behavior, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, the locus
coeruleus and the periaqueductal gray. To assess whether PAC1-mediated signaling
has an impact on emotional behavior, we analysed two different mutant mouse
lines with an ubiquitous or a forebrain-specific inactivation of PAC1 in several
testing paradigms modelling general locomotor activity and anxiety-related
behavior. We clearly demonstrate that mice with a ubiquitous but not with a
forebrain-specific deletion of PAC1 exhibit elevated locomotor activity and
strongly reduced anxiety-like behavior. We could not observe any gross
alteration in circadian rhythmicity nor any enhanced sensitivity towards ethanol
in the mutant mice. We previously demonstrated that PAC1 plays a crucial role in
contextual fear conditioning. Therefore the finding that PAC1-deficient mice
exhibit reduced anxiety is quite exciting, since the receptor and hence its
ligand PACAP seem to be important for both, innate and learned fear.

PMID: 11483244 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

218: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1982 Mar-Apr;16(2):84-7.

[Role of polarization and resonance in assessing the biological effects of
electromagnetic radiation]

[Article in Russian]

Galkin AA.

The dosimetric concept of measurements of electromagnetic radiations (EMR)
during irradiation of biological objects can be realized by methods of
mathematical modelling of EMR interactions with biological objects, which can be
represented as an image of the human body as a uniform ellipsoid of revolution.
The efficient surface of EMR absorption for the models shows a marked resonance
dependence on the radiation frequency. The ratio of the largest to the smallest
axes of the ellipsoid of revolution can be used as a resonance criterion.
Besides, radiation polarization needs to be taken into consideration. This paper
discusses the frequency dependence of the efficient absorption surface for three
major types of radiation polarization. The paper demonstrates an applicability
of the calculation method to the evaluation of the EMR absorbed dose rate.

PMID: 7070047 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

219: Brain Res. 2002 Jul 5;943(1):142-50.

Human urocortin II: mild locomotor suppressive and delayed anxiolytic-like
effects of a novel corticotropin-releasing factor related peptide.

Valdez GR, Inoue K, Koob GF, Rivier J, Vale W, Zorrilla EP.

Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN7, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla,
CA 92037, USA.

Recently, human urocortin II (hUcn II), a member of the corticotropin-releasing
factor (CRF) peptide family, was identified. The following experiments sought to
compare the effects of this novel CRF-related peptide versus those of ovine CRF
(oCRF) on locomotor activation and anxiety-related behavior, using the locomotor
activity test and the elevated plus maze, respectively. To examine locomotor
activity during the active (dark) and inactive (light) phases, rats were
intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 microg of
hUcn II (n=8/group active; n=6-9/group inactive) or oCRF (n=8/group active;
n=8/group inactive) 2 h after the onset of their respective testing phase and
monitored for 3 (inactive) or 5 (active) h. To compare the effects of
CRF-related peptides on exploration of the elevated plus maze, rats were
pretreated (i.c.v. 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 microg) with hUcn II (n=7-11/group) or oCRF
(n=7-10/group), 10 min prior to testing. Delayed effects in the elevated plus
maze were examined in rats injected with 1.0 microg of hUcn II (n=8/group) or
oCRF (n=6-8/group), or vehicle (n=8/group) 1, 4 or 6 h before testing. In
contrast to the activational effects of oCRF, hUcn II mildly suppressed
locomotor activity during the inactive phase. hUcn II did not acutely affect
open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze, whereas oCRF decreased this
measure. However, hUcn II increased open arm exploration 4 h after injection.
Thus, hUcn II exhibits mild motor suppressive effects and delayed
anxiolytic-like effects, suggesting a time-dependent role for hUcn II in the
regulation of stress-related behavior.

PMID: 12088848 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

220: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 Nov-Dec;51(6):733-42.

[Behavioral analysis of consequences of chronic blockade of NMDA-type glutamate
receptors in the early postnatal period in rats]

[Article in Russian]

Latysheva NV, Raevskii KS.

Research Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow.

In view of the hypothesis that glutamatergic dysfunction of brain can underlie
the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (including cognitive deficit), the aim of
this study was to develop a model of cognitive impairment in Wistar male rats
after administration of a noncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist in early
postnatal period. Rat pups were daily subcutaneously injected with 0.05 mg/kg
MK-801 on postnatal days 7-49. On the 27th and 28th days 24 h after the last
previous injection, the MK-801-treated rats demonstrated lower spontaneous
locomotor and exploratory activity in comparison with saline control, however,
they retained the reaction of hyperlocomotion which developed immediately after
the MK-801 administration. In these rats, the anxiety level in the elevated
plus-maze (on the 40th postnatal day) was found to be decreased, and the spatial
learning in food rewarded task was negatively affected (on the 50th-54th days).
It is suggested that impairment of the input of sensory information and its
correct assessment by the animals can be associated with the early neonatal
blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors.

PMID: 11871038 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

221: J Neuroendocrinol. 2002 Jul;14(7):549-54.

Hormonal and behavioural responses of paradoxical sleep-deprived rats to the
elevated plus maze.

Suchecki D, Tiba PA, Tufik S.

Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista
de Medicina, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is observed
immediately after 96 h of paradoxical sleep (PS) deprivation. However, when
individually or group PS-deprived rats are challenged with a mild stressor, they
exhibit a facilitation of the corticosterone response, and a faster return to
basal levels than control rats. Because the housing condition influences coping
behaviour, we tested whether the type of PS deprivation (individually or in
group) influenced anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus-maze and the
accompanying adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses.
Individually (I-DEP) or group deprived (G-DEP) rats and their appropriate
control groups were either killed immediately after 96 h of sleep deprivation
(time-point 0 or ‘basal’) or exposed to a 5-min test on the elevated plus maze
and sampled 5, 20 or 60 min after test onset. Control of I-DEP rats showed
reduced locomotor activity and augmented anxiety-like behaviour, replicating the
effects of social isolation. Although I-DEP rats exhibited higher motor activity
than cage control rats, these groups did not differ in regard to the percentage
of entry and time spent in the open arms. G-DEP rats, in turn, ambulated more,
entered and remained longer in the open arms, exhibiting less anxiety-like
behaviour. PS-deprived rats exhibited higher ACTH and corticosterone ‘basal’
secretion than control rats. For all groups, peak ACTH secretion was reached at
the 5-min time-point, returning to unstressed basal levels 60 min after the
test, except for G-DEP rats, which showed a return at 20 min. Peak levels of
corticosterone occurred at 5 min for PS-deprived groups and at 20 min for
control groups. G-DEP rats showed a return to ‘basal’ unstressed levels at 20
min, whereas the I-DEP and control groups did so at 60 min. A negative
correlation between exploration in the open arms and hormone concentrations was
observed. These data indicate that housing condition influences the subsequent
behaviour of PS-deprived rats in the EPM which, in turn, seems to determine the
secretion profile of ACTH and corticosterone in response to the test.

PMID: 12121491 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

222: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4):3-7.

[Recovery processes in the cerebral cortex, myocardium and thymus of rats with
experimental atherosclerosis exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields on
the head]

[Article in Russian]

Zubkova SM, Varakina NI, Mikhailik LV, Bobkova AS, Chabanenko SS, Luk’ianova TV.

Studies of animals with experimental sclerosis has shown that a course of 10
procedures of alternative magnetic field (AMF) (50 Hz, 30 mT, 3 min daily)
promotes partial recovery of the lipid spectrum and corrects vasomotor-metabolic
disturbances in the cerebral cortex, myocardium and thymus caused by
atherosclerosis. Combination of AMF with constant magnetic field in the same
regime and location does not produce a hypolipidemic effect in atherosclerotic
animals and this, in combination with increased vascular permeability may
aggravate the condition. Activated microcirculation, antioxidant and
antiproteinase effects in activation of biosynthetic processes in the cerebral
cortex reflect inhibition in the CNS in this combined effect and create
conditions for a hypotensive effect.

PMID: 11008562 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

223: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):659-70.

[Role of modulation in biological effects of electromagnetic radiation]

[Article in Russian]

Grigor’ev IuG.

Data, describing a role of modulation of electromagnetic fields in development
of biological effect, are considered. Outcomes of researches, indicating the
dependence of a response of nervous and immune systems on a kind of modulation
at low levels of effect, are represented. The necessity of the account of a role
of modulation in an evaluation of electromagnetic danger is formulated.

PMID: 9019276 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

224: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 Sep-Oct;51(5):563-71.

[Dynamics of spectral characteristics of theta- and alpha-range EEG during
negative emotional reactions]

[Article in Russian]

Il’iuchenok IR, Savost’ianov AN, Valeev RG.

Institute of Higher Nerous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of
Sciences, Moscow.

Power characteristics of the EEG theta and alpha rhythms were studied in a human
in neutral state and during a conditioned negative emotional reaction (Fp1, Fp2,
F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4, O1, O2, F7, F8, T3, T4, T5, and T6 derivations). A
significant increase in the relative spectral power in the narrow theta band of
7.4-8.1 Hz in the frontocentral and temporal brain regions was observed during
the development of the negative emotional reaction. The alpha-rhythm dynamics
during the negative reaction was substantially individual and could be expressed
in either an increase, or decrease in relative spectral power of different
alpha-frequencies. No pronounced changes in their dynamics could also be
observed. In some subjects the spectral power of the medium-frequency
alpha-rhythm significantly decreased, that of the high-frequency rhythm
increased, and changes in the spectral power of the low-frequency alpha range

PMID: 11764515 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

225: Behav Brain Res. 2002 Apr 1;131(1-2):67-78.

Amygdala or ventral hippocampal lesions at two early stages of life
differentially affect open field behaviour later in life; an animal model of
neurodevelopmental psychopathological disorders.

Daenen EW, Wolterink G, Gerrits MA, Van Ree JM.

Department of Pharmacology, Division of Pharmacology and Anatomy Rudolf Magnus
Institute for Neurosciences, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85060,
3508, AB, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia or autism are thought to result from
disruption of the normal pattern of brain development. Abnormalities in the
amygdaloid complex and hippocampus have been reported in these disorders. In the
present study rats were lesioned in the amygdala or ventral hippocampus on day 7
of life (immature brain) or day 21 of life (almost mature brain) and open field
behaviour was determined later in life before and after puberty. Lesioning on
day 7 resulted in behavioural changes, interpreted as locomotor stereotypy and
decreased anxiety in case of amygdala or hippocampus, respectively. These
effects were more profoundly present after puberty. Lesioning on day 21 did not
result in these behavioural changes, which subscribes to the importance of the
stage of brain maturation on functional development. The results suggest that
the behavioural changes in rats lesioned on day 7 may due to a malfunctioning of
structures connected to the amygdala or ventral hippocampus. Brain lesions made
on day 7 of life may serve as a potential model of psychopathological
neurodevelopmental disorders.

PMID: 11844573 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

226: Bioelectromagnetics. 2001 Apr;22(3):212-5.

GSM phone signal does not produce subjective symptoms.

Koivisto M, Haarala C, Krause CM, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H.

Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.

The influence of pulsed radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields of digital
GSM mobile phones (902 MHz, 217 Hz pulse modulation) on subjective symptoms or
sensations in healthy subjects were studied in two single-blind experiments. The
duration of the RF exposure was about 60 min in Experiment 1 and 30 min in
Experiment 2. Each subject rated symptoms or sensations in the beginning of the
experimental session and at the end of both the exposure and the nonexposure
conditions. The symptoms rated were headache, dizziness, fatigue, itching or
tingling of the skin, redness on the skin, and sensations of warmth on the skin.
The results did not reveal any differences between exposure and non-exposure
conditions, suggesting that a 30-60 min exposure to this RF field does not
produce subjective symptoms in humans. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 11255218 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

227: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1999;(12):9-13.

[Role of nonspecific cellular resistance factors in hygienic evaluation of
electromagnetic nonionizing radiation]

[Article in Russian]

Obukhan EI.

The most sensitive indices of the blood system at EMF exposure (disorders of
megakaryocytes differentiation, unspecific reactions, repopulation of the blasts
cells a. al.) have been determined by the cytologic investigations. At has been
revealed that allowable UVF levels effect are situated below the threshold of
activisation of adaptive reactions (less than 0.01 mV/cm2), for occupational
conditions–at the level of compensatory processes (0.05-0.1 mV/cm2). The
intensities higher than 0.5 mV/cm2 were estimated as critical. Involution of
megakaryocytes, polimorphism and disturbances the structure of leucocytes a. al.
were revealed as EMF markers which allow to carry out an express-diagnostic.

PMID: 11965742 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

228: J Psychopharmacol. 2001 Jun;15(2):76-82.

Interactions between LY354740, a group II metabotropic agonist and the
GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex in the rat elevated plus-maze.

Ferris P, Seward E, Dawson GR.

Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Neuroscience Research Centre,
Harlow, Essex, UK.

Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor antagonist, and naloxone, a
non-selective mu-receptor antagonist, were used to investigate whether the
anxiolytic action of LY354740
[1S,2S,5R,6S-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylate monohydrate], a Group
II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, was mediated through the
benzodiazepine binding site on the GABA(A) receptor and opioid pathways.
LY354740 (1.0-10.0 mg/kg i.p.) induced dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effects in
the rat elevated plus-maze. The anxiolytic-like effects of LY354740 (10.0 mg/kg)
and the benzodiazepine receptor agonist, chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 mg/kg i.p.)
were blocked by flumazenil (15.0 mg/kg i.p.). By contrast, naloxone (10.0 mg/kg
i.p.) failed to affect the anxiolytic-like effects of either LY354740 or CDP.
The behaviour of animals treated with flumazenil or naloxone alone did not
significantly differ from that of animals treated with vehicle alone. This study
suggests that the anxiolytic-like effects of LY354740 on the elevated plus-maze
may be directly or indirectly mediated by the benzodiazepine binding site on the
GABA(A) receptor complex.

PMID: 11448091 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

229: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Jan;153(3):365-72.

8-OH-DPAT, but not deramciclane, antagonizes the anxiogenic-like action of
paroxetine in an elevated plus-maze.

Koks S, Beljajev S, Koovit I, Abramov U, Bourin M, Vasar E.

Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, Estonia.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake
inhibitor (paroxetine) has an anxiogenic-like effect and what possible
pharmacological mechanism underlies that action. METHODS: We used the rat
elevated plus-maze paradigm followed by measurement of locomotor activity. Some
of the rats were subjected to handling and adaptation to the experimental
situation, while the rest were naive to the test situation. Paroxetine was
administered as a single treatment and in combination with the 5-HT1A receptor
agonist (8-OH-DPAT) or 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist (deramciclane). RESULTS:
The administration of paroxetine induced an anxiogenic-like action in rats
adapted to handling, but not in handling naive animals. Treatment with
paroxetine (0.1-2 mg/kg) reduced the number of open arm visits and time spent in
open arms, and the ratio between open and total arm entries in the elevated
plus-maze. Paroxetine also decreased the number of line crossings and head-dips.
Paroxetine caused the strongest anti-exploratory action at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg.
Paroxetine did not suppress the locomotor activity of rats, showing that the
described anti-exploratory effect was behaviourally specific to the plus-maze.
Pretreatment with 8-OH-DPAT (0.05 mg/kg) completely reversed the anxiogenic-like
action of paroxetine, whereas treatment with deramciclane (2 mg/kg) affected
only the number of closed arm visits. Deramciclane (0.5-2 mg/kg) and 8-OH-DPAT
(0.01-0.1 mg/kg) changed neither exploratory behaviour nor locomotor activity if
given as single treatments to the habituated rats. CONCLUSION: The 5-HT reuptake
inhibitor, paroxetine, at a low dose (0.5 mg/kg) induces an anxiogenic-like
action in handling adapted rats. The effectiveness of 8-OH-DPAT against
paroxetine probably supports a role of both pre- and postsynaptic 5HT-ergic
mechanisms in the anxiogenic-like action of paroxetine.

PMID: 11271409 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

230: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002 May-Jun;42(3):322-30.

[Enzymatic activity of some tissues and blood serum from animals and humans
exposed to microwaves and hypothesis on the possible role of free radical
processes in the nonlinear effects and modification of emotional behavior of

[Article in Russian]

Akoev IG, Pashovkina MS, Dolgacheva LP, Semenova TP, Kalmykov VL.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science, Pushchino, 142290

The dependence of activities of actomyosin ATPase, alkaline phosphatase,
aspartataminotranspherase, monoaminoxidase and that of affective rat behavior on
frequency of modulation of microwaves (0.8-10 microW/cm2) was explored at
short-time actions. Series of nonlinear phenomenons, inexplicable from positions
of the energy approaches are revealed, The working hypothesis explaining
opportunity of high performance of weak and super-weak microwaves and other
revealed phenomena by resonance interaction of such electromagnetic
radiofrequency radiation with paramagnetic molecules of biological tissues was
proposed. This resonance interaction activate free radicals and initiate
auto-supporting and auto-intensifying of chain chemical reactions. The
spontaneous autocatalytic oxidation of catecholamines enlarges a common pool of
free radicals, capable to participate in such enhanced generating. The
protective role of monoaminoxidase is postulated. Monoaminoxidase is basically
located on an outer surface of mitochondrias and it is deaminating monoamines.
The deaminating prevents penetration of catecholamines inside of mitochondrias
and their quinoid oxidation there with formation of free-radical semi-quinons,
capable to destroy system of ATP synthesis. These inferences are obliquely
confirmed by the experimentally revealed correlation between activity of
monoaminoxidase and integrative activity of the rat brain.

PMID: 12125273 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

231: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2001 May-Jun;31(3):299-304.

Neuron activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brain in rats with different
typological characteristics in conditions of emotional stimulation.

Zaichenko MI, Mikhailova NG, Raigorodskii YuV.

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of
Sciences, Moscow.

Male Wistar rats were separated according to the “emotional resonance” method
(groups of animals avoiding (“altruists”) and not avoiding (“egotists”) the pain
cries of partner rats) and neuron activity in the prefrontal areas of the cortex
was studied in the right and left hemispheres. Assessments were made of changes
in the frequency of nerve cell spike activity (in relation to the baseline
activity of neurons in sated animals) in rats subjected to one day of food
deprivation and after electrical stimulation of emotionally positive (lateral
hypothalamus) and negative (tegmentum of the midbrain) brain structures and
after exposure to the pain cries of partner rats. The results of these
experiments revealed a series of differences in the cell activities of the two
groups of rats. In conditions of hunger, the discharge frequency in the
“altruists” was higher than that in “egotists.” Cortical neuron responses to
positive stimulation were greater than those to negative stimulation in rats of
both groups. Intracerebral stimulation produced significantly greater increases
in discharge frequency in neurons of both prefrontal areas of the cortex in
“altruists” than in “egotists.” In both groups of rats, neurons in the right
hemisphere responded to emotionally negative stimulation with significantly
greater activation than cells in the left hemisphere, while activity in the left
hemisphere was greater in conditions of emotionally positive stimulation.
“Altruists” showed significantly greater neuron responses during exposure to
pain cries from “victim” rats in both the right and left hemispheres. The
responses of “egotists” to “victim” cries were not significantly different from
baseline activity levels.

PMID: 11430574 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

232: Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Aug 3;425(1):43-50.

Effect of chronic administration of flesinoxan and fluvoxamine on freezing
behavior induced by conditioned fear.

Li XB, Inoue T, Hashimoto S, Koyama T.

Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North
15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan.

The present study investigated the acute effects of flesinoxan (a selective
5-HT(1A) receptor agonist), fluvoxamine (a selective serotonin reuptake
inhibitor) and their co-administration on the expression of conditioned
freezing, and index of anxiety in rats. This study also examined the acute
effects of fluvoxamine and flesinoxan following chronic flesinoxan or chronic
fluvoxamine on the expression of conditioned freezing. Acute administration of
flesinoxan (s.c.; 0.1-3 mg/kg) reduced freezing dose dependently, and
fluvoxamine (i.p.) at a high dose (60 mg/kg) reduced freezing significantly.
Acute co-administration of fluvoxamine (30 mg/kg) and flesinoxan (0.3 mg/kg)
showed an additive inhibitory effect on freezing. Chronic flesinoxan treatment
(0.3 mg/kg, for 13 days) did not affect the inhibitory effect of acute
flesinoxan treatment, but enhanced that of acute fluvoxamine (30 mg/kg) on
conditioned freezing. Chronic fluvoxamine treatment (30 mg/kg, for 13 days)
enhanced the inhibitory effect of acute fluvoxamine (30 mg/kg) and the
inhibitory effect of acute flesinoxan (0.3 mg/kg) on conditioned freezing. These
results suggest that co-administration of a selective serotonin reuptake
inhibitor and a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist is useful for the treatment of anxiety

PMID: 11672573 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

233: Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2000 Aug;86(8):979-86.

[Changes in the animal behavior caused by sequential changes of dominants
related to reproduction]

[Article in Russian]

Vinogradova EP.

St. Petersburg State University, Russia.

Female rats during the sex dominanta (proestrus) revealed lower anxiety scores
and a higher general level of activity than the rats in diestrus. Responses to
stress were also more obvious in proestrus. During gestation the rats revealed a
lower activity and a higher anxiety. In lactation, the rats’ behaviour was
similar to that in proestrus.

PMID: 11059015 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

234: Adv Space Res. 1989;9(10):333-6.

Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of
high-energy iron particles.

Hunt WA, Joseph JA, Rabin BM.

Behavioral Sciences Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute,
Bethesda, MD 20812-5145, USA.

Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to
alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that
measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In
addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate
nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found
and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral
toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was
also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to
gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage
may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this
possibility should be extensively studied.

PMID: 11537313 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

235: Brain Res. 2001 Jun 15;904(1):43-53.

Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical
activity in rat hippocampal slices.

Tattersall JE, Scott IR, Wood SJ, Nettell JJ, Bevir MK, Wang Z, Somasiri NP,
Chen X.

Biomedical Sciences Department, CBD Porton Down, SP4 0JQ, Salisbury, UK.

Slices of rat hippocampus were exposed to 700 MHz continuous wave radiofrequency
(RF) fields (25.2-71.0 V m(-1), 5-15 min exposure) in a stripline waveguide. At
low field intensities, the predominant effect on the electrically evoked field
potential in CA1 was a potentiation of the amplitude of the population spike by
up to 20%, but higher intensity fields could produce either increases or
decreases of up to 120 and 80%, respectively, in the amplitude of the population
spike. To eliminate the possibility of RF-induced artefacts due to the metal
stimulating electrode, the effect of RF exposure on spontaneous epileptiform
activity induced in CA3 by 4-aminopyridine (50-100 microM) was investigated.
Exposure to RF fields (50.0 V m(-1)) reduced or abolished epileptiform bursting
in 36% of slices tested. The maximum field intensity used in these experiments,
71.0 V m(-1), was calculated to produce a specific absorption rate (SAR) of
between 0.0016 and 0.0044 W kg(-1) in the slices. Measurements with a Luxtron
fibreoptic probe confirmed that there was no detectable temperature change (+/-
0.1 degrees C) during a 15 min exposure to this field intensity. Furthermore,
imposed temperature changes of up to 1 degrees C failed to mimic the effects of
RF exposure. These results suggest that low-intensity RF fields can modulate the
excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal
effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioural
effects of RF fields.

PMID: 11516410 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

236: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1994 Dec;118(12):606-8.

[Correction of disruptions in learning and memory, caused by the effect of
superhigh frequency electromagnetic emissions, by nootropic drugs]

[Article in Russian]

Iasnetsov VV, Popov VM, Pal’tsev IuP, Levina AV, Motin VG.

PMID: 7703455 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

237: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1999;(6):38-40.

[Combined effect of noise and electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency
(experimental study)]

[Article in Russian]

Khudnitskii SS, Murzenok PP, Vikent’eva NK, Tsykhun GF, Netukova NI.

PMID: 10420718 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

238: Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1980 Feb;(2):46-7.

[Calcium and magnesium content in the tissues of rats exposed to an
industrial-frequency electromagnetic field]

[Article in Russian]

Dyshlovoi VD, Radlovskaia ZT, Arkhipchuk VD, Kachura VS.

PMID: 7378163 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

239: Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1997;31(2):38-43.

[Combined effects of various forms of motor deprivation and gamma irradiation on
the higher nervous activity in rats]

[Article in Russian]

Shtemberg AS.

Effects of gamma-radiation at a dose of 3 Gy against either antiorthostatic
hypodynamia (AOH) or hypokinesia (HK) on formation of the differentiated
motor-drinking reflex (DR) were compared. Each of the forms of motor deprivation
hindered the elaboration of DR; gamma-irradiation aggravated these disorders. At
the same time, AOH led to significantly more severe disturbances in the higher
nervous activity including the generalized excitation, pathologic aggressiveness
and neurotization of animals. In contrast, hypokinesia stimulated the active
elements of behavior which inhibit the passive-defensive behavior and a fear
reaction. Therefore, the modifying effect of irradiation becomes apparent only
if combined with AOH.

PMID: 9190253 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

240: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 Mar-Apr;38(2):223-31.

[Forming of memory (imprinting) in chicks after prior low-level exposure to
electromagnetic fields]

[Article in Russian]

Grigor’ev IuG, Stepanov VS.

State Research Centre of Russia-Institute of Biophysics, Moscow.

EMF of power density from 0.4 to 10 mW/cm2 can influence forming the memory
(imprinting). Showed the possibility to fix EMF modulated in embryonic brain
during the natal period and conservation of this information after birth.

PMID: 9633625 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

241: Dtsch Zahnarztl Z. 1982 Feb;37(2):187-90.

[Animal experiment studies of the question of radiogenic caries]

[Article in German]

Vogel C, Reichart P, Hassenstein E, Ronneberger H.

PMID: 6951707 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

242: J Cutan Pathol. 2003 Feb;30(2):135-8.

Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular telephone on epidermal
Merkel cells.

Irmak MK, Oztas E, Yagmurca M, Fadillioglu E, Bakir B.

Department of Histology and Embryology,Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara,

The number of reports on the effects induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR)
from cellular telephones in various cellular systems is still increasing. Until
now, no satisfactory mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological
effects of this radiation except a role suggested for mast cells. Merkel cells
may also play a role in the mechanisms of biological effects of EMR. This study
was undertaken to investigate the influence of EMR from a cellular telephone
(900 MHz) on Merkel cells in rats. A group of rats was exposed to a cellular
telephone in speech position for 30 min. Another group of rats was sham-exposed
under the same environmental conditions for 30 min. Exposure led to
significantly higher exocytotic activity in Merkel cells compared with the sham
exposure group. This finding may indicate the possible role of Merkel cells in
the pathophysiology of the effects of EMR.

PMID: 12641793 [PubMed – in process]

243: Bioelectromagnetics. 1998;19(2):136-8.

Comment on:
Bioelectromagnetics. 1997;18(2):111-5.

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields do not interact directly with

Adair RK.

Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA.

Blank and Goodman [(1997): Bioelectromagnetics 18:111-115] suggest that weak
extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields affect intracellular
DNA directly. We show that such a conclusion is not in accord with physical

Publication Types:

PMID: 9492173 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

244: Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 1994 Jan-Mar;(1):17-9.

[Permeability of erythrocyte membranes from peripheral blood after exposure to
low-frequency alternating electromagnetic field]

[Article in Russian]

Levshin IV.

The levels of dienic conjugates (DC), malonic dialdehyde (MD),
extra-erythrocytic hemoglobin, the rate of chemiluminescence (C), total
peroxidase activity (TPA) were determined on a single exposure of animals to
low-frequency pulsating electromagnetic field (LFPEF) and chronic exposure of 16
healthy males aged 19-25 years. After acute exposure to LEPEF, the animals
showed 64-106% increases in the levels of DC and MD and the rate of C. The
persons had higher TPA and C.

PMID: 8183583 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

245: IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1981 Mar;28(3):258-64.

Measurements of the RF power absorption in spheroidal human and animal phantoms
exposed to the near field of a dipole source.

Iskander MG, Massoudi H, Durney CH, Allen SJ.

PMID: 7228071 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

246: Gig Sanit. 1989 Jun;(6):84-6.

[Evaluation of the work capacity of laboratory animals in a toxicologic

[Article in Russian]

Fedotov VP, Moskalev OS, I’lin BN.

PMID: 2792810 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

247: Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1998;32(5):40-5.

[Evaluation of individual radiation resistance of rats based on reactions to
non-radiation testing]

[Article in Russian]

Shtemberg AS, Farber IuV, Shafirkin AV.

Presented are the data on radiation sensitivity of various groups of animals
preliminary differentiated by their tolerance of acute hypoxia. The processes of
blood forming system impairment and reparation are detailed. As was shown,
highly resistant to hypoxia rats are distinguished by the best radiation
resistance. Survivability of these rats was significantly higher as compared
with other groups of animals. Recovery of blood formation by both the red and
white chits following exposure to [symbol: see text] of the mean lethal dose
proceeded more rapidly in the radiation resistant rats.

PMID: 9883333 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

248: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):691-9.

[Effects of electromagnetic radiation of various modes on heart activity (in

[Article in Russian]

Afrikanova LA, Grigor’ev IuG.

On spinal cord frogs and isolated interauricle to a partition of heart in vivo
and in vitro influence the MICROWAVES of a radiation in continuous and modulated
modes on function of heart (9.3 Hz is investigated; 0.348-0.16 and 0.016 mV/sm2,
modulation from 1 up to 100 Hz). A possibility of influence of an
electromagnetic exposure on heart frequency and rhythm is revealed. Pointing of
heart in vitro by a neutral red resulted in large number of % of experience in a
stop of irradiated heart.

PMID: 9019279 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

249: Child Dev. 1968 Dec;39(4):1247-52.

Newborn activity and emotional response at eight months.

McGrade BJ.

PMID: 5704397 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

250: Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Apr;90(2):659-74.

Experimental simulation of a haunt experience and elicitation of paroxysmal
electroencephalographic activity by transcerebral complex magnetic fields:
induction of a synthetic “ghost”?

Persinger MA, Tiller SG, Koren SA.

Department of Psychology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

To test the hypothesis that experiences of apparitional phenomena with
accompanying fear can be simulated within the laboratory, a 45-yr.-old
journalist and professional musician who had experienced a classic haunt four
years previously was exposed to 1 microTesla, complex, transcerebral magnetic
fields. Within 10 min. after exposure to a frequency-modulated pattern applied
over the right hemisphere, the man reported “rushes of fear” that culminated in
the experience of an apparition. Concurrent electroencephalographic measurements
showed conspicuous 1-sec.-to-2-sec. paroxysmal complex spikes (15 Hz) that
accompanied the reports of fear. A second magnetic field pattern, applied
bilaterally through the brain, was associated with pleasant experiences. The
subject concluded that the synthetic experience of the apparition was very
similar to the one experienced in the natural setting. The results of this
experiment suggest that controlled simulation of these pervasive phenomena
within the laboratory is possible and that this experimental protocol may help
discern the physical stimuli that evoke their occurrence in nature.

PMID: 10833767 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

251: Vopr Onkol. 1996;42(5):13-21.

[Super-low frequency electric and magnetic fields and their role in development
of neoplasms]

[Article in Russian]

Muratov EI.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 9064896 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

252: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4):7-11.

[Pain relief by low-intensity frequency-modulated millimeter waves acting on the
acupuncture points]

[Article in Russian]

Samosiuk IZ, Kulikovich IuN, Tamarova ZA, Samosiuk NI, Kazhanova AK.

Analgetic effect of low-intensive frequency-modulated millimetric waves (MW) was
studied in mice with formalin induced nociceptive behavior reaction (licking of
defeat hindpaw). MW were applied to the acupoint E 36 of the defeat hindpaw. The
following MW were used: 60 GHz (1) and 118 GHz (2) which were modulated by 4 Hz;
noise MW within the range of 42-95 GHz (3) and 90-140 GHz (4) which were
modulated in accidental order by frequencies 1-60 Hz; combinations of fixed
frequencies with noise – 60 GHz + noise 42-95 GHz (5) and 118 GHz + noise 90-140
GHz (6). All used MW combinations suppressed licking of the defeat hindpaw and
increased duration of sleep and eating. The strongest analgesia was achieved in
series 1-3 (42.4-69.7%), the weakest in series 6 and 4 of the experiment

PMID: 11008563 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

253: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1982 Nov-Dec;32(6):1096-103.

[Probabilistic characteristics of “open field” behavior in the rat]

[Article in Russian]

Lazarenko NS, Petrov ES, Zabrodin IIu, Vartanian GA.

An analysis was made of the dynamics of probabilistic characteristics of the rat
behaviour in the process of extinction of orienting-investigating behaviour in
the “open field”. Estimation of the entropy value related to behaviour permitted
to divide the rats into two groups. The rats with high entropy values differed
from those with low values by a more prolonged retention of a high level of
locomotion, vertical stands, wall stands, peeping through a hole and grooming.
It is suggested that a high entropy level and prolonged retention in the
behaviour pattern of most of the elementary acts and poses may testify to a
delayed process of extinction of orienting-investigating activity due to a
higher level of the rats negative emotional state.

PMID: 7164573 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

254: Lik Sprava. 1997 May-Jun;(3):83-7.

[The interaction of changes in the genitalia in the pathogenesis of sterility in

[Article in Ukrainian]

Malyshkin IN.

Alterations in testicular structures on the side of the pathologic process,
contralateral testicle, epididymis, deferent duct, prostate, spermogramme, were
found out to be related to the level of gonadotrophic and sex hormones in
pathogenesis of infertility developing in varicocele, cryptorchidism,
epididymitis, prostatitis, obstruction of the deferent duct, and action of low
frequency electromagnetic field. The findings obtained will, we believe, help in
diagnosing and prescribing the pathogenetically substantiated treatment.

PMID: 9377363 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

255: Dokl Akad Nauk. 1994 Jun;336(6):826-8.

[Effect of a low-energy pulse of EHF and SHF-radiation of nanosecond duration
with a high peak intensity on biological structures (malignant neoplasms)]

[Article in Russian]

Deviatkov ND, Pletnev SD, Chernov ZS, Faikin VV, Bernashevskii GA, Shchitkov KG.

PMID: 7951017 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

256: Probl Kosm Biol. 1982;43:148-66.

[Biological system reactions to adequate weak low-frequency electromagnetic

[Article in Russian]

Kislovskii LD.

Publication Types:

PMID: 7048296 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

257: Radiobiologiia. 1980 Jan-Feb;20(1):130-3.

[Radiation lesion of the lymph nodes of rats through the intratracheal uptake of

[Article in Russian]

Zhorno LIa.

PMID: 7360905 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

258: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Jan-Feb;39(1):79-83.

[Mechanism of radiobiological effects of low intensity nonionizing
electromagnetic radiation]

[Article in Russian]

Kudriashov IuB, Perov IuF, Golenitskaia IA.

Moscow State University, Department of Biology.

The results of the research of the biological effects of the non-ionizing
electromagnetic radiation were studied from the position of “thermal” and
“unthermal” mechanisms. The special attention was spared to analysing the
information characterising the high sensitiveness of the human and animals
organism to the very-low intensity electromagnetic fields.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10347601 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

259: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Mar-Jun;39(2-3):345-8.

[Possible modification of radiation injury using radio frequency electromagnetic

[Article in Russian]

Aminova EM, Ismailov ESh.

Daghestan State Polytechnic University, Makhach-Kala.

The possibility of radioprotective action of electromagnetic fields and
radiations in radiofrequency range have been considered. It has been shown that
the EMF and EMR effects depend on parameters of acting field. It is necessary to
establish biophysical and biochemical ways and mechanisms of EMF and EMR action
for effective use of radioemissions as radioprotectors.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10366968 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

260: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1997;(5):24-30.

[Features of the relationship of electromagnetic fields and biological objects
and their shielding]

[Article in Russian]

Miroshnikova TK.

PMID: 9235214 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

261: Biofizika. 1997 May-Jun;42(3):738-41.

[Molecular mechanisms of biological action of low magnetic fields. II.
Purification and characteristics of protein from rat brain chromatin which
inhibit DNAse 1 activity]

[Article in Russian]

Shvetsov IuP, Smirnova GN, Novikov VV, Tret’iak TM, Fesenko EE.

PMID: 9296636 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

262: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2000 Mar-Apr;40(2):149-53.

[On the mechanism of cytogenetic effect of electromagnetic radiation: a role of
oxidation homeostasis]

[Article in Russian]

Brezitskaia HV, Timchenko OI.

Ukrainian Scientific Centre of Hygiene, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kiev.

It was established in the experiments on rats that the changes in free radical
oxidation under the influence of non-ionizing radiation had a wavy character. It
was revealed that the changes in oxidation homeostasis preceded development of
cytogenetic effects and could be their reason.

PMID: 10819036 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

263: Acta Anat (Basel). 1992;145(4):302-6.

Influence of continuous electromagnetic fields on the stage, weight and stature
of the chick embryo.

Piera V, Rodriguez A, Cobos A, Torrente M, Cobos P.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Barcelona, Faculty of
Medicine, Reus, Tarragona, Spain.

The influence of continuous electromagnetic fields (0, 181 or 361 Gs/cm2) on the
development of chick embryo (n = 144) was studied. Several parameters were
determined at days 5, 10 and 15 of incubation: stage (following Hamburger and
Hamilton), vertex-coccyx length (size) and weight. At 5 days of incubation, all
embryos showed a similar stage. However, at days 10 and 15, the embryos exposed
to 181 Gs/cm2 showed a stage significantly superior to that of the others. There
were no differences between the exposed embryos and the control ones with regard
to weight and stature, except at 15 days when the embryos exposed to 361 Gs/cm2
showed greater weight and stature than those of the controls.

PMID: 10457769 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

264: Gig Sanit. 1999 May-Jun;(3):48-51.

[The current problems of electromagnetic safety in computer classes]

[Article in Russian]

Afanas’ev AI, Volodarskii VIa, Gumener PI, Kaisina OV, Litvak II, Nadezhina LG,
Shumkova TV.

He paper presents the data on the present-day situation in the computer classes
in general educational schools to show electromagnetic safety. It shows that
most of 37 classes do not satisfy the requirement of electromagnetic safety and
proposes modes of elimination of this danger.

PMID: 10394739 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

265: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1997 Sep-Oct;(5):3-7.

[The general patterns in the development of the ultrastructural reactions under
the action of electromagnetic radiations]

[Article in Russian]

Korolev IuN.

Original investigations of the author provided authors with information on
subcellular adaptive reactions in response to electromagnetic radiation.
Activation of hyperplastic processes represents the leading structural-adaptive
response of the body arising accelerated renewal of the ultrastructures. The
author characterizes adaptive hyperplasia of the ultrastructures. The author
characterizes adaptive hyperplasia emerging in bioenergetic and
protein-synthetizing organelles in the cells of different organs. It is
emphasized that high intensities provoke destructive processes.

PMID: 9446304 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

266: Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1995 Dec;81(12):115-20.

[The erythrocyte reaction of the moving blood in mammals to the action of
permanent and pulsed low-frequency electromagnetic fields]

[Article in Russian]

Ignat’ev VV, Kidalov VN, Samoilov VO, Subbota AG, Sukhovetskaia NB, Siasin RI.

PMID: 8754037 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

267: Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1999 Oct;36(5):337-40.

Effect of amplitude modulated RF radiation on calcium ion efflux and ODC
activity in chronically exposed rat brain.

Paulraj R, Behari J, Rao AR.

School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

The effect of exposing rats to amplitude modulated radiofrequency radiation (112
MHz modulated to 16 Hz) during development and growth has been examined. Wistar
rats (35 days old) when exposed at above frequency at the power level 1.0 mW/cm2
(SAR, 0.75 W/kg) for 35 days showed enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity
and Ca2+ efflux in brain indicating potential health hazards due to exposure.

PMID: 10844985 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

268: Prog Brain Res. 2000;122:105-15.

Neurobiological correlates of defensive behaviors.

Bakshi VP, Shelton SE, Kalin NH.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Wisconsin
Psychiatric Institute and Clinics 53719, USA.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10737053 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

269: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1984 May-Jun;34(3):537-46.

[Individual features of rat behavior: manifestations of anxiety]

[Article in Russian]

Khonicheva NM, Dmitrieva IL, Krushinskaia NL, Voronina TA.

Motor agitation developing in some white rats during painful stimulation of
other individual decreases under the action of phenasepam (the most effective
drug used in clinic in cases of neurotic alarm). This effect is accompanied by
strengthening of tendency to reside in closed space. After phenasepam injection,
increased not goal-directed motor activity developing against the background of
reduced alimentary reactions also decreases in a part of grey rats selected by
their ability to extrapolate, while their alimentary behaviour intensifies.
Thus, initial peculiarities of behaviour i.e. enhanced motor activity not
directed to fulfillment of the above forms of inborn behaviour (residing in
closed space and eating) may be considered as a manifestation of anxiety. In
this case, these forms of behaviour have a defensive function.

PMID: 6540937 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

270: Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova. 1980 Feb;66(2):263-7.

[Effect of radiowaves of nonthermal frequencies on the content of somatotropic
hormone in the rat adenohypophysis]

[Article in Russian]

Demokidova NK.

PMID: 7364125 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

271: Tsitologiia. 2000;42(1):92-5.

[Activity of the genome of cardiomyocytes as an indicator of the development of
adaptive changes in the myocardium following exposure of the central nervous
system to electromagnetic fields]

[Article in Russian]

Zubkova SM, Mikhailik LV, Varakina NI, Strukova EV, Bobkova AS.

Russian Scientific Centre of Rehabilitating Medicine and Health Resort Cure,

Methods of cardiomyocyte nuclei isolation from the myocard homogeneous mixture,
and of cardiomyocyte genome activity estimation were elaborated. In the
experiments with hyperlipoproteidemic rats, cardiomyocyte genome activity was
shown to reflect the primary adaptive changes in the myocard, and to serve a
reliable index of their influence on the CNS regulatory centres exposed to
electromagnetic field, which is used for hyperlipoproteidemia treatment. The
cardiomyocyte genome activity was used to distinguish between three types of
development of adaptive reactions in the myocard.

PMID: 10709259 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

272: Physiol Behav. 1974 Mar;12(3):393-8.

Immediate behavioral responses of an echinoderm to ionizing radiations.

Dedrick MC, Kimeldorf DJ.

PMID: 4856540 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

273: Health Phys. 1971 Apr;20(4):421-4.

Effects of 800-MHz electromagnetic radiation on body weight, activity,
hematopoiesis and life span in mice.

Spalding JF, Freyman RW, Holland LM.

PMID: 5569217 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

274: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2000;(5):32-5.

[The evaluation of the consequences of electromagnetic irradiation of hands in
operators of high-frequency welding devices]

[Article in Russian]

Rudakov ML.

Method of secondary sources (method of integral equations) was applied to
calculate specific absorbed intensity in hands of operators working at
non-shielded high-frequency (27.12 Mhz) welding devices. The authors present
calculations for “female” and “male” hand sizes, give recommendations on lower
level of specific absorption.

PMID: 10881543 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

275: Pol Tyg Lek. 1985 Nov 18-25;40(46-47):1304-7.

[Anxiety level and duration of the disease in patients with leukemia]

[Article in Polish]

Wrona-Polanska H.

PMID: 4094938 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

276: Psychol Rep. 1973 Dec;33(3):731-6.

Swim-tank measurement of radiation-induced behavioral incapacitation.

Casarett AP.

PMID: 4767829 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

277: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 2000 Jan;129(1):100-2.

[[Effects of fractions of the cerebrospinal fluid from patients with drug
addiction treated by liquor sorption on the behavior of rats-recipients]

[Article in Russian]

Pirumov PA, Ordian NE, Vasil’ev VIu, Shaliapina VG.

PMID: 10710642 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

278: Epidemiology. 2001 Jan;12(1):1-4.

Comment on:
Epidemiology. 2001 Jan;12(1):7-12.

Frequent radiation exposures and frequency-dependent effects: the eyes have it.

Inskip PD.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 11138802 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

279: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1996;(9):20-3.

[Hygienic regulation of electromagnetic radiation of 300-3000 MHz frequency

[Article in Russian]

Kol’chugin IuI.

The article contains analysis of national standards determining maximal
allowable levels of electromagnetic exposure in some developed countries. The
point of specific interest is the levels in frequency range of 300 MHz-30 GHz,
as this range is widely used in most apparatus for mobile communication.
Different in various countries, values of the maximal allowable levels appear to
be the most strict in Russia. Incomplete knowledge of long-standing exposure to
mild electromagnetic fields requires through medical and technical research to
determine limits of safe application of mobile communication devices.

PMID: 9019326 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

280: Bioelectromagnetics. 1984;5(1):31-8.

Offset of the vacuolar potential of Characean cells in response to
electromagnetic radiation over the range 250 Hz-250 kHz.

Montaigne K, Pickard WF.

Measurements were made of the small, transient offsets of vacuolar potential
produced in single cells of Nitella flexilis and Chara braunii by isolated
bursts of audio frequency electromagnetic radiation. The offsets increased in
magnitude with decreasing frequency of the electromagnetic radiation and, below
about 6 kHz, seemed to approach a low-frequency asymptote. This frequency
dependence for the offset is shown to be in accordance with a previously
developed model in which the incident radiation is weakly rectified by the
cell’s membrane system.

PMID: 6712748 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

281: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1981;15(3):26-8.

[Emotional reactions and cardiac rhythm slow waves]

[Article in Russian]

Karpov AN, Zinov’eva LA.

Simulation studies of various emotional reactions of operators have shown that
sthenic emotional reactions induce inhibition of slow waves of cardiac rhythm
(f=0.05 divided by 0.17 Hz,) whereas asthenic emotional reactions lead to
excitation of slow waves in the above frequency range.

PMID: 7289540 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

282: Dokl Akad Nauk. 1995 Oct;344(6):840-2.

[Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) as a behavioural modifier in rats, subjected to
low-background ionizing radiation]

[Article in Russian]

Semenova TP, Novoselova EG, Medvinskaia NI, Kuzin AM.

PMID: 8535282 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

283: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2000;(5):5-8.

[Changes of neurocytes in CNS under general exposure to UHF field with local
protection applied]

[Article in Russian]

Leshin VV.

Experiments on white rats were performed to study influence of UHF field on
cortical sensomotor area under general exposure or with the head shielded. The
changes in CNS caused by UHF field were not prevented completely by means of the
shield. That is probably due to pathologic reflex impulses from the body

PMID: 10881537 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

284: Med Hypotheses. 2000 May;54(5):685-8.

Biological effects of low-level environmental agents.

Kmecl P, Jerman I.

BION, Institute for Bioelectromagnetics and New Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

We compare three similar but different biological effects:
provocation-neutralisation treatment of non-antibody-mediated
hypersensitivities, hormesis and low-level effects in radiation biology. All
three have not yet been fully explained but share some common and interesting
properties: non-linear concentration dependence, typical stress pattern and
typical immune response. We try to make a generalisation of the three phenomena
in terms of the informational properties of the low concentrations, and imply
the possible common mechanism. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

PMID: 10859665 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

285: Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. 1997 Nov-Dec;(6):728-34.

[The destruction of microscopic organisms by their irradiation with a special
form of UHF electromagnetic signals]

[Article in Russian]

Antonov OE, Kozyreva EV, Svishcheva TIa, Goncharova NV.

Aviakonversiya Ltd., Moscow, Russia.

Electromagnetic signals of special form produced by an ultra-high frequency
generator were used to destroy various microorganisms: baker’s yeast; blue-green
alga Nostoc muscorum; mold fungus; and two flagellates, plant flagellate Euglena
gracilis and an animal flagellate parasitizing on humans. The control samples
before irradiation and experimental samples damaged and destroyed by irradiation
were examined on a microscope with a computer system of image analysis. The
results are presented as computer graph images.

PMID: 9518060 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

286: Vopr Onkol. 1999;45(3):287-91.

[Assessment of antineoplastic action of dehydrogenases in peripheral blood
lymphocytes in S-45 tumor-bearing rats exposed to weak ultra-low-frequency

[Article in Russian]

Shiikhliarova AI, Sheiko EA, Pil’ EA.

Research Institute of Oncology, Ministry of Health of the RF, Rostov-on-Don.

The aim of the investigation was to study the antitumor action of weak ultra
low-frequency magnetic field (ULFMF) and application of a spectrum of
dehydrogenases of peripheral blood lymphocytes as a sensitive indicator of such
action in tumor S45-bearing rats. It was shown that application of weak ULFMF
improves antitumor defenses and dehydrogenase activity tends to stay normal. The
dehydrogenase activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used to assess
immune system tension and synchronization of resistance processes.

PMID: 10443233 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

287: Wiad Lek. 1999;52(3-4):174-7.

[Anxiety as a anesthesiological problem]

[Article in Polish]

Chmielnicki Z.

Oddzialu Anestezjologii i Intensywnej Opieki Pooperacyjnej, Wojewodzkiego
Szpitala, Specjalistycznego w Tychach.

Fear is a feeling which always accompanies people. It is a compound phenomenon,
which has different components as psychologic, motor, somatic-vegetative and
metabolic. The operation and anesthesia increase the feeling of anxiety. The
dimension of the fear has the inconvenient influence on the time of recovery,
quantity of complications and the discomfort felt by patients. The dimension of
the fear can be measured in many ways. The questionnaires are one of the methods
of taking an objective measurement. The STAI is one of the most often used
between them. It enables the estimation of the efficacy of the preoperative
preparing methods and the dynamics of the fear during the hospitalization.
Monitoring of the anxiety can be very useful in the decreasing the fear.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10499029 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

288: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1999;(6):31-4.

[Occupational assessment of computer placement in school areas]

[Article in Russian]

Gel’tishcheva EA, Zhichkina GN, Serik NV, Khusainov TZh.

The study included measurements of electromagnetic radiation emitted by
MACINTOSH PC placed in public schools, functional state examination of
schoolchildren sitting in rows in front of PCs. Electromagnetic radiation
emitted by PCs appeared to harm higher nervous activity of the schoolchildren.
With consideration of the studies conducted the recommendation is not to set
workplaces in rows. The workplaces could be set perimetrically, with at least
1.0 m between the lateral borders of neighboring monitors. Angle-wise set
workplaces should stay at least 2.0 m apart.

PMID: 10420715 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

289: Radiat Res. 1974 Feb;57(2):288-99.

Damage of rat thyroid by 131I and evidence against immunologic transferability.

White SC, Casarett GW.

PMID: 10874943 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

290: Z Gesamte Hyg. 1981 Oct;27(10):753-5.

[The collagen structure in subacute radiation sickness in the albino rat]

[Article in German]

Drozdz M, Antoniewicz M, Kucharz E.

PMID: 7314704 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

291: Rev Esp Cardiol. 2000 Jun;53(6):881-2.

[Pacemakers, defibrillators, and electromagnetic environment: potential
interactions with electronic mechanisms of surveillance should not be cause of
anxiety for patients]

[Article in Spanish]

de Camargo Maranhao MF.

Publication Types:

PMID: 10944984 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

292: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Nov-Dec;39(6):707.

[The international conference on human protection from electromagnetic fields

[Article in Russian]

Grigor’ev IuG.

Publication Types:

PMID: 10689440 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

293: Behav Genet. 1997 Nov;27(6):499-501.

Comment on:
Behav Genet. 1997 Nov;27(6):503-12.

Modeling emotional reactivity and sensation/novelty seeking with the Roman/Verh
rat lines/strains: an introduction.

Fernandez-Teruel A, Escorihuela RM.

Department of Psychiatry, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine,
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

Publication Types:

PMID: 9476358 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

294: Bioelectromagnetics. 1997;18(7):527-8; discussion 529.

Comment on:
Bioelectromagnetics. 1996;17(4):312-21.

Comments on “Resonance effect of millimeter waves in the power range from
10(-19) to 3 X 10(-3) W/cm2 on Escherichia coli cells at different
concentrations,” Belyaev et al., Bioelectromagnetics, 17:312-321 (1996)

Osepchuk JM, Petersen RC.

Full Spectrum Consulting, Concord, Massachusetts 01742, USA.

Publication Types:

PMID: 9338635 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

295: Gig Sanit. 1997 Sep-Oct;(5):61-3.

[Calculation of the average density of radiofrequency radiation power in
biological objects]

[Article in Russian]

Rudakov ML.

PMID: 9378358 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

296: Anim Behav. 1967 Oct;15(4):563-7.

The relationship between sensory stimulation and gross motor behaviour during
the postnatal development in the rat.

Gard C, Hard E, Larsson K, Petersson VA.

PMID: 6055112 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

297: J Microw Power Electromagn Energy. 2000;35(3):179-84.

Complex high-frequency technology for protection of grain against pests.

Mishenko AA, Malinin OA, Rashkovan VM, Basteev AV, Bazyma LA, Mazalov YuP,
Kutovoy VA.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ukrainian Academy of
Agricultural Sciences.

The results of experimental investigation of physical methods are presented for
suppressing of biological activity of grain and grain product pests: harmful
insects at each developmental stage except eggs (Insecta), mites (Arachnida,
Acariformes) and microscopic fungi and bacteria. The technologies under
development for disinfestation and disinfection of grain are based on
irradiation of grain by modulated pulses of high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic
fields and on simultaneous action of a complex of factors: vacuum and HF-field
induced plasma. The threshold value of the electric field intensity for total
insect mortality was found to be E = 4.0-5.0 kV/cm in the pulse mode at the base
frequency of 47.5 MHz. When the combined technology is used, conditions are
created in the irradiation chamber for HF-discharge and plasma formation, which
are very strong factors influencing the biological organisms. These raise the
energy (and cost) efficiency (approximately $2-3 per tonne of grain) of the
combined technology for destruction of grain pests with complete environmental

PMID: 11098443 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

298: Q J Exp Psychol. 1970 May;22(2):205-14.

Effects of fear on exploratory behaviour in rats.

Kumar R.

PMID: 5431397 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

299: Verh Dtsch Ges Kreislaufforsch. 1966;32:46-57.

[Neural mechanisms in emotional behavior]

[Article in German]

Zanchetti A.

PMID: 6015213 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

300: Nunt Radiol. 1967;33:Suppl:545-54.

[Preliminary data on radiosensitivity as a function of dose in rats selected on
the basis of behavioral activity]

[Article in Italian]

Di Paola M.

PMID: 5617459 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

301: Med Hypotheses. 2000 Aug;55(2):160-3.

Human body frequency modulation by 0.9% sodium chloride solutions: a new
paradigm and perspective for human health.

Sudan BJ.

This case study demonstrates that the normal human body frequency, which can be
disturbed by electromagnetic influences of the environment, can be modulated by
0.9% sodium chloride solutions (physiological saline) and that occurrence of
allergic reactions have subsequently been suppressed as a result of this
modulation. The use of distilled water as control showed no effect on occurrence
of allergic reactions. Further observations on the growth of various plants in a
greenhouse exposed to various geomagnetic fields support the previous
observations on humans. The neutralization of electromagnetic influences on
humans using 0.9% sodium chloride solution or by enclosure of plants within a
copper wire Faraday cage resulting in a normal and uniform growth of plants as
compared with disturbed and irregular growth in unenclosed controls, is
demonstrated. These original observations propose a new strategy to suppress or
prevent allergic reactions and possibly other effects observed in various human
pathologies in relation to a disturbance of human body frequencies. It is
hypothesized that the double helix structure of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
could be modified by environmental electromagnetic fields and that disresonance
between the two chains of DNA could lead to the expression of specific
pathology. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

PMID: 10904434 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

302: Lik Sprava. 1999 Jun;(4):51-6.

[Low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in medicine: a factor in resonance
therapy or a nonspecific adaptogen?]

[Article in Russian]

Karpan’ VN.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10476642 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

303: Am Psychol. 2000 Mar;55(3):313-7.

Conditioned emotional reactions. 1920.

Watson JB, Rayner R.

Publication Types:
Classical Article

PMID: 10743250 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

304: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Jan-Feb;(1):14-6.

[Electromagnetic and mechanical vibrations in the therapy of myofascial pains]

[Article in Russian]

Miriutova NF, Levitskii EF, Abdulkina NG.

Low-frequency vibration effectively stimulates in a direct way or via reflexes
neuromuscular apparatus in patients with muscular-tonic manifestations of spinal
osteochondrosis. Long-term myofixation forms foci of denervation disorders as
painful muscular consolidations with active center the irritation of which gives
rise to phenomenon of reflected pain. In this case it is better to begin
treatment with optic red and infrared radiation on the reflexogenic zones and
muscular consolidations for reduction of trophic abnormalities. This creates
favourable conditions for subsequent vibrostimulation of affected nerves and

PMID: 11094873 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

305: Dokl Biophys. 2000 Jan-Jun;370-372:21-4.

Effect of high-power microwave radiation with nanosecond pulse duration on some
biological objects.

Bol’shakov MA, Bugaev SP, Goncharik AO, Gunin AV, Evdokimov EV, Klimov AI,
Korovin SD, Pegel IV, Rostov VV.

Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia.

PMID: 11029032 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

306: Biofizika. 2000 Jan-Feb;45(1):144-7.

[Electromagnetic information in the phenomenon of life]

[Article in Russian]

Kuzin AM.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow
Region, Russia.

The author’s original experiments and ideas have been summarized, which concern
the role of natural background radiation in maintenance of electromagnetic
information essential for existence of the living organism as an integral whole.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10732224 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

307: Behaviour. 1965;25(1):45-97.

An experimental study of conflict and fear: an analysis of behavior of young
chicks toward a mealworm. I. The behavior of chicks which do not eat the

Hogan JA.

PMID: 5824947 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

308: J Genet Psychol. 1969 Sep;115(1st Half):71-3.

A criticism of the study of McDowell and Merchent on fearfulness in control and
irradiated rats.

Smith H, Dimond SJ.

PMID: 5365004 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

309: J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1970 Aug;72(2):238-43.

Comparison between two methods of demonstrating relatedness of emotionality
variables in rats.

King DL.

PMID: 5489456 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

310: J Genet Psychol. 1969 Sep;115(1st Half):75-6.

A criticism of the study by McDowell and Merchent on fearfulness in control and
irradiated rats. A reply to the preceding criticism by Smith and Dimond.

McDowell AA, Stolmeier PV.

PMID: 5365005 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

311: Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1971;15(2):17-21.

[Effect of an industrial frequency electric field on motor dominant formation]

[Article in Russian]

Sazonova TE.

PMID: 5090847 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

312: Int J Biometeorol. 1973 Sep;17(3):277-84.

[Influence of negative atmospheric ions on adaptation to an anxiety situation in

[Article in French]

Olivereau JM.

PMID: 4756241 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

313: Biofizika. 2000 Sep-Oct;45(5):950-3.

[Chronobiological analysis of subarctic features of long-term dynamics of
biological processes]

[Article in Russian]

Kashulin PA, Roldugin VK.

Arctic-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute, Kola Research Center, Russian Academy
of Sciences, Kirovsk, Russia.

The analysis of a large number of chronobiological observations (heliospheric
modulations, cosmophysical factors, weak low-frequency electromagnetic
influences, etc.) allows us to make a conclusion about the possibility of direct
and indirect exogenous (relative to the biosphere) modulations of biological
processes in avroral and arctic zones. A nonequivalence of various seasons for
the performance of introduction experiments was established. It was shown that
the intensive fluctuations of environmental conditions are very important for
the survival of living forms introduced into subarctic regions.

PMID: 11094729 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

314: NITA. 1982 Nov-Dec;5(6):374.

Patient emotional response to intravenous therapy.

Brown EA.

PMID: 6924083 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

315: Nerv Sist. 1969;10:177-83.

[Registration of electromagnetic fields arising during the movements of insects,
birds and animals]

[Article in Russian]

Guliaev PI, Zabotin VI, Shlippenbakh NIa.

PMID: 5404169 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

316: Psychol Rep. 1965 Oct;17(2):595-602.

Behavioral effects of stimulation by UHF radio fields.

Eakin SK, Thompson WD.

PMID: 5833745 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

317: Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1996 Jun;57(6):576.

A missing factor?

Ely TS.

Publication Types:

PMID: 8651079 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

318: Anim Behav. 1967 Oct;15(4):574-85.

Changes in the behaviour of Lebistes reticulatus upon a repeated shadow

Russell EM.

PMID: 6055114 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

319: PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS. 1992 Feb 17;68(7):946-949.

Frequency upconversion of electromagnetic radiation upon transmission into an
ionization front.

Savage RL Jr, Joshi C, Mori WB.

PMID: 10046039 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]