Animal Behavior

by Joshua Parker on Jun 09, 2016


When reviewing the research bibliography below, keep in mind that the studies use a wide range of pulsed electromagnetic frequencies.

Therefore, It is VERY IMPORTANT to differentiate between effects of frequencies below 15 Hz (low Beta-rhythm brainwave state = FOCUSED – NO STRESS) and those above 15 Hz ( mid Beta-Rhythm brainwave state or higher) resulting in negative behavioral modification and stress chemical synthesis. You’ll see the pattern form as you read down the page.

Nearly every therapeutic PEMF system has all or most programs above the 15 Hz threshold which we feel is a huge mistake. Although PEMF studies show enhanced rates of healing at a wide range of frequencies, the “sweet” spot for physiological healing is 10 Hz, plain and simple as proven by the Eastern European researchers in the 1970’s and 1980’s. NASA/Goodwin confirmed in 2003. Further studies on the mitochondria find beneficial effects at 10 Hz as well while mitochondria subject to power frequency have less than robust survival rates when insulted by hypoxic shock (no oxygen). Based upon historical data, we believe it makes no sense whatsoever to use higher frequencies for ANY therapeutic purpose while limiting exposure to higher-frequency EMF from all sources.

1: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2000 Nov-Dec;40(6):693-5.

[Influence of electromagnetic fields on the emotional behaviour of rats]

[Article in Russian]

Semenova TP, Medvinskaia NI, Bliskovka GI, Akoev IG.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow
region, 142290 Russia.

The effects of ultra low power pulse-width + modulation electromagnetic
radiation (EMR, power density 10 mc/Wt/cm2, carrying frequency 915 MHz,
modulating pulses with frequency 4, 6, 16 and 20 Hz, duration 10 min) on the rat
emotional behavior and motor activity in the elevated plus-maze were studied. It
was established that EMR (frequency of modulation 4 and 6 Hz) significantly
decreased the emotionally negative reactions of anxiety and fear by a factor of
3.7 (p < 0.01) and 4.5 (p < 0.01) correspondingly and increased by a factor of 1.9-2.2 (p < 0.05) exploratory activity. On the contrary EMR (frequency of modulation 20 Hz) significantly increased by a factor of (p < 0.05) emotionally negative reactions of anxiety and fear and decreased by a factor of 1.8 (p < 0.05) the exploratory activity in rats. PMID: 11155339 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 1: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Jul-Aug;50(4):703-15.Links [Species specificity, age factors, and various neurochemical correlates of the animal spontaneous behavior after exposure to electromagnetic field of the ultralow intensity] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM. National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow, Russia. Behavioral and neurochemical reactions of small laboratory animals (mice and rats of different age) under exposure to ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) were studied. The EMF basically inhibited the locomotor and exploratory activity in the "open-field" test. The species- and age-specific features rather than radiation conditions dominated. However, decrease in the EMF frequency considerably intensified the observed effect. Change in animal behavior was accompanied by shifts in neurochemical processes, i.e., sharp activation of serotoninergic and inhibition of morepinephrinergic system. 1: Georgian Med News. 2006 Nov;(140):91-3.Links [Influence of the chronic exposure to network frequency electromagnetic field on rats under interrupted and continuous action of EMF] [Article in Russian] Tamasidze A G . The aim of the study was the investigation of chronic exposure to network frequency electromagnetic field in the rats under interrupted or continuous action of electric magnetic field. We were studying their behavior by the method of "open field". Comparison of behavior of rats in the "open field" has shown that the significant difference in the emotional activity of rats was stated. The number of boluses and urination in rats of B group is 4,5 times more than in the individuals of C group (p<0,001), but the significant difference between the rats of control A and B groups has not been stated. Although, the number of boluses in the rats of B group was a little raised, this raise was not statistically significant (p<0,5). The rats of control A and C groups significantly distinguished from one another. The number of boluses and urination in the animals of C group was significantly lower (p<0,001). In that way, the rats which were under the discontinuous action of electromagnetic field were distinguished by high emotionality, which occur by increase of boluses and urination, the high number grooming behavior and increase of the number of translocation, that influences the functioning of hypothalamohypophysial system. 1: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Jul-Aug;50(4):703-15.Links [Species specificity, age factors, and various neurochemical correlates of the animal spontaneous behavior after exposure to electromagnetic field of the ultralow intensity] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM. National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow, Russia. Behavioral and neurochemical reactions of small laboratory animals (mice and rats of different age) under exposure to ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) were studied. The EMF basically inhibited the locomotor and exploratory activity in the "open-field" test. The species- and age-specific features rather than radiation conditions dominated. However, decrease in the EMF frequency considerably intensified the observed effect. Change in animal behavior was accompanied by shifts in neurochemical processes, i.e., sharp activation of serotoninergic and inhibition of morepinephrinergic system. 2: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2000 Jul-Aug;40(4):429-32. 1: Georgian Med News. 2006 Nov;(140):91-3.Links [Influence of the chronic exposure to network frequency electromagnetic field on rats under interrupted and continuous action of EMF] [Article in Russian] Tamasidze A G . The aim of the study was the investigation of chronic exposure to network frequency electromagnetic field in the rats under interrupted or continuous action of electric magnetic field. We were studying their behavior by the method of "open field". Comparison of behavior of rats in the "open field" has shown that the significant difference in the emotional activity of rats was stated. The number of boluses and urination in rats of B group is 4,5 times more than in the individuals of C group (p<0,001), but the significant difference between the rats of control A and B groups has not been stated. Although, the number of boluses in the rats of B group was a little raised, this raise was not statistically significant (p<0,5). The rats of control A and C groups significantly distinguished from one another. The number of boluses and urination in the animals of C group was significantly lower (p<0,001). In that way, the rats which were under the discontinuous action of electromagnetic field were distinguished by high emotionality, which occur by increase of boluses and urination, the high number grooming behavior and increase of the number of translocation, that influences the functioning of hypothalamohypophysial system. [The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the monoamine oxidase A activity in the rat brain] [Article in Russian] Dolgacheva LP, Semenova TP, Abzhalelov BB, Akoev IG. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow oblast, Russia. The effect of the ultralow power pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (EMR, power density 10 microW/cm2; carrying frequency 915 MHz; modulating pulses with frequency 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 20 Hz) on activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO-A), enzyme involved in the oxidative deamination of monoamines, was investigated. It was established that the increase of activity MAO in hypothalamus reached the maximal meaning at modulation frequency of 6 Hz that corresponded 160% (p < 0.01) of the control level; and at modulation frequency of 20 Hz the decrease of enzyme activity up to 74% (p < 0.01) was found. Mainly the action of ultralow power pulse-modulated EMR on activity of MAO in hippocamp was activating; and the maximal increase of enzyme activity up to 174% (p < 0.01) was registered at modulation frequency of 4 Hz. PMID: 11031490 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 1: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Jul-Aug;50(4):703-15.Links [Species specificity, age factors, and various neurochemical correlates of the animal spontaneous behavior after exposure to electromagnetic field of the ultralow intensity] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM. National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow, Russia. Behavioral and neurochemical reactions of small laboratory animals (mice and rats of different age) under exposure to ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) were studied. The EMF basically inhibited the locomotor and exploratory activity in the "open-field" test. The species- and age-specific features rather than radiation conditions dominated. However, decrease in the EMF frequency considerably intensified the observed effect. Change in animal behavior was accompanied by shifts in neurochemical processes, i.e., sharp activation of serotoninergic and inhibition of morepinephrinergic system. 3: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1998 Nov-Dec;28(6):686-93. Action of modulated electromagnetic fields on the emotional component of the systems organization of behavioral acts in rats. Sudakov KV. P. K. Anokhin Science Research Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia. This article reviews experimental data providing evidence on the effects of modulated electromagnetic fields of 30-120 V/m with a carrier frequency of 30 MHz modulated sinusoidally at frequencies of 2-50 Hz on the emotional responses accompanying various stages in the systems organization of behavior in rats. The blocking effects of fields were demonstrated in self-stimulation models in different types of conditioned reflex behavior, as well as during extinction of conditioned reflex responses in individual conditions and emotional intercourse. It is suggested that modulated electromagnetic fields which have information effects on the body act on the information component of behavior, i.e., emotion. PMID: 9850964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 4: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 May-Jun;51(3):373-7. [Modulation by ultralow intensity electromagnetic fields on pharmacologic effects of psychotropic drugs] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS, Bazian AS, Shikhov SN, Cherniakov GM, Uzbekov MG. National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Research Institute of Psychiatry, Russian Ministry of Public Health, Moscow. The ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density of 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) potentiated the hypnogenic effect of hexenal. The exposure to the EMF shortened the time of falling asleep induced by this drug and increased sleep duration in rats. The exposure to the EMF also potentiated haloperidol catalepsy: it decreased the drug threshold dose and increased the catalepsy duration. The EMF influence on the haloperidol effects was of a prolonged character: it was manifest in a selected suppression of the emotional excitation in the open-field test within 24 hours after the exposure. PMID: 11550647 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 5: Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(4):287-97. Behavioral effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields in rats. Trzeciak HI, Grzesik J, Bortel M, Kuska R, Duda D, Michnik J, Malecki A. Department of Pharmacology, Silesian Academy of Medicine, Katowice, Poland. Male rats and pregnant and nonpregnant female rats of the Wistar strain were sham-exposed or exposed to static (0.49 T) or to extremely low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields (0.018 T) 2 h per day for 20 consecutive days. Measures of irritability, exploratory activity, and locomotion were made in that order before and after the 4th, 10th, and 17th 2-h exposures. A reliable decrease in the irritability of rats after repeated exposure to a static or undulating field was found. No significant effects of treatment conditions on open-field behavior and locomotor activity were observed. Pregnancy had no influence on the behavioral end points. These results indicate that irritability of rats may be used as a simple behavioral indicant of mammalian sensitivity to magnetic fields. PMID: 8216385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 6: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Sep-Oct;50(5):867-77. [The neurotropic effects of low-intensity electromagnetic waves in rats with different typological characteristics of higher nervous activity] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM. National Research Center, Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow. The effects of the ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) on the reactions of the central nervous system (CNS) of rats with different types of behavior were studied. Some neurochemical and behavioral mechanisms of rats' reactions were investigated. It was shown that the EMF produce pronounced changes in the state and activity of monoaminergic brain systems. These changes, on the whole, correspond to the alterations at the integrative level (predominantly, of the inhibitory character). PMID: 11085002 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 7: Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1997;31(5):70-5. [Combined effect of hypokinesia of various duration and gamma-radiation on central nervous system activity in rats] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS. State Research Center "Institute of Medical Biological Problems", RF. There studied the effects of a combined effect of hypokinesia (HK) of various duration (7 and 30 days, corresponding to the stages of anxiety and resistance of general adaptation syndrome) and gamma-radiation dose of 3 Gy on the formation of differentiated motor-drinking conditioned reflex (CR) in the rats. It is demonstrated that the applied exposures lead to the various disorders of the higher nervous activity of the test animals: after 7-day hypokinesia in the behaviour there prevail the fear and emotional-vegetative components whereas following 30-day hypokinetic exposure there occurs some stimulation of the orientation-exploratory behaviour with concurrent enhancement of the inertness of nervous processes and the tendency to formation of stringent behavioural stereotypes slowing-down the conditioned reflex formation. A modifying effect of radiation counts only after 30-day hypokinesia and consists in the development of extra-limited inhibition (reaction of acquired helplessness) in the part of animals. PMID: 9508401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 8: Folia Med (Plovdiv). 1999;41(3):75-80. Effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on behavioral activity of rats. Kemerov S, Marinkev M, Getova D. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Higher Medical Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The present study aimed at comparative assessment of the changes in behavioral activity of rats after exposing them to low intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the meter, decimeter and centimeter ranges. The experiments were carried out on 24 Wistar rats divided into 4 groups (1 control and 3 experimental), treated with different EMFs. The rats were irradiated on the head area at power density of 10 mW/cm2. Using a conventional shuttle box, the conditioned and non-conditioned responses and spontaneous motor activity of the rats were studied. The results suggest that exposure to EMFs in the three ranges can slow down the formation of conditioned responses--this was clearly marked in the rats exposed to meter EMFs, whereas the effects of centimeter EMFs were delayed in time. The behavioral effects were mild at athermal dosages and the animals adapted easily to exposure conditions. This study shows that determination of the effects of different EMFs should be done for each of the ranges separately; determination of the exact dosage of the electromagnetic fields can help to avoid their negative biological effects. PMID: 10658372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 9: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Jul-Aug;50(4):703-15. [Species specificity, age factors, and various neurochemical correlates of the animal spontaneous behavior after exposure to electromagnetic field of the ultralow intensity] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM. National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow, Russia. Behavioral and neurochemical reactions of small laboratory animals (mice and rats of different age) under exposure to ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) were studied. The EMF basically inhibited the locomotor and exploratory activity in the "open-field" test. The species- and age-specific features rather than radiation conditions dominated. However, decrease in the EMF frequency considerably intensified the observed effect. Change in animal behavior was accompanied by shifts in neurochemical processes, i.e., sharp activation of serotoninergic and inhibition of morepinephrinergic system. PMID: 10984915 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 10: Gig Sanit. 1987 Jul;(7):26-9. [Hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the 17-cm range based on research data on behavioral reactions] [Article in Russian] Dumanskii IuD, Zotov SV. PMID: 3666487 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 11: Radiobiologiia. 1990 May-Jun;30(3):395-9. [The effect of an SHF field on the dopamine-dependent behavior of rats] [Article in Russian] Andreeva LA, Konovalov VF. A study was made of the influence of SHF radiation (8 mW/cm2, carrier frequency 0.88 Hz, modulation frequency 16 Hz) on rotation of rats induced by apomorphine. A single exposure within an hour was shown to inhibit apomorphine-induced rotation by 21%. Daily one-hour exposure within 5 days caused a more pronounced inhibition of test-response. Different individual sensitivity to SHF radiation was noted. PMID: 2371398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 12: Bioelectromagnetics. 1999 Sep;20(6):378-86. Influence of combined DC and AC magnetic fields on rat behavior. Zhadin MN, Deryugina ON, Pisachenko TM. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Moscow Region, Russia. The action of combined parallel static (DC) and alternating (AC) magnetic fields at the cyclotron frequencies for different biologically active ions, specifically, calcium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium and lithium, on rat behavior in the "open field" were investigated. It was shown that the DC and AC fields at the calcium cyclotron frequency lower the locomotor and exploratory activity of the rats, whereas action of the fields at the magnesium cyclotron frequency enhances these forms of behavioral activity. The effects were qualitatively alike at the weak (50 microT) and relatively strong (500 microT) DC fields with proportional changes in the frequencies and amplitudes of the AC fields. Statistically significant effects of cyclotron frequencies for other ions studied were not observed. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 10453066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 13: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1993 Nov-Dec;33(6):783-9. [Radiation-induced changes of circadian dynamics in the behavioral reactions of rats in the "open field"] [Article in Russian] Davydova OE. The interaction of daily motor activity rythm within daily changes of early transient neurological disorders (ENTD) symptoms has been evaluated. The highest frequency of five ENTD symptoms was mainly observed in that daily periods when behavior reactions were minimal. A difference was distinguished in circadian radiosensitivity of some behavior reactions in "open field" (gamma-irradiation 60Co, 62.5 Gy). The most radiosensitive ENTD symptoms were "vertical set", "immobility" and "motion on the spot", characterized emotional state and orienting-locomotor animal reactions. Certain changes of orto- and paraphases of these behavior reactions biorythms due to irradiation have been revealed. PMID: 8293103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 14: Radiat Res. 1995 Jul;143(1):93-7. Lack of behavioral effects in non-human primates after exposure to ultrawideband electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range. Sherry CJ, Blick DW, Walters TJ, Brown GC, Murphy MR. Systems Research Laboratories, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas 78235, USA. The effect of acute exposure to ultrawideband (UWB) electromagnetic radiation on the Primate Equilibrium Platform (PEP) task, where the monkey's task is to manipulate a joystick control to compensate for the random perturbations in the pitch plane that are generated by a computer at unpredictable intervals, was examined. The duration of the UWB exposure was 2 min at a pulse repetition rate of 60 Hz (total of 7200 pulses). The bandwidth of the pulse was 100 MHz to 1.5 GHz (peak power between 250-500 MHz) with a peak E-field strength of 250 kV/m. Each monkey was exposed twice. The interval between exposures was 6 days. The exposure to UWB electromagnetic radiation had no effect on PEP performance when tested immediately after exposure. PMID: 7597150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 15: Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1995 Apr;81(4):21-31. [The physiological mechanisms of the regulation of zoosocial behavior in rats exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Sidiakin VG, Stashkov AM, Ianova NP, Chemodanova MA, Shumilina KA, Kirillova AV. The infraslow frequency electromagnetic fields were shown to affect social activity in rats: the changes induced by territorial priority and isolation were eliminated, an interaction between the motor activity and the social status appeared. The monoaminergic system of the rat brain seems to take part in physiological mechanisms of regulation of the zoosocial behaviour according to changes in ambient conditions. PMID: 7581573 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 16: Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1995 Nov;210(2):171-9. Effects of prenatal ultrasound exposure on adult offspring behavior in the Wistar rat. Jensh RP, Lewin PA, Poczobutt MT, Goldberg BB, Oler J, Goldman M, Brent RL. Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA. An ultrasound exposure tank was specifically designed for experimental bioeffects studies. Thirty-six pregnant rats were anesthetized, immersed to the axilla in a water tank, and exposed on Day 15, 17, and 19 of gestation. Twelve rats were exposed to 5.0 MHz pulsed ultrasound of effective pulse duration equal to approximately 0.170 microseconds, pulse repetition rate (PRF) 1 kHz, and a spatial peak, temporal peak intensity (lsptp) of 500 W/cm2, representing a clinically appropriate exposure level. The spatial peak pulse average (lsppa), spatial peak temporal average (lspta), and instantaneous maximum (lm) intensities were determined to be 100 W/cm2, 24 mW/cm2, and 230 W/cm2, respectively. The maximum rarefraction pressure, pr, was measured as 12.5 x 10(5) Pa, and the total power was 2.5 mW. Twelve other rats were exposed to 1500 W/cm2, lsptp, and 12 were sham insonified. Since the focal area was about 0.05 cm2, computer controlled stepper motors moved the rats through the ultrasound field to ensure uniform exposure of the abdominal/pelvic region. Total exposure time was 35 min. A miniature thermocouple was implanted in a few rats to verify that no significant temperature increase took place due to exposure. A total of 278 offspring were maintained until postnatal Day 60 when they were subjected to two of four behavioral tests in random order within sexes. The results indicate no consistently observed dose-related alterations in adult behavior due to prenatal fetal exposure to 5.0 MHz ultrasound below an intensity (lsptp) of 1500 W/cm2. PMID: 7568288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 17: Biofizika. 2002 Jan-Feb;47(1):71-7. [Suppression of nonspecific resistance of the body under the effect of extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity] [Article in Russian] Kolomytseva MP, Gapeev AB, Sadovnikov VB, Chemeris NK. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 Russia. The dynamics of leukocyte number and functional activity of peripheral blood neutrophils under whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity extremely-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0 GHz, 0.15 mW/cm2, 20 min daily) was studied. It was shown that the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils was suppressed by about 50% (p < 0.01 as compared with the sham-exposed control) in 2-3 h after the single exposure to EHF EMR. The effect persisted for 1 day after the exposure, and then the phagocytic activity of neutrophils returned to the norm within 3 days. A significant modification of the leukocyte blood profile in mice exposed to EHF EMR for 5 days was observed after the cessation of exposures: the number of leukocytes increased by 44% (p < 0.05 as compared with sham-exposed animals), mostly due to an increase in the lymphocyte content. The supposition was made that EHF EMR effects can be mediated via the metabolic systems of arachidonic acid and the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity, with subsequent increase in the intracellular cAMP level. The results indicated that the whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity EHF EMR has a profound effect on the indices of nonspecific immunity. PMID: 11855293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 18: Vrach Delo. 1991 Mar;(3):49-51. [The biological activity of a decameter-range electromagnetic field with a frequency of 24 MHz] [Article in Russian] Bezdol'naia IS, Dumanskii IuD, Smolia AL. A study of behavioural reactions indicates that the effect of 24 MHz frequencies of the electromagnetic field results in changes of the ratio of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the nervous system of white rats with prevalence of inhibitory processes. By the 90-th day of effect of the above factor all changes returned to the initial level. This indicates stability of the adaptative reactions of the integrative level of the nervous system to the acting factor. PMID: 2042349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 19: Gig Sanit. 1991 May;(5):28-30. [Late sequelae of the effect of electromagnetic field on animals] [Article in Russian] Gromyko NM, Krivodaeva OL, Zemskova VV. Simple and complex forms of behaviour, gas composition and acid-alkaline blood status in rats following exposure to the electro-static field (ESF) and iraionization, as well as in their offspring were studied. It has been found out, that ESF combined with the negative polarity air ionization damage motor and sex activity, conditioned-reflectory activity, changes blood indices. The observed disturbances in the organism of parent animals influenced fetus development. PMID: 1916334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 20: Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1979 Jan-Feb;51(1):14-7. [Effect of high frequency electromagnetic fields on the processes of transamination in the liver and small intestine tissues of rats] [Article in Russian] Faitel-berg-Blank VR, Lekhan IG. The influence of electromagnetic waves of metrical and centimetrical range on the transaminoferases activity was studied in the liver and small intestine of 69 rats. The experiment shows that the activity of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases is dependent on the power and duration of the action. It is established that the action of both the short-wave 160 mA diathermy and 30 MW/cm2 microwaves for 20 min is accompanied by inhibition of the liver and small intestine aminotransferases activity. The 20 min action of 12 MW/cm2 microwaves induces an increase in the aminotransferases activity of the liver, small intestine and serum. PMID: 425131 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 21: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999 Dec;64(4):731-8. Factor analysis shows that female rat behaviour is characterized primarily by activity, male rats are driven by sex and anxiety. Fernandes C, Gonzalez MI, Wilson CA, File SE. Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Neuroscience Research Centre, GKT School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College London, Guy's Campus, UK. This experiment explored sex differences in behaviour using factor analysis to describe the relationship between different behavioral variables. A principal component solution with an orthogonal rotation of the factor matrix was used, ensuring that the extracted factors are independent of one another, and thus reflect separate processes. In the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety, in male rats factor 1 accounted for 75% of the variance and reflected anxiety, factor 2 represented activity, and accounted for 24% of the variance. This contrasted with the finding in female rats in which factor 1 was activity, accounting for 57% of the variance, with the anxiety factor accounting for only 34% of the variance. When behaviour in both the plus-maze and holeboard were analysed, a similar sex difference was found with anxiety emerging as factor 1 in males and holeboard activity as factor 1 in females. Locomotor activity in the inner portion of the holeboard loaded on the anxiety factor for males, but on activity for females. When behaviours in the plus-maze and sexual orientation tests were analysed, anxiety emerged as factor 1 in males, sexual preferences factor 2, and activity factor 3. In females, activity was factor 1, sexual preference factor 2, anxiety factor 3, and social interest factor 4. These results suggest caution should be exercised in interpreting the results from female rats in tests validated on males because the primary controlling factor may be different. PMID: 10593196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 22: Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1997 Sep;83(9):12-21. [The action of a modulated electromagnetic field on the emotional component of the systemic organization of behavioral acts in rats] [Article in Russian] Sudakov KV. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Acad. Med. Sci., Moscow, Russia. Experimental findings are reviewed in respect to the effect of modulated electromagnetic field (MEMF) upon emotional responses of rats accompanying various phases of systemic organisation of their behaviour. Blocking effects of the MEMF are shown in simulated self-stimulation and various conditioned types of behaviour in rats. In author's opinion, the MEMF affect the informative component of behaviour: emotions. PMID: 9487063 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 23: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2003 Jan-Feb;43(1):75-81. [Effects of microwave radiation on conditioned behavior of rats] [Article in Russian] Zhavoronkov LP, Kolganova OI, Dubovik BV, Matrenina VL, Posadskaia VM. Medical Radiological Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk, 249036 Russia. Research has been carried out to investigate the effects of microwave exposure (7 GHz, surface energy density 10-50 mW/cm2, SAR 2.1-10.5 W/kg) on learned behaviors of rats in the paradigm of conditioned avoidance reflex. It was shown that transitory reductions in conditioned behavior after acute microwave exposure occurred at an SAR equal to the intensity of rat basal metabolism. It was found cumulative effects for intermittent exposures of rats at a power density of 10 mW/cm2. PMID: 12677663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 24: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Jan-Feb;41(1):62-6. [Effect of low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation on activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood serum] [Article in Russian] Pashovkina MS, Akoev IG. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142292 Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142292 Russia. The change in alkaline phosphotase activity in vitro with frequencies modulation at low intensity of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation was experimentally shown (EMR, 2375 MHz, intensity: 0.8, 8.0; 40.0 microW/cm2; range modulation: 30-310 Hz; time of interaction: 1-3 min). Revealed effects could be regarded as an evidence of informative character of interaction of modulated EMR. PMID: 11253703 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 25: Brain Res Bull. 2002 Jan 1;57(1):17-26. Learned fear, emotional reactivity and fear of heights: a factor analytic map from a large F(2) intercross of Roman rat strains. Aguilar R, Gil L, Flint J, Gray JA, Dawson GR, Driscoll P, Gimenez-Llort L, Escorihuela RM, Fernandez-Teruel A, Tobena A. Medical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Anxiety-related behaviours were evaluated across various tests in a 800 F(2)-intercross of the Roman high- and low-avoidance inbred rats. These tests either evoke unlearned (open field [OF]; plus-maze [PM]; hole-board [HB]; spontaneous activity [A]; and acoustic startle reflex [ASR]) or learned (classical fear conditioning [CFC]; and shuttlebox avoidance conditioning [SAC]), anxious/fearful responses. Using factor analysis (oblique rotation), we obtained a six-fold solution with 14 variables derived from all tests. These six factors represented SAC, CFC, PM anxiety, PM and OF activity, ASR anxiety, plus a mixed whole of anxious and activity variables (from OF and A), respectively. In searching for a smaller number of meaningful factors, we applied a three-factor solution that coherently corresponded with differentiated facets of fearfulness, rather than with the tests. Results showed that (1) measures of SAC and CFC strongly loaded onto Factor 1, labelled as "Learned Fear"; (2) a blend of almost all variables loaded onto Factor 2, called "Emotional Reactivity"; and (3) open arm behaviour in the PM loaded onto Factor 3, called "Fear of Heights." After discussing limitations of this apparently consistent behavioural map of anxiety, we advance some connections between those factors with quantitative trait loci candidates (genetic markers) as detected in the same sample. PMID: 11827733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 26: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1995 Jan;29(1):41-3. [Effects of pregnant exposure to electromagnetic field emitted by electric blankets on brain catecholamine and behavior in offspring mice] [Article in Chinese] Yao G, Fu Y, Lu D. Microwave Laboratory, Zhejiang Medical University, Hangzhou. NIH pregnant mice were exposed to electromagnetic field emitted by electric blankets with 1-1.2kV/m and 0.2-0.4microT for five hours daily during their whole gestational period. Catecholamine (CA) content in the hypothalamus of their newborn offsprings was quantitatively measured with histochemical methods, and their varied behavioral activities were determined with behavioral toxicological methods. Results showed catecholamine content in exposed offsprings decreased significantly not only seven days but also 40 days after delivery as compared with the controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). PMID: 7600890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 27: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002 Mar-Apr;42(2):186-90. [Dependence of microwave effect on the secondary structure of DNA on molecular weight of polynucleotide] [Article in Russian] Semin IuA, Shvartsburg LK, Zhavoronkov LP. Medical Radiological Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Obninsk, 249036 Russia. The effect of ultralow power pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (average power density 60 microW/cm2, carrying frequency 1.05; 2.12; or 2.39 GHz; modulating pulses with frequency 4 Hz) on the secondary structure of DNA was investigated. It was established that the exposure of beta-alanine and formaldehyde containing aqueous DNA solution to electromagnetic radiation had activated the process of DNA despiralization under the action of beta-alanine--formaldehyde reaction product. The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the secondary structure of DNA can be removed by lowering of molecular weight of DNA to 0.46 x 10(6) (at carrying frequency 1.05 GHz), or to 0.25 x 10(3) (at carrying frequency 2.39 GHz). PMID: 12004616 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 28: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2001 Sep-Oct;31(5):547-53. Some neurotropic effects of low-intensity electromagnetic waves in rats with different typological characteristics of higher nervous activity. Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazyan AS, Chernyakov GM. Institute of Medical-Biological Problems, State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Moscow. The effects of low-intensity electromagnetic waves (4200 MHz, modulated with quasichaotic signals at 20-20,000 Hz, energy density 15 microW/cm2; specific energy absorption not greater than 15 mJ/kg) on the neurochemical systems of the brain and on behavioral reactions were studied in experimental animals with different typological characteristics of higher nervous activity. These studies showed that electromagnetic waves produced marked changes in the state and activity of the monoaminergic mediator systems which were in general terms concordant with changes at the integrative level (mostly selective inhibitory effects). The nature of these processes depended to a significant extent on the typological characteristics of the animals. PMID: 11693480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 29: Mutat Res. 1998 Apr;410(2):185-220. Animal and cellular studies on carcinogenic effects of low frequency (50/60-Hz) magnetic fields. Loscher W, Liburdy RP. Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 9637236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 30: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1989 Jan-Feb;23(1):45-7. [Effect of a hypogeomagnetic field on warm-blooded animals] [Article in Russian] Levina RV, Smirnov RV, Olimpienko TS. This paper presents the study of the effect of a 3-month exposure of adult male rats of the Wistar strain to the hypogeomagnetic field (the shielding factor = 172.5) on their behavior, learning ability, cardiovascular function and work capacity. It was found that the exposure led to a significant decrease of work capacity, endurance and behavioral activity as well as to a significant increase of heart rate and time of conditioned reflex development. The above changes remained within physiological limits due to which they can be viewed as adaptation variations. PMID: 2709751 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 31: Life Sci. 2003 Apr 18;72(22):2489-98. Combined effects of complex magnetic fields and agmatine for contextual fear learning deficits in rats. McKay BE, Persinger MA. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Laurentian University, Ontario, P3E 2C6, Sudbury, Canada. Acute post-training exposures to weak intensity theta-burst stimulation (TBS) patterned complex magnetic fields attenuated the magnitude of conditioned fear learning for contextual stimuli. A similar learning impairment was evoked in a linear and dose-dependent manner by pre-conditioning injections of the polyamine agmatine. The present study examined the hypothesis that whole-body applications of the TBS complex magnetic field pattern when co-administered with systemic agmatine treatment may combine to evoke impairments in contextual fear learning. Within minutes of 4 mg/kg agmatine injections, male Wistar rats were fear conditioned to contextual stimuli and immediately exposed for 30 min to the TBS patterned complex magnetic field or to sham conditions. TBS patterned complex magnetic field treatment was found to linearly summate with the contextual fear learning impairment evoked by agmatine treatment alone. Furthermore, we report for sham-treated rats, but not rats exposed to the synthetic magnetic field pattern, that the magnitude of learned fear decreased and the amount of variability in learning increased, as the K-index (a measure of change in intensity of the time-varying ambient geomagnetic field) increased during the 3-hr intervals over which conditioning and testing sessions were conducted. PMID: 12650857 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 32: Behav Pharmacol. 1999 Mar;10(2):131-7. Effects of GABA-transporter (GAT) inhibitors on rat behaviour in open-field and elevated plus-maze. Schmitt U, Hiemke C. Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Germany. The behavioural consequences of inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake were studied. Two GABA uptake inhibitors, tiagabine and SKF 89976-A, were administered to rats, and behaviour was analysed 30 min later in a standard open field, an enriched open field, and an elevated plus-maze. Eight groups of animals received either saline (0.9%), tiagabine, or SKF 89976-A. At a dose of 18.5 mg/kg, tiagabine, an established antiseizure drug, impaired motor coordination, enhanced exploratory activity and reduced anxiety related behaviour. SKF 89976-A exhibited minimal effects over the dose range tested. These results indicate that inhibition of GABA uptake might be a pharmacological strategy to treat not only epilepsy, but also anxiety disorders. PMID: 10780826 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 33: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Jul-Aug;41(4):403-7. [Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency on the ultrastructure and proliferative activity of rat's thymus cells] [Article in Russian] Zhitkevich TI, Bokut' TB, Netukova NI. Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk, 220072 Belarus. Effects of two types of low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) of industrial frequency (50 Hz) on the fine structure and proliferative activity of thymic cells in white rats were studied. It was found that a weak EMF with a prevailing electrical component (380-480 V/m, 120-140 nT1) did not affect the DNA synthesis intensity. An EMF with a stronger magnetic induction (10-15 V/m, 800-1500 nT1) diminished the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and proliferative processes in cultured stimulated lymphocytes. Electron microscopic investigation of the thymus after both types of exposure revealed an accumulation of lymphocytes with pyknotic nuclei and electron-dense cytoplasm, as well as hypoplasia of the vascular endothelium. At the same time, EMF with a prevailing magnetic component produced a more marked negative effect on the ultrastructure of thymic cells, which indicated a lowered secretory activity of epitheliocytes. PMID: 11605242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 34: Behav Brain Res. 2002 Jul 18;133(2):323-32. Emotional changes related to age in rats--a behavioral analysis. Boguszewski P, Zagrodzka J. Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, 3 Pasteur St., 02-093, Warsaw, Poland. The present study investigated age-related differences in the emotional behavior of rats using factor analysis to identify motivational factors influencing spontaneous behavior in open field with illuminated center (OF), plus maze (EPM) and social interactions test. Animals of the same strain, bred under the same conditions, formed two experimental groups: young adults (YA, N=20) tested at the age of 4 months and old rats (OA, N=16) tested at the age of 24 months. The computer video based tracking system EthoVision was used for automated acquisition and analysis of data. The results of each test were analyzed separately for YA and OA by factor analysis. Two main independent factors emerged from the analysis of OF measures-factor 1, which appeared to reflect motor activity, and factor 2, reflecting anxiety. The measures best reflecting motor activity (distance moved in the peripheral zone) and anxiety (time spent in central zone) decreased significantly with age. Factor analysis for EPM measures revealed, in both groups, three independent factors. In YA, factor 1 reflected motor activity, factor 2-anxiety, in OA measures of anxiety loaded on factor 1, measures of activity on factor 2. Factor 3 in both groups appeared to represent a decision making process. The number of entries to the closed arms declined significantly in OA, showing an age related decrease of motor activity. Also, the ratio of open arms entries in relation to the total number of entries decreased in OA, indicating a higher anxiety level. Three independent factors emerged from the analysis of social interaction measures. The pattern of factor loading was different in young and old animals, although the number and time of social interactions did not show age-related differences. In addition to a decrease of motor activity we conclude that old rats also differ from young animals in emotional and social behavior. PMID: 12110466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 35: Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Jun;66(6):562-7. No detectable bioeffects following acute exposure to high peak power ultra-wide band electromagnetic radiation in rats. Walters TJ, Mason PA, Sherry CJ, Steffen C, Merritt JH. Systems Research Laboratories, Inc., Brooks AFB, TX 78235, USA. A wide range assessment of the possible bioeffects of an acute exposure to high peak power ultra-wide band (UWB) electromagnetic radiation was performed in rats. The UWB-exposure consisted of 2 min of pulsed (frequency: 60 Hz, pulse width: 5-10 ns) UWB (bandwidth: 0.25-2.50 GHz) electromagnetic radiation. Rats were examined using one of the following: 1) a functional observational battery (FOB); 2) a swimming performance test; 3) a complete panel of blood chemistries; or 4) determination of the expression of the c-fos protein in immunohistologically-stained sections of the brain. No significant differences were found between UWB- or sham-exposed rats on any of the measured parameters. PMID: 7646407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 36: Lab Anim. 1995 Oct;29(4):380-4. Effects of gentling on open-field behaviour of Wistar rats in fear-evoking test situation. Hirsjarvi P, Valiaho T. University of Kuopio, Department of Applied Zoology, Finland. The effect of individual gentling on open-field behaviour of adult male Wistar rats was studied. Dark open-field evoked prey-like behaviour both in the gentled and in the nonhandled rats. Escape activity dominated in both groups although some habituation as a function of trials occurred. The effects of gentling were mainly seen in the quality of the fear-reaction as a result of reduced fear of human contact. Parameters that differentiated the 2 groups were middle field ambulation, middle field rearing and passive motionlessness. PMID: 8558819 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 37: Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1993 Apr;54(4):186-96. Biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields: in vivo studies. Anderson LE. Bioelectromagnetics, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352. This paper discusses the biological effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields observed in animal studies. Three areas of investigation are reported: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function; (2) experiments on cancer development in animals; and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. An attempt is made to evaluate experimental results and interpret them with respect to potential health implications. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 8480634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 38: Sci Total Environ. 1996 Feb 2;180(1):35-42. Experimental study of the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on animals with soft tissue wounds. Detlavs I, Dombrovska L, Turauska A, Shkirmante B, Slutskii L. Latvian Medical Academy, National Hospital of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Riga. The effect of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) was studied on Wistar rats with excised full-thickness dermal wounds in the interscapular region. The wounded regions of experimental animals were subjected to EMF for 30 min daily during the first 5 days after wound infliction. Control animals received no treatment. We used RF EMF with (1) frequency 53.53 GHz without modulation; (2) frequency 42.19 GHz without modulation; (3) frequency 42.19 GHz, but with a frequency modulation band 200-MHz wide. On the 7th day the animals were terminated and the granulation-fibrous tissue (GFT) developed in the wounds was subjected to complex quantitative biochemical analysis. RF EMF without frequency modulation decreased the amounts of glycoprotein macromolecules, diminishing the inflammatory exudation. In striking contrast, under the influence of RF EMF with frequency modulation, hexoses and especially sialic acid concentrations were significantly elevated (P < 0.001). This indicated intensification of exudative phenomena. As a consequence of inflammation inhibition in the treatment without frequency modulation, the total collagen accumulation was lowered. However, when frequency was modulated, the inflammatory phenomena were intensified, and pronounced accumulation of collagenous proteins was noted. Thus, our experiments confirm the effects of non-thermal EMF on the reparative-proliferative processes of animals with soft tissue wounds. PMID: 8717318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 39: Behav Neurosci. 2001 Apr;115(2):429-36. Dimensions of emotionality in a rat model of innate anxiety. Ohl F, Toschi N, Wigger A, Henniger MS, Landgraf R. Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany. Emotionality is thought to be multidimensional, with "anxiety" representing one dimension. Dissecting emotional dimensions in animal models is an essential prerequisite for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie anxiety. The authors used factor analysis to investigate emotional dimensions in normal rats and rats bred for either high or low anxiety-related behavior. Hyperanxious rats were reduced in emotional dimensions in the elevated plus-maze by selection pressure, and a modified hole board test revealed a dissection of their emotionality with precisely defined dimensions. This enabled clear differentiation of "anxiety" from other emotional dimensions including risk assessment behavior and exploration. Factors extracted by analyzing data from a multiple-test battery corresponded to particular test characteristics rather than to emotional dimensions. The approach used might help to develop specific treatment strategies for anxiety disorders. PMID: 11345967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 40: Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1999 Oct;36(5):348-51. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on health. Jain SC, Tyagi K. Centre for Environment & Explosive Safety, Metcalfe House, Delhi. This paper gives a brief review of the physical interaction and bio-effects of exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) along with guidelines on limits of exposure to 50/60 Hz electric and magnetic fields. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10844987 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 41: Environ Health Perspect. 1979 Jun;30:115-21. Study of nonionizing microwave radiation effects upon the central nervous system and behavior reactions. Shandala MG, Dumanskii UD, Rudnev MI, Ershova LK, Los IP. The biologic effect of an electromagnetic field of a frequency of 2375 +/- 50 MHz was studied in rats and rabbits in specially constructed absorbant chambers. The results of the investigations have shown that microwave radiation of 10, 50, 500 mu W/cm2 for 30 days, 7 hr/day, causes a number of changes in bioelectric brain activity and also in behavioral immunological, and cytochemical reactions. It was found that levels of 10 and 50 mu W/cm2 stimulate the electric brain activity at the initial stage of irradiation, while a level of 500 mu W/cm2 causes its suppression, as seen from the increase of slow, high amplitude delta-waves. At 500 mu W/cm2 a decrease in capacity of work, in value of unconditioned feeding stimulus, in investigating activity, electronic irradiation threshold, and in inhibition of cellular and humoral immunity were also observed. PMID: 446442 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 42: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Sep-Oct;50(5):878-83. [The dynamics of the manifestation of behavioral audiogenic seizure activity in rats under the action of a modulated and a nonmodulated electromagnetic field] [Article in Russian] Konovalov VF, Serikov IS. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino. It was shown that the electromagnetic field of low intensity modifies the evoked epileptiform seizure activity in rats. Cumulative effect of the electromagnetic field persisted over the course of 6 months. It was suggested that inhibition of the increased motor activity under exposure to electromagnetic field is caused by the involvement of dopaminergic brain systems and development of the resonance effects in cortico-subcortical brain structures under the influence of modulated electromagnetic fields. PMID: 11085003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 43: Lik Sprava. 1995 Jul-Aug;(7-8):37-9. [The cytogenetic action of electromagnetic fields in the short-wave range] [Article in Russian] Timchenko OI, Ianchevskaia NV. Electromagnetic field (EMF) at a frequency of 24 or 14 MEGC and intensity of 400 or 200 V/m, increases numbers of hepatocytes from rats with chromosomal aberrations 1.4-1.5-fold. The magnitude of the response does not appear to change with the increase in the field intensity EMF at the above frequencies and intensity of 100 V/m does not cause any cytogenetic effects. No such effects were notable with EMF-frequency of 4 MEGC. PMID: 8846369 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 44: IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2002 Jan-Feb;21(1):90-1. EMF cancer scares: epidemiology versus body power. Deutsch S. PMID: 11935994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 45: Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1994 Jun;80(6):50-62. [Intersystemic functional integration under the action on the body of electromagnetic factors] [Article in Russian] Vediaev FP, Samokhvalov VG. Frequency zones of the brain electrical activity, heart rate and respiration were studied through certain parameters characterised by individual asymmetry and low but stable intersystemic integration. Chronic electromagnetic irradiation reduced a resistance against an emotional stress as manifested in a "decay" of individual spatial-temporal infrastructure of informational parameters of the EEG, heart rate and respiration. PMID: 7531066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 46: Peptides. 2001 Jul;22(7):1031-6. Comparison of neurokinin SP with diazepam in effects on memory and fear parameters in the elevated T-maze free exploration paradigm. Echeverry MB, Hasenohrl RU, Huston JP, Tomaz C. Laboratory of Psychobiology, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. The elevated T-maze was combined with a free exploration protocol, which, in contrast to the conventional procedure, dispenses with handling of the animals during the experimental sessions. This allows measurement of fear indexes derived from the elevated plus-maze as well as assessment of acquisition of open arm avoidance and open arm escape in one continuous session. Retention of the different fear-responses is measured 72 h later without drug treatment. In order to assess the effects of two known anxiolytics in this paradigm, rats received an IP injection of diazepam (1 to 4 mg/kg), substance P (5 to 500 microg/kg) or vehicle (1 ml/kg) and were tested on the T-maze for 5 min. Diazepam elevated open arm activity, indicative of an anxiolytic effect. The drug also increased the latency to escape from the open arms, but did not significantly affect acquisition of open arm avoidance. During the retention trial, diazepam in higher doses impaired the performance of both fear-responses, suggestive of an anterograde amnesic effect. Substance P did not influence acquisition and retention of open arm avoidance and escape. However, in high doses, the peptide increased the sojourn time in the central arena of the maze, indicating reduced fear and, hence, a dissociation between anxiolytic and amnesic effects. The present findings demonstrate that the elevated T-maze free exploration paradigm is sensitive to anxiolytic and memory-modulating effects of drugs. PMID: 11445230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 47: Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 1995 Sep-Dec;31(5-6):573-83. [A comparative histochemical study of cytochrome oxidase activity in the somatosensory and auditory brain centers in the normal rat and after exposure to superhigh-frequency electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Krasnoshchekova EI, Rumiantseva TA, Kulikov GA. Using histochemical method mitochondrial cytochrome oxydase (CO) in acoustic and somatosensory centers of rat brain has been studied to reveal CO activity distribution in norm and after impulse-modulated high-ultra-high frequency influence. After ultra-high frequency influence the increase of enzymic activity in a number of regions of rat brain centers with relationship to processing ecologically important sensory signals is revealed. PMID: 8714296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 48: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002 Apr;71(4):581-7. Anxiogenic-like effect of serotonin(1B) receptor stimulation in the rat elevated plus-maze. Lin D, Parsons LH. Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN-7, Division of Psychopharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Perturbations in serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] neurotransmission have been implicated in several psychiatric illnesses including depression and anxiety disorders. It is not yet clear, however, which of the 14 currently identified 5-HT receptor subtypes in the brain participate in the regulation of emotional states. This study investigates a role for the 5-HT(1B) receptor subtype in anxiety-related behaviors using the elevated plus-maze paradigm in rats. The selective 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist 3-(1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridyl)-5-propoxypyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine (CP 94,253; 1--5.6 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased the amount of exploration on the open arms of the plus-maze without altering overall locomotor activity. This 5-HT(1B) agonist-induced increase in anxiety-like behavior was dose-dependently reversed by coadministration of the selective 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist 2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl)-biphenyl]-amide (GR 127,935). There was no significant effect of GR 127,935 administration alone on plus-maze behavior. These results indicate that 5-HT(1B) receptor activation increases anxiety-like behavioral responses as measured by the elevated plus-maze. Since 5-HT(1B) receptors modulate the activity of multiple neurotransmitter systems that have been implicated in anxiety disorders, these findings suggest that this receptor subtype may represent an important therapeutic target for the treatment of anxiety. PMID: 11888549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 49: Phytomedicine. 2000 Jun;7(3):199-203. Agastache mexicana may produce anxiogenic-like actions in the male rat. Molina-Hernandez M, Tellez-Alcantara P, Martinez E. Instituto de Investigaciones Psicologicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico. Behavioral effects of a water-soluble extract of Agastache mexicana, a plant with purported anxiolytic actions, were studied in male Wistar rats. In the elevated plus-maze test, various doses of the plant extract (3.0 mg/kg body wt.; 9.0 mg/kg body wt.; 12.0 mg/kg body wt.) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) decreased the exploration of open arms, showing an anxiogenic-like effect. Agastache mexicana (12 mg/kg body wt.; i.p.) did not change immobility in the forced swimming test (i.e., had no anti-depressant effect) but increased the anti-immobility action of 32.0 mg/kg body wt. (i.p.) of desipramine (i.e., increased the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine). A. mexicana had no effect on exploratory activity in an open field test, indicating that it had no sedative effect at the doses used. It is concluded that effects of the water extract of A. mexicana are more consistent with an anxiogenic-like property than an anxiolytic-like one. PMID: 11185730 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 50: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1999 May-Jun;(3):11-4. [Changes in the proteinase-inhibitor system of rats with hyperlipoproteinemia during transcerebral exposures to a 100-Hz-frequency pulse current and to an ultrahigh-frequency field] [Article in Russian] Zubkova SM, Varakina NI, Mikhailik LV, Chabanenko SS. Experiments on 36 male rats with experimental hyperlipoproteinemia demonstrated that transcerebral exposure to impulse current (100 Hz, 2mA) aggravates atherogenic alterations, provokes hyperactivation of kallikrein-kinin system and unbalance of elastase inhibitory activity in the serum and myocardium. The latter may contribute to better vascular permeability for low-density lipoproteins, to development of edema of vascular intima, lability of cellular and lysosomal membranes with hydrolysis of elastine and collagen fibers of myocardial vessels and other organs. Transcerebral exposure to electromagnetic UHF field (40.68 MHz) is not hypolipidemic but has no negative effect on experimental atherosclerosis, promotes normalization of kallikrein-kinin system in the serum, activation of this system in the myocardium and cerebral cortex, correction of destructive processes in the serum and cerebral cortex with a risk of their development in the myocardium. PMID: 10429563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 51: J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1975 Apr;89(2):183-8. Avoidance by rats of illumination with low power nonionizing electromagnetic energy. Frey AH, Feld SR. Rats spent more time in the halves of shuttle boxes that were shielded from illumination by 1.2 GHz microwave energy than in the unshielded. In Experiment 1, rats avoided the energy when it was presented as 30-musec pulses with a pulse repetition rate of 100 pulses per second (pps). The average power density was about .6 mW/cm2, and the peak power density was about 200 mW/cm2. In Experiment 2, the energy was presented both continuously and in pulse-modulated form, i.e., .5-msec exponentially decaying pulses at a rate of 1,000 pps. The average power density of the continuous energy was 2.4 mW/cm2, and the average power density of the pulse-modulated energy was .2 mW/cm2. The peak power density of the modulated energy was 2.1 mW/cm2. The rats avoided the pulsed energy, but not the continuous energy. PMID: 1133237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 52: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1977 Aug;84(8):146-9. [Hypnogenic action of a modulated electromagnetic field] [Article in Russian] Sudakov KV, Antimonii GD. Behavioristic and electroencephalographic changes in rats under long-lasting modulated electromagnetic field (frequency of 40 MHz, modulation frequency 50 Hz, intensity 100--120 V/m) were studied. Some phasic disorders in the conditioned feeding and defense reactions were observed, including cataleptic state as a result of the action of modulated electromagnetic field. These behavioristic disorders are determined by the changes in the normal cortico-subcortical relationships. PMID: 561631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 53: Bull Exp Biol Med. 2000 Aug;130(8):746-8. Emotional state and one-trial learning in OXYS rats with hereditarily elevated production of oxygen radicals. Loskutova LV, Kolosova NG. Institute of Physiology, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk. Comparative analysis of unconditioned and conditioned behavior of Wistar and prematurely aging OXYS rats revealed that the latter have significantly reduced locomotor and exploratory activities, increased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test, spatial disorientation, and abnormal associative learning. OXYS rats can be used as a biological model for studying molecular, neurobiological, and neurochemical mechanisms of brain aging. PMID: 11177232 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 54: Z Naturforsch [C]. 1994 May-Jun;49(5-6):352-8. Resonance effect of low-intensity millimeter waves on the chromatin conformational state of rat thymocytes. Belyaev SYa, Kravchenko VG. Scientific Research Center Vidguk, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Russia. The method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD) was modified for the study of the changes in the chromatin conformational state (CCS) of rat thymocytes of the Wistar line. The response of the thymocytes of male rats to low-intensity millimeter waves (MMW) was examined. It was shown that MMW at power densities (PD) of 1 microW/cm2 produced a resonance effect on the CCS in the frequency range of 41.56-41.67 GHz. The resonance frequency of the cell response did not vary significantly among five examined rats and was determined to be 41.61 +/- 0.01 GHz. A halfwidth of resonances was averaged to 40 MHz. The power dependence of the resonance effect was measured in the range of 10(-11)-10(-4) W/cm2. Statistically significant changes in CCS were registered, starting with 10(-9) W/cm2. Right- and left-handed circularly polarized MMW were shown to differ in efficiency at the resonance frequency. The established regularities in the thymocyte response to low-intensity MMW was very similar to those which have been previously found for E. coli cells. PMID: 8060460 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 55: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Jul-Aug;41(4):399-402. [Effect of low-frequency pulse-modulated 460 MHz electromagnetic irradiation on Drosophila embryos] [Article in Russian] Bol'shakov MA, Kniazeva IR, Lindt TA, Evdokimov EV. Tomsk State University, 634050 Russia. Effect of electromagnetic radiation 460 MHz with 2.5-40 Hz pulse modulation rate on Drosophila embryos of 15 h 10 m age was studied. It was demonstrated that a 5-min irradiation with 0.12 W/kg average SAR (3 W/kg pulsed SAR) alters the Drosophila percentage of interrupted development. The effect strength depended on the modulation rate with a pronounced decrease at 10 and 16 Hz. A hypothesis about the presence of thermal and non-thermal mechanisms of action of pulse-modulated microwave radiation diversely effecting the embryos has been put forward and grounded. PMID: 11605241 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 56: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1993 Mar-Apr;43(2):398-406. [The effect of different motor regimens modulating spontaneous activity on rat behavior] [Article in Russian] Kulikov VP, Kiselev VI, Konev IV. A method was developed of non-stressful modulation of spontaneous motor activity of rats. Restraint of mobility was found to inhibit spontaneous activity. Physiological stimulation of muscle activity by means of complication of food-procuring behaviour was accompanied by increase of spontaneous activity. Physiological stimulation of motor activity was characterized by stability of orienting-exploratory behaviour, emotional reactivity, expression of "freedom response", the best learning and working abilities of the animals. Regimes with imposing or restriction of muscle activity favoured the inhibition of spontaneous activity and the decrease of efficiency of adaptive behaviour. Motor regimes accompanied by increase of spontaneous activity were found to be optimal for adaptive behaviour. PMID: 8317168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 57: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Mar-Apr;41(2):207-9. [The delayed effects of modulated and non-modulated electromagnetic field on epileptiformic activity in rats] [Article in Russian] Konovalov VF, Serikov IS. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, 142290 Russia. The modifying influence of the weak electromagnetic field on the development of the audiogenic spasmodic activity in rats was shown. The decrease of lifetime of experimental rats exposed to electromagnetic fields with different parameters and development of tumours (in one set of experiments) was found. PMID: 11402555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 58: Acta Med Austriaca. 2000;27(3):69-77. [Electromagnetic fields--effects on health] [Article in German] Stepansky R, Jahn O, Windischbauer G, Zeitlhofer J. Universitatsklinik fur Neurologie, Wien. This literature review shows the current knowledge of health effects on humans concerning static, low frequency electric and magnetic fields and high frequency electromagnetic fields up to 300 GHz. Basic physical knowledge and the current thresholds are demonstrated. Different frequency ranges of electromagnetic fields, their natural and technical origins and the different biological effects, especially possible hazards such as cancerogenity or risks for the brain, are discussed. Open questions and future research aspects are demonstrated. Finally electrosensibility and psychological aspects are shown. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10897385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 59: Life Sci. 2002 Mar 1;70(15):1751-62. Validation of a behavioral recording automated system in the elevated plus-maze test. Torres C, Escarabajal MD. Departamento de Psicologia, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educacion, Universidad de Jaen, Spain. The elevated plus-maze test has been widely used for screening of anxiolytic drugs and for exploring neurobiological bases of anxiety. In this study, we validated a new automated system that enables to record exploratory behavior in the elevated plus-maze test. This system, called cyberplus, consisted of ten pairs of photoelectric cells strategically located in several parts of the apparatus, and seemed to be sensitive to the position of the animal's forepaws, so it would yield scores in anxiety measurements and locomotor activity similar to those obtained by following the traditional procedure, that is, by analyzing videotapes by experienced observers. In order to assess this hypothesis, we exposed rats to the elevated plus-maze test and compared the scores obtained by cyberplus with the values recorded by two independent observers, conducting a correlational study with both kinds of recording procedures. The results obtained suggest the utility of cyberplus as a behavioral recording automated system in the elevated plus-maze test, making data collection and data analysis easier in exploring pharmacological and neurobiological bases of anxiety. Publication Types: Validation Studies PMID: 12002520 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 60: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2002 Nov-Dec;52(6):743-9. [Behavioral consequences of isolation in early ontogeny in rats: selectivity of anxiety conditions] [Article in Russian] Khonicheva NM, Czabak-Garbacz R, Krupina NA. Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. Multiparameter scale for evaluation of anxiety-phobic state in rats reveals significant enhancement of anxiety in rat pups after 6-week isolation (beginning from the 21st day from birth) as compared to grouped controls of the same litter: the locomotion and exploration that appear in test areas are suppressed, and species-specific fear reactions are enhanced. These changes considered as signs of situational anxiety are not eliminated by 2.5-month keeping in groups. Nevertheless, they are not correlated with parameters of the acoustic startle reflex that (by the data of literature) is thought to be related with fear and anxiety. On the basis of the discrepancy it is proposed that state of anxiety is selective. This suggestion is confirmed by individual behavioral variations characterized by a combination of a low level of situational anxiety and a high level of acoustic anxiety observed in both experimental and control groups. These variations may explain the existence of atypical "emotional resonance"-like behavior according to P.V. Simonov. Attention is given to selectively enhanced acoustic startle reflex in the group of active control as an evidence for critical importance of any manipulations with social context in early ontogeny. PMID: 12528379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 61: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Apr;154(4):336-42. Lack of consistent behavioural effects of Maudsley reactive and non-reactive rats in a number of animal tests of anxiety and activity. Paterson A, Whiting PJ, Gray JA, Flint J, Dawson GR. Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Neuroscience Research Centre, Terlings Park, Eastwick Road, Harlow, Essex CM20 2QR, UK. RATIONALE: A number of previous studies have reported that the Maudsley reactive (MR/Har) and non-reactive (MNRA/Har) strains of rats show behavioural and physiological differences consistent with the hypothesis that these strains differ in emotionality and could therefore be considered a model of trait anxiety in humans. OBJECTIVES: We sought to confirm this observation by determining their behaviour in various animal models of conditioned and unconditioned fear. METHODS: Both strains were evaluated in the open field (OF), conditioned avoidance (CA), elevated plus maze (EPM) and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) tests. In the OF the behaviour of both strains was consistent with previous results showing that reactive rats had significantly higher levels of defecation and lower levels of activity than the non-reactive rats. However, there were no significant strain differences in CA responses or in the time spent on the open arms of the EPM. In addition, the full benzodiazepine receptor agonist, chlordiazepoxide, induced quantitatively similar effects in both strains of rats. In the FPS test, MNRA/Hars had a higher baseline level of startle and fear potentiation than the MR/Har rats. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the behaviour of MR/Har and MNRA/Har rats in some models of conditioned and unconditioned fear is inconsistent with that predicted by their behaviour in the OF test, suggesting that they are not a model of trait fear. PMID: 11349385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 62: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1999 Nov-Dec;49(6):1039-45. [The effect of different stages of the sex cycle on rat behavior in a plus maze] [Article in Russian] Vinogradova EP. Department of Higher Nervous Activity and Psychophysiology, St.-Petersburg State University. Anxiety and motor activity of female white rats in the elevated plus-maze were studied at different stages of the reproduction cycle (estrus, diestrus, pregnancy and lactation). The level of anxiety was lower, and that of locomotor and exploratory activity was higher during estrus and lactation than during diestrus and pregnancy. Exposure to chronic pain of threshold intensity did not induce behavioral changes in pregnant rats. There was no difference between the control and experimental animals in the level of plasma corticosterone. PMID: 10693284 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 63: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1995 Jan-Feb;35(1):29-35. [Motor activity of rabbits in conditions of chronic low-intensity pulse microwave irradiation] [Article in Russian] Grigor'ev IuG, Luk'ianova SN, Makarov VP, Rynskov VV, Moiseeva NV. Motor activity of rabbits under daily thirty-minute irradiation (1.5 GHz, pulse duration 16 ms, pulse recurrence frequency 0.12 Hz, pulse intensity 0.3 mw/cm2) for one month was studied. From 14th day the reliable disadaptation changes such as an anxiety and alarm reaction were found. The importance of prolonged irradiation is noted. PMID: 7719427 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 64: Bioelectromagnetics. 2000 Oct;21(7):524-37. Neural and behavioral teratological evaluation of rats exposed to ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields. Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Mason PA, Dooley MP, Miller SA, Ziriax JM, Murphy MR. Air Force Research Laboratory, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Directed Energy Bioeffects Division, Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Brooks AFB, Texas 78235-5324, USA. Several investigators have reported teratologic effects of electromagnetic field exposure. The majority of these studies have been performed at levels of exposure that could produce substantial heating of the animals. New and unique sources of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic fields are currently being developed and tested that are capable of generating nonthermalizing, high-peak-power, microwave (MW) pulses with nanosecond (ns) pulse widths, picosecond (ps) rise times, and an UWB of frequencies. Our study was performed to determine if teratological changes occur in rat pups as a result of (i) daily UWB exposures during gestation days 3-18, or (ii) as a result of both prenatal and postnatal (10 days) exposures. Dams were exposed either to (i) UWB irradiation from a Kentech system that emitted a 55 kV/m-peak E field, 300 ps rise time, and a 1.8 ns pulse width, average whole-body specific absorption rate 45 mW/kg; (ii) sham irradiation; or (iii) a positive control, lead (Pb) acetate solution (2000 microg/ml) continuously available in the drinking water. Offspring were examined for ontogeny (litter size, sex-ratios, weights, coat appearance, tooth-eruption, eye-opening, air-righting, and ultrasonic stress vocalizations). Male pups were tested on various performance measures (locomotor, water-maze learning, and fertilization capabilities). The pups postnatally exposed were examined for hippocampal morphology and operant behavior. Behavioral, functional, and morphological effects of UWB exposure were unremarkable with these exceptions: (i) The UWB-exposed pups emitted significantly more stress vocalizations than the sham-exposed pups; (ii) the medial-to-lateral length of the hippocampus was significantly longer in the UWB-exposed pups than in the sham-exposed animals; (iii) male offspring exposed in utero to UWB mated significantly less frequently than sham-exposed males, but when they did mate there was no difference in fertilization and offspring numbers from the sham group. There does not appear to be a unifying physiological or behavioral relationship among the significant differences observed, and our findings could be due to the expected spurious results derived when a large number of statistical comparisons are made. Significant effects found between our positive-controls and other groups on numerous measures indicates that the techniques used were sensitive enough to detect teratological effects. Bioelectromagnetics 21:524-537, 2000. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 11015117 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 65: Radiat Res. 2001 Feb;155(2):369-77. Repeated exposure of C3H/HeJ mice to ultra-wideband electromagnetic pulses: lack of effects on mammary tumors. Jauchem JR, Ryan KL, Frei MR, Dusch SJ, Lehnert HM, Kovatch RM. Air Force Research Laboratory, Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Directed Energy Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, USA. It has been suggested that chronic, low-level exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation may promote the formation of tumors. Previous studies, however, showed that low-level, long-term exposure of mammary tumor-prone mice to 435 MHz or 2450 MHz RF radiation did not affect the incidence of mammary tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of exposure to a unique type of electromagnetic energy: pulses composed of an ultra-wideband (UWB) of frequencies, including those in the RF range. One hundred C3H/HeJ mice were exposed to UWB pulses (rise time 176 ps, fall time 3.5 ns, pulse width 1.9 ns, peak E-field 40 kV/m, repetition rate 1 kHz). Each animal was exposed for 2 min once a week for 12 weeks. One hundred mice were used as sham controls. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to incidence of palpated mammary tumors, latency to tumor onset, rate of tumor growth, or animal survival. Histopathological evaluations revealed no significant differences between the two groups in numbers of neoplasms in all tissues studied (lymphoreticular tissue, thymus, respiratory, digestive and urinary tracts, reproductive, mammary and endocrine systems, and skin). Our major finding was the lack of effects of UWB-pulse exposure on promotion of mammary tumors in a well-established animal model of mammary cancer. PMID: 11175673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 66: Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2001 Oct;87(10):1450-6. [Interleukin-1beta and depressive states] [Article in Russian] Zubareva OE, Efremov OM, Simbirtsev AS, Klimenko VM. Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Acad. Med. Sci., St. Petersburg, 197376, Acad. Pavlov St., 12, Russia. Administration of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in pyrogenic and subpyrogenic doses induced a depression of social and exploratory behaviour in rats. A reduction in locomotor activity only occurred with pyrogenic doses of the IL-1 beta. The low dose induced the reduction whereas the high dose the increase of anxiety in elevated plus maze. The opposite effects of two doses of IL-1 beta were observed also in a test with saccharine. PMID: 11767459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 67: Pol J Occup Med. 1988;1(4):329-39. Influence of a static magnetic field on the reproductive function, certain biochemical indices and behaviour of rats. Grzesik J, Bortel M, Duda D, Kuska R, Ludyga K, Michnik J, Smolka B, Sowa B, Trzeciak H, Zielinski G. PMID: 2979568 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 68: Gig Sanit. 1989 Oct;(10):30-2. [Hygienic evaluation and the problems of standardization of magnetic fields with the frequency of 50 Hz] [Article in Russian] Ziubanova LF, Karamyshev VB, Shestakov VG. It is established that some kinds of technological equipment are the sources of the magnetic fields with the frequency of 50 Hz, their biologic activity being identified. Hygienic classification and approaches to differentiated standardization of the above factor are suggested with account of time and energetic parameters. PMID: 2599398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 69: Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2000 Sep;86(9):1167-74. [Effect of immunization to cholecystokinin fragment (30-33) on the behavior of albino rats] [Article in Russian] Danilova RA, Rud'ko OI, Korotkova TM, Obukhova MF, Ashmarin IP. Moscow State University, Vorobyevy Gory. Active immunisation of albino rats by the BSA-conjugated CCK-4 induced formation of antibodies to the CCK-4 and some long-term changes of the rat behaviour. These changes were contrary to anxiogenic effect of the CCK-4 and demonstrated an anxiolytic effect of the immunisation. The data obtained suggest a possibility of an immunocorrection of pathological anxiety and fear by an inverse immunoregulation. PMID: 11081222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 70: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1976 Sep-Oct;26(5):899-909. [Modulated electromagnetic field as a factor of selective influence on animal mechanisms of goal-directed behavior] [Article in Russian] Sudakov KV. Proceeding from P.K. Anokhin's theory of the functional systems, the paper considers the action of a modulated electromagnetic field (MEMF) on different stages of the central architectonics of purposeful behaviour of rats: afferent synthesis, decisions making, acceptor of the action results. The action of MEMF was studied in different experimental situations: choice of an alimentary or defensive reaction to one conditioned stimulus in different situations; extinction of conditioned alimentary reactions; elaboration and extinction of alimentary conditioned reactions in animals group contacts; choice of the side of reinforcement in a T-shaped maze, and, lastly, self-stimulation reactions. The experiments have shown that MEMF has a selective effect on the animals' emotional reactions. Greater disturbances are observed in the mechanisms of the animals' appraisal of the action of situational and trigger stimuli or surrounding individuals of their species and, hence, of decisions making and anticipation of future results of the action, the acceptor of the action results. PMID: 997935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 71: Med Pr. 1981;32(6):393-402. [Glycosaminoglycans in the brain of rats subjected to electromagnetic field action] [Article in Polish] Matych S. Investigations on changes of glucosaminoglycans content were carried out in the brain of the rats irradiated once (30 min.) or several times (2-6 hours daily). The following frequencies of e-m fields were used: 2880 MHz (pulse modulation 1000 Hz, pulse duration 1,5 mus); 150 MHz (50 V/m); 175 MHz (150 V/m); 3000 MHz c.w. continuous wave). Control groups of animals were not subject to irradiation. Statistically significant increase of GAG content was found in the brain of the rats, irradiated in e-m field of frequency 2880 MHz in comparison with GAG concentration in the controls. In the brains of animals exposed to e-m fields of frequencies 150 and 175 MHz a statistically significant decrease of GAG content was noted in comparison with GAG content in the controls. Whereas e-m field of frequency 3000 MHz c.w. did not induce statistically significant changes in GAG content in experimental animals as compared with the controls. PMID: 6804742 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 72: Biofizika. 2002 Jul-Aug;47(4):759-68. [A study of absorption of energy of the extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in the rat skin by various dosimetric methods and approaches] [Article in Russian] Gapeev AB, Sokolov PA, Chemeris NK. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 Russia. Using experimental and theoretical methods of dosimetry, the energy absorption of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in the skin of laboratory rats was analyzed. Specific absorption rate (SAR) in the skin was determined on the basis of both microthermometric measurements of initial rates of temperature rise in rat skin induced by the exposure and microcalorimetric measurements of specific heat of the skin. Theoretical calculations of SAR in the skin were performed with consideration for dielectric parameters of rat skin obtained from the measurements of the standing wave ratio upon reflection of electromagnetic waves from the skin surface and for the effective area of stationary overheating measured by infrared thermography. A numerical method was developed to determine electromagnetic wave energy reflected, absorbed, and transmitted in the model of flat layers. The algorithm of the method was realized in a computer program and used to calculate SAR in the skin on the basis of the complex dielectric constant of rat skin. The SAR values obtained from experimental measurements, theoretical calculations and numerical analysis are in good mutual correspondence and make about 220-280 W/kg at a frequency of 42.25 GHz and a power of 20 mW at the radiator output. The results obtained can be used for dosimetric supply of biomedical experiments on studying the physicochemical mechanisms of the biological effects of EHF EMR. PMID: 12298218 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 73: Gig Sanit. 1991 Aug;(8):52-3. [Behavioral effects of the combined chronic action of 9375 and 1765 MHz microwaves] [Article in Russian] Navakatikian MA, Nikitina NG, Zotov SV. Combined pulse-discrete microwave irradiation (9375 and 1765 MHz, irradiance flux density to 375 microW/cm2, by 12 h/day for 4 months) caused faint inhibition of CNS in locomotion activity and defensive reflex parameters. PMID: 1937100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 74: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):722-6. [Effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on the animal body within the framework of total low-dose x-ray irradiation] [Article in Russian] Gubkina EA, Kushnir AE, Bereziuk SK, Potapov VA, Lepekhin EA. Effect of low-intensive electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency (EMR EHF) on the rats, subjected to the low-dose X-ray irradiation (6.192 mC/rg) was investigated. Content of glial fibrillary acidic protein as well as glucose content and activity of glutamate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase was studied. It was shown than EMR EHF modifies the X-ray irradiation effect: filament GFAP concentration in brain and glucose content in serum were restored. The authors suggest central nervous system participation in realization of EMR EHF effects on the organism. PMID: 9019284 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 75: Radiobiologiia. 1987 Jul-Aug;27(4):567-9. [Effect of electromagnetic fields of UHF range on dopamine-dependent behavior of rabbits] [Article in Russian] Andreeva LA, Konovalov VF, Podol'skii IIa. SHF radiation of low intensity does not influence on a stereotyped behaviour of rabbits induced by a dopamine receptor stimulator, apomorphine. However, 10% of animals exhibited a marked decrease in the test-response after SHF-irradiation (16 Hz) which was perhaps associated with the increased individual sensitivity of some animals to SHF-radiation. PMID: 3628743 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 76: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1998 Nov-Dec;48(6):1043-50. [The characteristics of the effect of tuftsin on the behavior and on the level of biogenic amines in the brain of rats with differing resistance to acoustic stress] [Article in Russian] Ismailova KhIu, Semenova TP, Iskanderova MD, Fast AE. Karaev Institute of Physiology, Azerbaijani Academy of Sciences, Baku. The influence of tetrapeptide tuftsin (Tyr-Lys-Pro-Arg) on learning, exploratory activity, emotional behavior, and hypothalamic monoamine content was studied in Wistar rats with different resistance to stress induced by acoustic stimuli. Positive effects of taftsin were more pronounced in low-resistant rats. Administration of taftsin induced in these animals a significant increase in reactivity to stimuli of different modalities, the open-field exploratory activity, rate of alimentary conditioning and its modification in emotionally negative situation. Biochemical examinations showed that in rats with high resistance to stress taftsin administration led to a decrease in hypothalamic noradrenaline level and increase in dopamine and serotonin levels. On the contrary, in low-resistant animals taftsin increased the level of noradrenaline and decreased that of dopamine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. It is suggested that different behavioral effects of taftsin in stress-resistant and nonresistant rats are caused by its different influence on hypothalamic biogenic amines. PMID: 9929913 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 77: Biofizika. 2000 Jan-Feb;45(1):130-6. [Changes in serum alkaline phosphatase activity during in vitro exposure to amplitude-modulated electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (2375 MHz) in guinea pigs] [Article in Russian] Pashovkina MS, Akoev IG. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia. The activity of alkaline phosphatase by the action of pulse-modulated microwave radiation was studied. The carrier frequency of radiation was 2375 MHz, the range of modulation pulse rate was 10-390 Hz with the on-off time ratio 2, and the specific absorption rate was 8 and 0.8 microW/cm2. Time of exposure was 1 and 3 min under conditions of continuous temperature control. It was shown that the activity of alkaline phosphatase depends on both modulation frequency and intensity of superhigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation. At a frequency of 70 Hz, the activity of alkaline phosphatases increased 1.8-2.0 times. PMID: 10732222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 78: Gig Sanit. 1983 Mar;(3):86-9. [Age-related sensitivity of the body of an animal to superhigh-frequency electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Koziarin IP, Shvaiko II. PMID: 6852577 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 79: Bioelectromagnetics. 1999 Oct;20(7):453-8. Erratum in: Bioelectromagnetics 2000 Jan;21(1):73. Power frequency fields promote cell differentiation coincident with an increase in transforming growth factor-beta(1) expression. Aaron RK, Ciombor DM, Keeping H, Wang S, Capuano A, Polk C. Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University School of Medicine Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA. Recent information from several laboratories suggest that power frequency fields may stimulate cell differentiation in a number of model systems. In this way, they may be similar to pulsed electromagnetic fields, which have been used therapeutically. However, the effects of power frequency fields on phenotypic or genotypic expression have not been explained. This study describes the ability of power frequency fields to accelerate cell differentiation in vivo and describes dose relationships in terms of both amplitude and exposure duration. No change in proliferation or cell content were observed. A clear dose relationship, in terms of both amplitude and duration of exposure, was determined with the maximal biological response occurring at 0.1 mT and 7-9 h/day. Because this study was designed to explore biological activity at environmental exposure levels, this exposure range does not necessarily define optimal dosing conditions from the therapeutic point of view. This study reports the stimulation by power frequency fields of transforming growth factor-beta, an important signalling cytokine known to regulate cell differentiation. The hypothesis is raised that the stimulation of regulatory cytokines by electromagnetic fields may be an intermediary mechanism by which these fields have their biological activity. PMID: 10495311 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 80: Aviat Space Environ Med. 1976 Jun;47(6):644-8. Effect of electromagnetic pulse on avoidance behavior and electroencephalogram of a rhesus monkey. Mattsson JL, Oliva SA. A 12-kg male rhesus monkey was exposed to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) at 266 kv/m, 5 pulses/s, for 1 h (18,700 pulses). The effects of EMP on Sidman avoidance behavior and on post-exposure electroencephalogram were evaluated, and no significant changes were detected. An analysis of an EMP showed that it contained various frequency components extending from 0 Hz to 10(9) Hz. However, the pulse configuration was such that its power was mainly confined to the longer wave-lengths (less than 30 MHz). The lack of biologic effect was attributed to the fact that the wavelengths were long relative to the size of the monkey, and little energy deposition was likely to occur. In addition, the electric field was evenly distributed across all lower frequencies so that only a very small electric field component existed at any specific low frequency. PMID: 820328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 81: Bioelectromagnetics. 1989;10(1):111-3. Intensity threshold for 60-Hz magnetically induced behavioral changes in rats. Liboff AR, Thomas JR, Schrot J. Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401. Experiments were conducted to further investigate the effect of 60-Hz cyclotron-resonance exposures on rats performing on a multiple FR-DRL schedule. The previously reported temporary loss of DRL baseline response, when measured as a function of A.C. magnetic intensity, was found to have a threshold. Utilizing the component of A.C. magnetic intensity parallel to the D.C. field, we report this threshold as (0.27 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) Trms. PMID: 2712836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 82: Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1998 Oct;84(10):1100-7. [Anxiety-inducing and -inhibiting agents: differential effect of pentagastrins on the white rat behavior] [Article in Russian] Danilova RA, Fedorova IM, Rud'ko OI, Kushnir EA, Ashmarin IP. Moscow State University, Vorobyevy Gory, Russia. Parenteral administration of des-BOC-Pentagastrin induced the anxiety and fear manifestations, depressing also explorative behaviour in open field experiments in rats. Intranasal administration evoked similar effects, whereas pentagastrin reduced the anxiety level, increasing explorative behaviour. Pentagastrin and des-BOC-Pentagastrin displayed antagonism at the receptor level. PMID: 10097277 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 83: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1991 Feb;111(2):165-8. [Changes in the emotionally conditioned behavior of rats under the influence of the hexapeptide fragment GLLDLK of the protein inhibitor of diazepam binding] [Article in Russian] Zhdanova IV, Kordzadze RN, Pliashkevich IuG. It is shown that suboccipital injection of 100 micrograms of the gexapeptide GLLDLK (the fragment of endogenous peptide--the inhibitor of diazepam binding) modified (for 1-3 days) the emotionally conditioned behaviour of the rats (the test of "emotional resonance"). This modification was realized in some reinforcement of different behavioural patterns and had signs of anxiety and depression. In the test "social hierarchy" the injection of GLLDLK didn't change significantly the hierarchy in the whole rat society, but in the recipient behaviour the exploratory activity has been changed, the time of grooming increased and the quantity of social contacts decreased. PMID: 1854959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 84: Physiol Behav. 2001 Feb;72(3):403-7. Exposure to a novel stimulus reduces anxiety level in adult and aging rats. Darwish M, Koranyi L, Nyakas C, Almeida OF. Department of Clinical and Experimental Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Szabolcs u. 33-35, H-1135 Budapest, Hungary. Male Wistar rats aged 3, 15 and 24 months were isolated and housed individually for 72 h prior to being subjected to inanimate objects (two objects per rat, each 1.5 cm in diameter and 4 cm in length, made of surgical gauze). Following the exposure to the objects, rats were subsequently tested in an elevated plus-maze. The inanimate objects induced locomotor activity, chewing and transportation of the object. This changed to social interaction and play-like behavioral activity in rats of all ages that were kept in small groups with a latency of 1 to 2 min. One hour after the start of exposure, the animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze to measure anxiety behavior. It was found that all age groups spent significantly more time in the open arm of the elevated plus-maze than the corresponding controls. Latencies to first entry into open arms were also significantly lowered. The number of entries to the open or to the dark arm, however, did not show statistical difference, indicating that the novel object-induced activity failed to exert influence on gross motor activity in the elevated plus-maze. In conclusion, the stimulation elicited by the exposure to novel stimulus (inanimate objects) resulted in a significant reduction of anxiety level both in adult and in aging rats. PMID: 11274684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 85: Gig Sanit. 1993 Dec;(12):39-40. [The effect of superhigh frequency electromagnetic radiation on the central nervous system] [Article in Russian] Krylova IN, Iasnetsov VV, Pal'tsev IuP, Il'in AB, Kuznetsova EIu, Balaeva NV. PMID: 8125368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 86: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1997 Sep-Oct;37(5):756-61. [Behavior reactions and lipids of brain synaptic membranes of rats under chronic exposure to gamma irradiation] [Article in Russian] Semenova TP, Medvinskaia NI, Potekhina NI, Kolomiitseva IK. The effects of low level chronic ionising irradiation (12.9 cGy/day on the sensory attention to the stimuli of different modalities (somatosensory, visual, odor) of Wistar rats were studied. Analysis of animals behaviour was made after they had received the different doses of irradiation: 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 Gy. It was founded, that the attention and exploratory activity of rats is significantly decreased up to 20-30% after 4-6 Gy. The irradiation doses 8 Gy did not change animal behaviour as compared to control animals, but doses 10, 15 and 20 Gy decreased the exploratory activity as well as sensory attention of rats to 3-5-times as compared to previous dose. Such a wave-like way of behaviour reflects the functioning of an adaptive mechanism. Biochemical data indicated that after 5 months of the irradiation (dose 20 Gy) the level of phospholipids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol were decreased. PMID: 9417305 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 87: Z Gesamte Hyg. 1991 Jan;37(1):4-7. [Standardization of electromagnetic fields of 3-30 MHz with reference to the time factor] [Article in German] Savin BM, Lobanova EA, Kosova IP, Sokolova IP, Rubcova NB, Lochodzej LV, Klescenok OI. Wissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut fur Arbeitshygiene und Berufskrankheiten, Akademie der Medizinischen Wissenschaften, UdSSR, Moskau. In chronic experiments (4 months) in rabbits, rats, and mice biological effects were investigated from 7 exposure regimen of electromagnetic fields with a frequency of 24 MHz at field strengths of the electric field component of 125, 250, 500, and 1,000 V/m, respectively, and an exposure time of 0.25, 1, and 4 hrs. respectively. The effects on the CNS, the immune and hormone systems, the peripheral blood and on the spermato and embryo genesis were estimated. The results delivered the basis for the introduction of an index. In point of time different limit values are to be determined according to the energetic load. A concrete value for the energetic load 7,200 (V/m)2.h is proposed as maximum allowable field strength of the electric component 300 V/m. PMID: 2028680 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 88: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1993 Aug;116(8):127-30. [A new natural model of elevated anxiety in rats] [Article in Russian] Rodina VI, Krupina NA, Kryzhanovskii GN. The levels of anxiety were determined in male Wistar rats using a complex multiparameter method for evaluating anxiety-phobic states in rats based on ranged scale. The effects of psychotropic drugs differed in rats with innate high and low levels of anxiety. Anxiolytics sodium valproate (200 mg/kg), phenazepam (0.05 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.1 and 0.6 mg/kg) reduced anxiety in rats with innate high level of anxiety and prevented increase of anxiety induced by saline in rats with innate low level of anxiety. Pentylenetetrazol (10 mg/kg) and haloperidol at a large dose (0.5 mg/kg) increased anxiety in rats with either high or low innate levels of anxiety. However sodium lactate (600 mg/kg) increased anxiety only in rats with innate high level of anxiety. Haloperidol at a small dose (0.01 mg/kg) and melipramin (10 mg/kg) were uneffective in rats with innate high level of anxiety. Results believed the rats with innate high level of anxiety to be used as a new natural animal model of anxiety. PMID: 8274676 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 89: Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Mar;38(3):231-6. Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy: effects on the offspring behaviour with special reference to anxiety paradigms. Ramanathan M, Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK. Department of Pharmacology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Maternal hyperglycemic effect was studied on the offspring behaviour. Offspring were obtained from diabetic rats by mating a normal father with a diabetic mother (NFDM), diabetic father with normal mother (DFNM) and diabetic father with diabetic mother (DFDM). Rats were rendered diabetic by injecting streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg i.p.) in citrate buffer. Offspring were subjected to various anxiety parameters including open field exploratory behaviour, elevated plus maze and zero maze behaviours, and the social interaction tests at the age of 8 weeks. The results indicate that offspring of NFDM and DFDM showed anxiogenic activity on the elevated plus maze zero maze and the social interaction test. Offspring of NFDM and DFDM exhibited hyper and emotional activity in the open field behaviour test. The behavioural alterations observed in the offspring were comparable to the behavioural alterations noted in STZ diabetic rat as reported earlier. Further offspring of NFDM and DFDM exhibited mild hyperglycaemia. No significant behavioural alterations in the offspring of DFNM were observed. It may be concluded, that exposure of offspring to diabetic environment in their foetal life can lead to anxiogenic/emotional behaviours in adult life. PMID: 10927864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 90: Biofizika. 2000 Sep-Oct;45(5):935-40. [Effect of modified SHF and acoustic stimulation on spectral characteristics of the electroencephalograms of the cat brain] [Article in Russian] Ivanova VIu, Martynova OV, Aleinik SV, Limarenko AV. Ykhtomskii Research Institute of Physiology, St. Petersburg State University, Russia. The effect of modulated electromagnetic fields on the spectral parameters of bioelectric brain activity in awake cats was studied by registering the electroencephalogram from the skin surface in the vertex area using carbon electrodes. In the normal electroencephalogram, spectral components in the range above 20 Hz predominated. It was shown that, upon irradiation with electromagnetic field (basic frequency 980 MHz, power density 30-50 microW/cm2), spectral components in the range of 12-18 Hz begin to prevail. A similarity in the redistribution of the power of spectral components upon both acoustic and modulated electromagnetic influences was revealed. The results suggest that there is a a common neurophysiological mechanism by which modulated electromagnetic radiation and acoustic stimulation affect the electrical activity of the brain. This ia consistent with the assumption that the effect of the electromagnetic field on the central nervous system is mediated through the acoustic sensory system. PMID: 11094726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 91: Biofizika. 1996 May-Jun;41(3):762-4. [Combined effect of variable and static magnetic fields on rat behavior in the "open field "] [Article in Russian] Deriugina ON, Pisachenko TM, Zhadin MN. The influence of combined alternating and static magnetic fields on rat behavior in the "open field" test was studied. The action of the cyclotron and Larmor frequencies of calcium, natrium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, lithium, and zinc ions was investigated. The statistically significant influence of the cyclotron frequencies of calcium and magnesium ions was revealed. The calcium frequency caused depression of investigating activity of the animals and the magnesium one evoked increasing moving and investigating activities. The rest of frequencies did not significantly act on the animal behavior. PMID: 8924481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 92: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1994;(1):31-3. [Effect of low intensity and ultra high frequency electromagnetic irradiation on memory functions] [Article in Russian] Krylova IN, Ilin AB, Dukhanin AS, Paltsev IuP, Iasnetsov VV. The experiments on rats proved that low intensity electromagnetic waves result in retrograde amnesia due to benzodiazepine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and cholinergic mechanisms. Nootropic drug pyracethamum was proved to reduce the pathologic effect. PMID: 7804712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 93: Biomed Tech (Berl). 1997;42 Suppl:103-4. [Current status of risk discussion of low frequency electric and magnetic fields and high frequency electromagnetic radiation] [Article in German] Petrowicz O. Institut fur Experimentelle Chirurgie, Technischen Universitat Munchen. PMID: 9517067 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 94: Med Radiol (Mosk). 1984 Dec;29(12):46-9. [Experimental study of the effects of acute uneven microwave irradiation] [Article in Russian] Zuev VG, Ushakov IB. The purpose of the study was to reveal parts of the body affected by radiation most of all in uneven microwave irradiation (current frequency of 2.4 GHz/s) by the destruction criterion taking account of some indicators of the absorbed power of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Uneven irradiation was achieved by the screening of some parts of the body with radiopaque material leaving unshielded parts subjected to irradiation. Control over the redistribution of absorbed energy was exercised by means of multichamber phantoms. In experiments on animals (female rats) within the range of specific absorbed power of 15-40 mWg the utmost affection of the cranial segment was revealed. The results show good correlation with a curve of the effect of 50% destruction criterion in total EMR irradiation. PMID: 6513752 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 95: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 Jan-Feb;51(1):114-6. [Motor activity and emotional response in the open field test in rats after pharmacologic stimulation or blockade of neuropeptides in terminals of primary sensory neurons] [Article in Russian] Zhukova EM. Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk. Effects of high and low doses of capsaicin on the open-field behavioral patterns were examined in Wistar rats. The treated animals exhibited a significant increase in locomotion, grooming, and exploratory activity. PMID: 11253389 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 96: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1997 May-Jun;37(3):336-42. [The dependence of the biological effect of electron radiation on the pulse repetition rate. The characteristics of the clinical manifestations in rats after irradiation at superlethal doses] [Article in Russian] Darenskaia NG, Nasonova TA, Aleshin SN. A comparison between biological effects of electron radiation (25 and 50 MeV) at doses of 100-300 Gy and with pulse recurrence frequencies from 3 to 2400 s-1, using general damage severity, distinctiveness of separate clinical manifestations and incidence of extremely severe forms of radiation sickness as criteria, has demonstrated some peculiarities of radiation pathology in rats under these circumstances. The pulse recurrence frequency influence varies with the criterion applied. PMID: 9244520 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 97: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1996 Nov-Dec;26(6):565-6. Device for artifact-free recording of brain electrical activity during exposure of rats to UHF fields in conditions of free behavior. Vorob'ev VV, Gorelkova TF, Konovalov VF. Laboratory of Medical Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino. PMID: 9121634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 98: Gig Sanit. 1982 Feb;(2):7-11. [Meteorological radars as an energy source of a superhigh-frequency range electromagnetic field and environmental hygiene problems] [Article in Russian] Dumanskii IuD, Nikitina NG, Tomashevskaia LA, Kholiavko FR, Zhupakhin KS. PMID: 7075987 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 99: Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 1984 May-Jun;(3):13-6. [Effect of a modulated UHF field on the behavior and hormone level of female rats under emotional stress] [Article in Russian] Rasulov MM. PMID: 6540858 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 100: Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Sep;39(9):853-7. Effect of environmental deprivation on anxiety in rats. Jaiswal AK. Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Environmental deprivation (ED) induced a significant increase in open-field ambulation, rears, self-groomings, faecal pellets and decrease in activity in centre in Charles Foster albino rats of 30, 45 and 60 days age groups. In elevated plus maze, significant attenuation of open arm time/entries and augmentation of enclosed arm time/entries were noted in ED rats of all the three age groups. Similarly ED rats also showed significant decrease in time spent on open arms, entries, head dips and stretched attend postures in comparison to age matched rats reared under normal environmental conditions. The results indicate that imposition of environmental deprivation in rats' life consistently resulted in significant anxiogenic behaviour on all the tests. However, the anxiogenic effect of ED was less marked when it was imposed at 60th day of life in rats. PMID: 11831364 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 101: Bioelectromagnetics. 2000 Dec;21(8):566-74. Prenatal exposure to 900 MHz, cell-phone electromagnetic fields had no effect on operant-behavior performances of adult rats. Bornhausen M, Scheingraber H. Institut fur Toxikologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum fur Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Germany. To clarify potential health risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) used in cellular telephone technology to the developing brain, Wistar rats were continuously exposed during pregnancy to a low-level (0.1 mW/cm(2)) 900 MHz, 217 Hz pulse modulated EMF that approximated the highest legal exposure of normal populations to the radiation of base antennas of the GSM digital cell-phone technology. Whole body average specific absorption rate (SAR) values for the freely roaming, pregnant animals were measured in models; they ranged between 17.5 and 75 mW/kg. The offspring of exposed and of sham-exposed dams were coded and tested later as adults in a battery of ten simultaneously operated test chambers (Skinner boxes) during night time. Eight groups of ten coded animals in each group were tested for learning deficits in a sequence of nine, computer-controlled, 15 h sessions of the food-reinforced contingency Differential Reinforcement of Rate with increasing performance requirements. Two different sets of events were recorded: The food-reinforced lever-pressing activity of the animals and the inter-response intervals (IRIs) between consecutive lever presses. IRI-occurence patterns discriminated consistently between "learners" and "non-learners". Analyses of performance scores and of IRI-patterns both showed that exposure in-utero to the GSM field did not induce any measurable cognitive deficits. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 11102946 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 102: Med Pr. 2000;51(6):637-52. [Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and its health effects in electric energy workers] [Article in Polish] Szadkowska-Stanczyk I, Zmyslony M. Zakladu Epidemiologii Srodowiskowej, Instytutu Medycyny Pracy w Lodzi im. prof. dra med. Jerzego Nofera w Lodzi. Power frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) are briefly characterised, EMF sources occurring in the electromagnetic industry are discussed, and methods for and problems involved in the evaluation of individual occupational EMF exposure are also presented. The results of certain cohort industrial and case-referent studies indicate slightly enhanced risk of brain cancer and leukaemia in the group under study. The meta-analysis of the results obtained from numerous studies, published recently, showed a relative risk (RR) of 1.1-1.3 for leukaemia, and of 1.1-1.2 for brain cancer. Only a few studies demonstrate a dose-effect relationship for malignant neoplasms which decreases the power of the hypothesis on the cause-effect relationship. Among health effects of EMF exposure in electric utility workers, other than malignant neoplasms, an increased risk of certain diseases of the circulatory and neurological systems has been reported. The difficulty in the assessment of individual exposure is the main problem in evaluating the relationship between EMF exposure and adverse health effects in electric utility workers. We hope to investigate this further. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11288692 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 103: Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;132(7):1389-95. Social isolation modifies nicotine's effects in animal tests of anxiety. Cheeta S, Irvine E, File SE. Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Centre for Neuroscience, GKT School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College London, Hodgkin Building, Guy's Campus, London, SE1 1UL. 1. These experiments determined whether the housing conditions of rats influenced the effects of nicotine in two animal tests of anxiety, social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests. 2. In animals housed singly for 7 days, (-)nicotine (0.025 mg kg(-1) s.c.) was ineffective, but 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 mg kg(-1) (s.c.) significantly increased the time spent in social interaction, without changing locomotor activity, thus indicating anxiolytic actions. (-)Nicotine (0.45 mg kg(-1) s.c.) significantly reduced social interaction, indicating an anxiogenic effect. 3. However, in group-housed animals, (-)nicotine (0.025 mg kg(-1) s.c.) had a significant anxiolytic effect in the social interaction test, but 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.45 mg kg(-1) were ineffective. (-)Nicotine (1 mg kg(-1)) reduced motor activity and social interaction in the group-housed animals. 4. In the elevated plus-maze, the time-course and the dose-response curve to nicotine were investigated. In both singly- and group-housed rats, (-) nicotine (0.1 - 0.45 mg kg(-1) s.c.) decreased the per cent entries into, and per cent time spent on, the open arms, indicating anxiogenic effects. 5. The housing condition influenced the time course, with significant effects at 5 and 30 min after injection in group-housed rats, and significant effects at 30 and 60 min in singly-housed rats. 6. In the social interaction test there was no difference in the scores of the first and last rats removed from group cages, whereas the order of removal from the cages did affect the scores in the elevated plus-maze. 7. These results provide further evidence that the two animal tests model distinct states of anxiety, and show how social isolation powerfully modifies both anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of nicotine. PMID: 11264231 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 104: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 Jan-Feb;38(1):110-5. [Radioprotective effect of weak ultra-low frequency alternating magnetic field in adrenalectomized mice] [Article in Russian] Stashkov AM. Simferopol State University, Krym, Ukraine. PMID: 9606412 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 105: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1998;(11):6-8. [The evaluation of the body response of experimental animals to exposure to the magnetic component of electromagnetic radiation for setting a hygiene standard] [Article in Russian] Bogdanov AA, Bukharin EA, Davydova OK, Plakhov NN. Acute and subacute experiments were conducted to evaluate threshold response of white rats to variable magnetic intensity of magnetic section of electromagnetic irradiation with fixed frequency (3 MHz). PMID: 9885494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 106: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Sep-Oct;39(5):583-7. [Biological and ecological aspects of the effects combined electromagnetic rays on farm animals] [Article in Russian] Ipatova AG, Ivanov VL, Koz'min GV, Kozlov VA. Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk. The study of a biological effect of ultraviolet, ultrahigh frequency and gamma-radiation, as well as combinations of these, on the functional status of the sheep body systems has made it possible to evaluate the sensitivity of a body exposed to these factors and its adaptive potentials. The pattern of variations in the body systems when a combined EMR is applied depends on to which extent one or another factor dominates the others. It is however possible that the effect of the leading factor is modified by that of a less severe radiation, energy characteristics of which differ from those of the dominating factor. PMID: 10576032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 107: Fiziol Zh. 2003;49(1):87-93. [Changes in reactions in rats during hypokinesia and electromagnetic irradiation of ultrahigh frequency] [Article in Ukrainian] Temur'iants NA, Chuian OM, Verko NP, Moskovchuk OB, Tumaniants OM, Shyshko OIu, Min'ko VA, Kurtseitova EE. Tavritcheskiy University by V.I. Vernadsky, Sympheropol. The effects of low intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the hypokinetic stress were studied on rats. It has been shown that exposure to EMF, combined with hypokinesia or without it, prevented the typical stress reaction on the limited motility. EMF was determined to modify the adaptive processes which resulted in the adaptive activation and limiting stress reaction. Adaptation was characterized with lower anxiety and excitability of the central nervous system, and a higher level of non-specific resistance, as compared to the stress reaction. PMID: 12669526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 108: Percept Mot Skills. 1999 Dec;89(3 Pt 1):1023-4. Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXXVII. Effects of synthetic and natural geomagnetic patterns on maze learning. McKay BE, Persinger MA. Department of Psychology, Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada. 12 normal male albino rats were exposed or not exposed in their home cages for 5 min. and 50 sec. once every hour 8 times per night to a 7-Hz square-wave magnetic field whose amplitudes were shifted by about 50 nT approximately every 10 sec. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups for numbers of working errors, numbers of reference errors, or speed during the acquisition of an Olton (8-arm) maze, the strength of the group differences (F ratios) for daily working errors was reduced (rho = .70) if there had been enhanced geomagnetic activity during the time of the night when the experimental fields were present. PMID: 10665038 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 109: Neuroreport. 2001 Oct 8;12(14):3081-4. Hyperanxiety produced by periaqueductal gray injection of chondroitin sulphate glycosaminoglycan. De Araujo JE, Hasenohrl RU, Huston JP, Brandao ML. Laboratorio de Psicobiologia, FFCLRP, campus USP, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. We examined the effects of chondroitin sulphate C (CSC) on fear and anxiety parameters following injection of the glycosaminoglycan into the dorsal periaqueductal gray. Rats with chronically implanted cannulae were administered CSC (0.4 or 4.0 nmol) or vehicle (saline, 0.2 microl) and exposed to the elevated plus-maze test of emotionality. Intra-periaqueductal gray injection of CSC produced a dose-dependent anxiogenic effect as indicated by reduced entries into and time spent on the open arms, fewer excursions into the end of the open arms and by increased stretched attend posture, flat back approach and closed arm peeping-out behaviour. The behavioural effects of CSC appeared to be anxioselective, since the glycosaminoglycan did not influence measures of general (exploratory) activity, such as number of entries into the enclosed arms and amount of scanning, rearing and grooming. The present results show that CSC can produce an anxiogenic-like profile after injection into the dorsal periaqueductal gray. This is the first such report implicating an endogenous matrix glycosaminoglycan in neural mechanisms governing fear and anxiety. PMID: 11568641 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 110: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001 Feb;68(2):255-62. Behavioral effects of buspirone in the marmoset employing a predator confrontation test of fear and anxiety. Barros M, Mello EL, Huston JP, Tomaz C. Primate Center and Department of Physiological Sciences, Institute of Biology, University of Brasilia, Brazil, CEP 70910-900, DF, Brasilia, Brazil. In order to further validate the recently developed marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) predator confrontation model of fear and anxiety, we investigated the behavioral effects of buspirone with this method. The apparatus consisted of three parallel arms connected at each end to a perpendicular arm, forming a figure-eight continuous maze. A taxidermized wild oncilla cat (Felis tigrina) was positioned facing a corner of the parallel arms, alternating between the left or right side of the maze among animals tested. All subjects were first submitted to seven 30-min maze habituation trials (HTs) in the absence of the predator, and then to five randomly assigned treatment trials (TTs) in the presence of the predator: three buspirone sessions (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg), saline and sham injection controls. Twenty minutes after treatment administration, the animal was released into the maze and had free access to the apparatus for 30 min. All trials were taped for later behavioral analysis. Buspirone significantly decreased the frequency of scent marking, while increasing the time spent in proximity to the 'predator' stimulus, indicating an anxiolytic effect. Neither locomotor activity, exposure to a novel environment, stimulus location and habituation, nor gender influenced the effects of the drug treatments. These results further validate this method and demonstrate the potential usefulness of this ethologically based paradigm to test anxiety and fear-induced avoidance in nonhuman primates and its susceptibility to anxiolytic pharmacological manipulations. PMID: 11267630 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 111: Gig Sanit. 1992 Mar;(3):46-9. [The sensitizing action of a high-frequency electromagnetic field] [Article in Russian] Nogachevskaia SI. PMID: 1427198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 112: Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(3):257-71. Perturbations of plant leaflet rhythms caused by electromagnetic radio-frequency radiation. Ellingsrud S, Johnsson A. Department of Physics, University of Trondheim, Norway. The minute-range up and down rhythms of the lateral leaflets of Desmodium gyrans has been studied when exposed to electromagnetic radiation in the radio-frequency (RF) range. The RF radiation was applied as homogeneous 27.12 MHz fields in specially-designed exposure cells(and in some cases as non-homogeneous radiation of 27 MHz, amplitude modulated by 50 Hz, in front of commercial diathermy equipment). All fields were applied as pulses. We report effects in the leaflet rhythms such as temporary changes in the amplitude, period, and phase. The radiation could also cause temporary or complete cessations of the rhythms. The lowest dose (8 W/cm2) used was still effective. PMID: 8323575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 113: Toxicol Lett. 2000 Dec 20;118(1-2):9-19. Differential effects of low frequency, low intensity (<6 mG) nocturnal magnetic fields upon infiltration of mononuclear cells and numbers of mast cells in Lewis rat brains. Cook LL, Persinger MA, Koren SA. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Biology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6. Immediately after inoculation to induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, 64 female Lewis rats were exposed to either a reference condition (<10 nT) or to one of two frequencies (7 Hz, 40 Hz) of magnetic fields whose two intensities (either 50 nT or 500 nT) were amplitude-modulated for 6 min once per hour between midnight and 8 h for 15 nights. Rats that had been exposed to the 7 Hz, low intensity fields displayed fewer numbers of foci of infiltrations of mononuclear cells compared to all other groups that did not differ significantly from each other. Rats exposed to the 5 mG (500 nT), 40 Hz magnetic fields displayed more foci in the right thalamus while those exposed to the 5 mG, 7 Hz fields displayed more foci in the left thalamus. Numbers of mast cells within the thalamus were also affected by the treatments. These results suggest that weak magnetic fields can affect the infiltration of immunologically responsive cells and the presence of mast cells in brain parenchyma. Implications for the potential etiology of 'electromagnetic sensitivity' symptoms are discussed. PMID: 11137304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 114: Gig Sanit. 1986 Jul;(7):34-6. [Biological action and hygienic significance of the electromagnetic field created by coastal radar facilities] [Article in Russian] Tomashevskaia LA, Solenyi EA. PMID: 3758706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 115: Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001 May;34(5):675-82. Strain-dependent effects of diazepam and the 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist SB 206553 in spontaneously hypertensive and Lewis rats tested in the elevated plus-maze. Takahashi RN, Berton O, Mormede P, Chaouloff F. Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brasil. The 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist SB 206553 exerts anxiolytic effects in rat models of anxiety. However, these effects have been reported for standard rat strains, thus raising the issue of SB 206553 effects in rat strains displaying different levels of anxiety. Herein, the effects of SB 206553 in a 5-min elevated plus-maze test of anxiety were compared to those of the reference anxiolytic, diazepam, in two rat strains respectively displaying high (Lewis rats) and low (spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR) anxiety. Diazepam (0.37, 0.75, or 1.5 mg/kg; 30 min before testing) increased in a dose-dependent manner the behavioral measures in SHR, but not in Lewis rats. On the other hand, SB 206553 (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg; 30 min before testing) failed to alter the anxiety parameters in both strains, whereas it increased closed arm entries in Lewis rats, suggesting that it elicited hyperactivity in the latter strain. Accordingly, the hypolocomotor effect of the nonselective 5-HT2B/2C receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (1.5 mg/kg ip 20 min before a 15-min exposure to an activity cage) was prevented by the 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg doses of SB 206553 in Lewis rats and SHR, respectively. Compared with SHR, Lewis rats may display a lower response to benzodiazepine-mediated effects and a more efficient control of locomotor activity by 5-HT2B/2C receptors. PMID: 11323756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 116: Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1992;(1):38-40. [Electromagnetic radiations from computer video terminals and their effect on health] [Article in Russian] Lazarenko NV. The paper is concerned with a brief analysis of the reported data on hygienic, epidemiological and experimental estimation of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of a video-terminal (VDT). The results of the author's investigations are presented. Based on the data obtained it is concluded that low-intensity wide-band EMR occurs in work places of VDT users. One should bear in mind that the biological action of EMR has not been studied so far. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 1585729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 117: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1993 Sep-Oct;43(5):1006-17. [A multiparameter method for the complex evaluation of anxiety-phobic states in rats] [Article in Russian] Rodina VI, Krupina NA, Kryzhanovskii GN, Oknina NB. A new multiparameter method is elaborated for evaluating the anxiety-phobic states in rats. The method is based on a ranged scale of parameters which characterize the species-specific responses of an animal to the series of ethologically adequate test-stimuli inducing manifestation of the anxiety-phobic states. The method makes it possible to evaluate an individual anxiety-phobic level of a rat, to form experimental groups of rats with known individual anxiety-phobic levels, to conduct repeated observations of the same animals. The method is easy to introduce into laboratory practice and makes it possible to obtain results quickly. PMID: 8249450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 118: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 May-Jun;50(3):500-8. [Modulation of the activity of monoaminergic brain systems and emotional condition by dalargin in rats during development of emotional resonance response] [Article in Russian] Bazian AS, Orlova NV, Getsova VM. Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. Rats were divided in two groups by the reaction of emotional resonance (RER): with emotionally positive reactions (I, with fast RER acquisition, up to 100 s) and with emotionally negative reactions (II, with slow RER acquisition, more than 200 s). After the RER acquisition, the activity of 5-hydroxitryptophan (5-HT) system of the I group of animals was lower than in the II group. The activity of noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) systems of the I group of animals was higher than in the II group. The between-group differences were enhanced by subcutaneous injection of dalargin. In some brain structures dalargin reversed these relations. These findings point to a complicated interpenetrating character of emotionally positive and emotionally negative states. Emotionally positive states include components of emotionally positive states, and emotionally negative states include components of emotionally positive states. Increase in 5-HT activity and decrease in activity of NA, DA, and opioid (OP) systems induce formation of emotionally negative states. Decrease in 5-HT activity and increase in activity of NA, DA, and OP systems induce formation of the emotionally positive state. It is suggested that 5-HT, NA, and DA systems play the central role in the processes of reinforcement, acquire the evaluative function, and are included in realization of all types of behaviors. OP is a primary modulator system which accompanies the unconditioned pain stimulus and connects it with systems of evaluative function. PMID: 10923388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 119: Pol J Pharmacol. 2001 May-Jun;53(3):245-52. AIDA influences behavior in rats pretreated with baclofen. Car H, Nadlewska A, Oksztel R, Wisniewski K. Department of Pharmacology, Medical Academy, Bialystok, Poland. The influence of the blockade of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (I mGluRs) by AIDA on some behavioral effects of rats pretreated with baclofen, an agonist of GABA-B receptor, was investigated using behavioral tests: the open field, the passive avoidance response and the elevated "plus" maze. Baclofen, applied intraperitoneally (ip) at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg, increased the number of crossed fields and bar approaches in rats in the open field test, and prolonged the time spent in the closed arms, shortened the time spent in the open arms and decreased the number of entries to the open arms in the elevated "plus" maze, but did not affect retrieval in the passive avoidance response. AIDA administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) alone at a dose of 100 nmol reduced crossings and rearings in the open field test, however, it had no effect on retrieval in the passive avoidance situation, nor did it show any influence in the elevated "plus" maze. AIDA given 15 min after baclofen significantly decreased mobility of rats (in the case of crossings to the level observed when AIDA was given alone), i.e. AIDA changed the effects of baclofen in the open field test. We also noted significant impairment of retrieval in rats pretreated with baclofen, which later received AIDA. AIDA significantly reduced the effect of baclofen on this memory process. In the elevated "plus" maze test, AIDA did not influence the behavior of rats pretreated with baclofen in comparison with the group treated with baclofen alone. PMID: 11785925 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 120: Int J Dev Neurosci. 2001 Feb;19(1):37-45. Prenatal stress and postnatal development of neonatal rats--sex-dependent effects on emotional behavior and learning ability of neonatal rats. Nishio H, Kasuga S, Ushijima M, Harada Y. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Fukuyama, 729-0292, Hiroshima, Japan. Maternal sound stress (800 Hz; 77 dB, every other minute for 15 min/day, from day 10 to 18 of gestation), combined with forced swimming stress (15 min/day), was found to cause potentiation of sound-induced loss of locomotor activity, referred to as emotional behavior, of male offspring, but not that of female offspring, at 4 weeks of age. Maternal stress also caused an increase in the total number of errors by male, but not female offspring in the water-maze test at 6 weeks of age. These effects of stress on emotional behavior and learning behavior were abolished when dams were pretreated with buspirone (30 min before the stress, from day 8 to 18 of gestation). Thus, prenatal stress might have sex-dependent effects on emotional behavior and learning ability of neonatal rats. PMID: 11226753 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 121: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1992 Jul;114(7):52-4. [Dynamics of calmodulin in cerebral structures under the action of modulated UHF electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Katkov VF, Pavlovskii VF, Poltavchenko GM. The influence of modulated UHF-electromagnetic fields (low intensity) on calmodulin levels in several brain structures was studied. It was shown that UHF-electromagnetic fields influence calmodulin levels in the hypothalamus and sensorimotor cortex. Its effect depends on modulation regimes. PMID: 1421308 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 122: Radiobiologiia. 1982 Sep-Oct;22(5):687-90. [Effect of magnetic fields on the radiation sensitivity of mice. 1. Effect of infra-low frequency of magnetic fields of low intensity on survival of experimental animals after x-ray irradiation] [Article in Russian] Kopylov AN, Troitskii MA. PMID: 7178445 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 123: Neurosci Lett. 2000 Oct 13;292(3):171-4. Suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis is specific to the frequency and intensity of nocturnally applied, intermittent magnetic fields in rats. Cook LL, Persinger MA. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory and Department of Biology Laurentian University, Sudbury, P3E 2C6, Ontario, Canada. Female Lewis rats (n=72) were inoculated with an emulsion of spinal cord and complete Freund's adjuvant. They were then exposed for approximately 6 min every hour between midnight and 08:00 h for 2 weeks to either 7 or 40 Hz amplitude-modulated magnetic fields whose temporal pattern was designed to simulate a (geomagnetic) storm sudden commencement. The peak strengths of the fields averaged between either 30-50 nT (low intensity) or 500 nT (high intensity). Rats exposed to the 7 Hz, low intensity magnetic fields displayed significantly less severe overt signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis than rats exposed to either of the two intensities of the 40 Hz fields, the high intensity 7 Hz field, or the reference (<10 nT) condition. The latter groups did not differ significantly from each other. Predicted severity based upon the numbers of foci of infiltrations of lymphocytes within the brains of the rats also demonstrated the ameliorating effects of the low intensity, 7 Hz exposures. These results suggest very specific characteristics of complex, weak magnetic fields within the sleeping environment could affect the symptoms of autoimmunity. PMID: 11018304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 124: IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 2002;80:1-395. Non-ionizing radiation, Part 1: static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Publication Types: Review Review, Academic PMID: 12071196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 125: Biofizika. 1996 Jul-Aug;41(4):866-9. [Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation and ultra-violet radiation on aggregation of thymocytes and erythrocytes] [Article in Russian] Roshchupkin DI, Kramarenko GG, Anosov AK. Electromagnetic radiation of superhigh frequencies (46.12 and 46.19 GHz, 0.3-1 mV/cm2) at an incident dose of about 12 kJ/m2 enhances the ability of isolated rabbit thymocytes for aggregation interaction with homologous erythrocytes. In the case of 46.19 GHz frequency, the stimulatory effect disappears as radiation dose in increased. A radiation of 46.12 GHz stimulates thymocytes also at high radiation doses. Superhigh-frequency radiation enhances the sensitivity of thymocytes to the damaging effect of UV radiation. PMID: 8962885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 126: Gig Sanit. 1989 Oct;(10):82-5. [Use of the parameters of the locomotor activity of animals in experimental and hygienic studies of microwave radiation] [Article in Russian] Navakatikian MA, Nogachevskaia SI. PMID: 2599414 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 127: Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002 Apr;35(4):451-7. Effects of elevated calcium on motor and exploratory activities of rats. Godinho AF, Trombini TV, Oliveira EC. Centro de Assistencia Toxicologica (CEATOX), Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, Brasil. The effects of serum and brain calcium concentration on rat behavior were tested by maintaining animals on either distilled water (N = 60) or water containing 1% calcium gluconate (N = 60) for 3 days. Animals that were maintained on high calcium drinking water presented increased serum calcium levels (control = 10.12 +/- 0.46 vs calcium treated = 11.62 +/- 0.51 microg/dl). Increase of brain calcium levels was not statistically significant. In the behavioral experiments each rat was used for only one test. Rats that were maintained on high calcium drinking water showed increased open-field behavior of ambulation (20.68%) and rearing (64.57%). On the hole-board, calcium-supplemented animals showed increased head-dip (67%) and head-dipping (126%), suggesting increased ambulatory and exploratory behavior. The time of social interaction was normal in animals maintained on drinking water containing added calcium. Rats supplemented with calcium and submitted to elevated plus-maze tests showed a normal status of anxiety and elevated locomotor activity. We conclude that elevated levels of calcium enhance motor and exploratory behavior of rats without inducing other behavioral alterations. These data suggest the need for a more detailed analysis of several current proposals for the use of calcium therapy in humans, for example in altered blood pressure states, bone mineral metabolism disorders in the elderly, hypocalcemic states, and athletic activities. PMID: 11960194 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 128: Neuropharmacology. 2001 May;40(6):818-25. Leptin decreases feeding and exploratory behaviour via interactions with CCK(1) receptors in the rat. Buyse M, Bado A, Dauge V. INSERM U410, IFR02 Cellules Epitheliales, Faculte de medecine Xavier Bichat, 16 rue Henri Huchard, 75018 Paris, France. We assessed the effects of peripheral leptin on anxiety and exploratory behaviour in the elevated plus-maze and in the four-hole box or Y-maze tests, in rats fed 80% of normal daily food intake and rats fed ad libitum. In the Y-maze test, i.p. injection of 0.4 or 1 mg/kg leptin into rationed rats significantly decreased the percentage of spontaneous alternation behaviour and increased the number of visits. In the elevated plus-maze test, rationed rats spent significantly more time in the open arms (aversive part of the maze) than did rats fed ad libitum. This difference in behaviour was abolished by injecting 0.4 mg/kg leptin. In the four-hole box test, i.p. administration of 1 mg/kg leptin significantly reduced the duration and number of hole visits in rationed and ad libitum fed rats. As with leptin inhibition of food intake, these behavioural changes caused by leptin were prevented by a CCK(1) receptor antagonist (L364,718), at a dose that had no effect by itself. Finally, a 20-min stress that increased corticosterone and ACTH levels had no effect on circulating leptin levels and on the leptin content of epididymal fat tissue, stomach and brain. Thus, leptin induces hypoexploration and decreases spontaneous alternation in rats and these effects are partly dependent on nutritional status. These results also suggest that the CCK system may be involved in the induction of these behavioural changes in rats by leptin, via the CCK(1) receptor. PMID: 11369035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 129: Biomed Tech (Berl). 1997;42 Suppl:105-6. [Exposure facilities for study of the effect of high frequency electromagnetic fields on biological systems] [Article in German] Streckert J, Hansen V. Lehrstuhl fur Theoretische Elektrotechnik, Bergische Universitat-Gesamthochschule Wuppertal. PMID: 9517068 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 130: Behav Res Ther. 2002 Mar;40(3):279-87. Mother knows best: effects of maternal modelling on the acquisition of fear and avoidance behaviour in toddlers. Gerull FC, Rapee RM. Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of parental modelling on the acquisition of fear and avoidance towards novel, fear-relevant stimuli in a sample of 30 toddlers. The toddlers were shown a rubber snake and spider, which were alternately paired with either negative or positive facial expressions by their mothers. Both stimuli were presented again after a 1- and a 10-min delay, while mothers maintained a neutral expression. The children showed greater fear expressions and avoidance of the stimuli following negative reactions from their mothers. This was true for both genders although the degree of modelled avoidance was greater in girls than in boys. The strong observational learning results are consistent with views that modelling constitutes a mechanism by which fear may be acquired early in life. PMID: 11863238 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 131: Prog Clin Biol Res. 1988;257:367-76. Possible physiological mechanisms for neurobehavioral effects of electromagnetic exposure. Shandala MG. A. N. Marzeev Research Institute of General and Communal Hygiene, Kiev, USSR. PMID: 3344276 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 132: Physiol Behav. 1993 Apr;53(4):827-9. Is prolactin related to activity and emotional reactivity in rats? Marti-Carbonell MA, Darbra S, Garau A, Sanz C, Balada F. Department de Psicobiologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain. Recent studies have shown different relationships between hormones and personality in humans, including a relationship between prolactin levels and impulsivity. The aim of the present work was to study the relationships between basal levels of prolactin and some measures of activity and emotional reactivity in rats. One of the most consistent results showed a negative correlation between basal prolactin levels and activity. This finding is in line with the serotonergic theories of impulsive behavior and with the effects of dopamine upon activity. PMID: 8511191 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 133: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1996 Nov-Dec;46(6):1109-14. [The behavior of the progeny of prenatally irradiated rats] [Article in Russian] Sakharov DG, Dygalo NN. Ambulation and rearing in the open field were decreased in adult male offsprings of rats which were exposed to moderate doses of gamma-irradiation during the last third of their intrauterine development. Single combined external and internal irradiation of the ancestors in the middle of the intrauterine period resulted in increased ambulation in the open field (and its decreased latency) and activity in the wheel in their adult offsprings. The obtained evidence suggests that exposure of parents to harmful factors has its impact on behaviour of offsprings depending on the characteristics of such factors. PMID: 9054164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 134: Int J Biometeorol. 1977 Dec;21(4):357-65. Behavioral effects in monkeys exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. de Lorge JO, Grissett JD. PMID: 413798 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 135: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 Jan-Feb;38(1):116-20. [Modification of radiosensitivity of mice by combination of alternating magnetic field and fractionated irradiation with small daily doses over many days] [Article in Russian] Stashkov AM, Gorokhov IE. Simferopol State University, Krym, Ukraine. Everyday before radiation combination of weak magnetic field and fractioned radioactive irradiation in dose of 0.5 Gy up to total doses of 6.0-8.0 Gy increased surviving of mice by 34-53%, prolonged the life-time 1.5 times as much (half as much). It also decreased the rate of accumulation of damaged systems, extended average time of death and the value of dose changing factor, and reduced the gradient of damaged systems. PMID: 9606413 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 136: Physiol Behav. 2000 Dec;71(5):509-16. Behavioral profile of wild mice in the elevated plus-maze test for anxiety. Holmes A, Parmigiani S, Ferrari PF, Palanza P, Rodgers RJ. Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, Universita di Parma, Viale di Scienze, 43100, Parma, Italy. Systematic observations of the defensive behavior of wild rodents have greatly informed the experimental study of anxiety and its neural substrates in laboratory animals. However, as the former work has been almost exclusively carried out in rats, few data are available concerning the reactivity of wild mice to standardized tests of anxiety-related behavior. In the present experiments, we employed ethological measures to examine the behavioral responses of a wild-derived population of house mice (Mus musculus) in the elevated plus-maze. In direct comparisons with laboratory Swiss mice, male wild mice exhibited substantially elevated levels of exploratory activities and an overall "preference" for the open arms of the plus-maze. On re-exposure to the plus-maze, male wild mice showed further increases in open arm exploration, while Swiss mice showed a marked shift to the enclosed parts of the plus-maze. Tested over a single session, female wild mice also exhibited a profile of high open arm exploration, but showed levels of exploratory behaviors and locomotor activity similar to female Swiss counterparts. While exploratory patterns in wild mice show similarities to profiles seen in certain laboratory strains (e.g., BALB/c), wild mice displayed a number of additional behaviors that are unprecedented in plus-maze studies with laboratory mice. These included actual and attempted jumps from the maze, spontaneous freezing, and exploration of the upper ledges of the closed arms. Thus, while in conventional terms the behavior of wild mice was consistent with one of low anxiety-like behavior, the presence of these unique elements instead indicates a profile more accurately characterized by high reactivity and escape motivation. We discuss how the use of an ethological approach to measuring plus-maze behavior can support accurate interpretation of other exceptional profiles in this test, such as those possibly arising from phenotyping of transgenic and gene knockout mice. PMID: 11239669 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 137: DLR Nachr. 1996 Feb;81:22-6. [Effect of low-frequency magnetic fields on the orientation behavior of unicellular organisms: new findings on the biological effect of electromagnetic alternating fields] [Article in German] Becker E, Hemmersbach R, Stockem W. Institut fur Zellbiologie der Universitat, Bonn. PMID: 11542970 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 138: Bioelectromagnetics. 2001 Apr;22(3):200-4. Why arguments based on photon energy may be highly misleading for power line frequency electromagnetic fields. Vistnes AI, Gjotterud K. Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. When evaluating possible mechanisms by which low frequency electromagnetic fields may have a biological effect, arguments based on photon energy have often been used in a misleading way. For visible light the concept of photons has proved to be very useful in explaining experimental findings. However, the concept of photons cannot be used without major modifications in describing phenomena related to near field problems at power frequency (50 or 60 Hz) electric and magnetic fields. For this regime, the photon description is very complex. A very high number of highly coherent photons must be used in a quantum electrodynamic description of low frequency electromagnetic field phenomena. Thus, one-photon interaction descriptions must be replaced by multiple-photon interaction formalism. However, at low frequencies, a classical electromagnetic field description is far more useful than quantum electrodynamics. There is in principle no difference in how much energy an electron can pick up from a low frequency electric field as compared to from a high frequency photon. Thus, the total gain in energy is not limited to the energy carried by a single photon, which is E = hv, where h is Planck's constant and (v) is the frequency of the radiation. However, the time scale of the primary event in a mechanism of action is very different for ionizing radiation compared to power line frequency fields. The advice is to consider the time scale given by the inverse of the frequency of the fields, rather than photon energy, when one use physics as a guidance in evaluating possible mechanisms for biological effects from low frequency electromagnetic fields. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 11255216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 139: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001 Oct-Nov;70(2-3):411-20. Different effects of diazepam in Fischer rats and two stocks of Wistar rats in tests of anxiety. Bert B, Fink H, Sohr R, Rex A. Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universitat Berlin, Koserstr. 20, D-14195 Berlin, Germany. The behaviour of animals in tests of anxiety varies between strains, even in identical tests and surroundings. To evaluate the results obtained, a more detailed knowledge of the behaviour of different rat strains is indispensable. Identically raised Fischer 344 rats and two stocks of Wistar rats were examined in two animal tests of anxiety: the X-maze and a modified open-field test following diazepam treatment (0.5-4.0 mg/kg). Harlan-Wistar rats were the least 'anxious' when the behaviour of vehicle treated controls was compared. The largest effect of the anxiolytic diazepam, however, was observed in Harlan-Fischer rats. To determine possible reasons for strain and stock differences, plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites and concentrations of serotonin (5-HT) in the CNS were measured. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites differed between the strains with the Harlan-Fischer rats showing higher diazepam concentrations. 5-HT levels in discrete brain regions varied with Harlan-Fischer rats having higher 5-HT concentrations. Strain differences influence the anxiety-associated behaviour of untreated animals and the effect of anxiolytics. PMID: 11701214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 140: Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2000 Apr;26(1):27-32. Isolation modifies the behavioural response in rats. Karim A, Arslan MI. Pharmacology Department, SSMC, Mitford, Dhaka. Twenty-four male wister rats were reared from weaning either alone (isolation reared) or in groups of five (socially reared) for 6 weeks. Thereafter, the present study examined and compared the behaviour of isolation and socially reared rats in the test of social interaction, in the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety, in the open field behavior of exploration and locomotion activity, and the depressive behaviour in forced swim test. Under high light in unfamiliar conditions isolation reared rats spent significantly more time in aggressive interactions (P < 0.05) and high levels of aggressive behaviour compared to the socially reared rats (P < 0.05). Isolation reared rats had spent less time in the open arms than the socially reared rats in the maze test (P < 0.05). Isolation reared rats were more exploratory than the socially reared rats in the open field test and the defaecation scores were less compared to the socially reared controls (P < 0.05). Isolated rats spent less time immobile on the rats' forced swim test behaviour but the difference was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that isolation reared rats are nervous, aggressive and hyperactive animals in a novel field. It appears that isolation rearing in the early stages of life has modified a variety of behaviour in the adult rats, and the investigation of the pattern of behavioural changes in isolation reared rats may help to explore the environmental influences on the development of human psychopathology. PMID: 11192492 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 141: Vrach Delo. 1983 Mar;(3):109-11. [Effect of different doses of a UHF field on the morphofunctional state of the kidneys] [Article in Russian] Belokrinitskii VS, Grin' AN. PMID: 6858083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 142: Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2002 Jul;78(1):11-22. Fischer 344 and wistar rats differ in anxiety and habituation but not in water maze performance. Bert B, Fink H, Huston JP, Voits M. Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Free University Berlin, Koserstr. 20, Berlin, 14195, Germany. The fact that various neuropharmacological substances have anxiolytic as well as amnesic effects suggests that neuronal mechanisms of anxiety and learning/memory closely interact. Hence, we hypothesized that differences in anxiety-related behavior could be accompanied with differences in cognition or habituation. Two rat strains with different levels of anxiety, more anxious Fischer 344 rats by Charles River (FC) and less anxious Wistar rats by Winkelmann (WW), were tested in the Morris water maze task and an open field test for habituation learning. Additionally, we investigated the effect of different light intensities on the performance in the Morris water maze and the elevated plus maze. The results of the water maze task indicate that differences in anxiety-related behavior do not go along with differences in this performance of learning/memory. Moreover, the test was not affected by different light intensities. In contrast, illumination did affect performance in the elevated plus maze test, wherein dim light provoked an anxiolytic effect in both rat strains. The findings that neither different baseline levels of anxiety nor fear modulating light conditions were accompanied by changes in the performance of rats in the Morris water maze led us to the suggestion that there is no connection between anxiety and learning/memory in this task. Contrarily, anxiety might be associated with habituation learning in the open field test, shown by the superior habituation of the anxious FC rats in comparison to the less anxious WW rats. In sum, these results indicate that anxiety and learning/memory seem to be independently regulated behaviors, whereas habituation might be more closely correlated with anxiety. Nevertheless, a general statement about the relation between emotionality and learning/memory mechanisms would be premature and the link between behaviors remains to be clarified. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). PMID: 12071664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 143: Physiol Behav. 1999 Jan 1-15;65(4-5):753-61. Corrected and republished in: Physiol Behav. 1999 Sep;67(3):753-61. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats. Lu ST, Mathur SP, Akyel Y, Lee JC. McKesson BioServices, U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Microwave Bioeffects Branch, Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235, USA. The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m, 180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6 min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect. PMID: 10073476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 144: Lik Sprava. 1992 Oct;(10):69-71. [The brain function of animals exposed to the action of centimeter electromagnetic waves] [Article in Russian] Smolia AL, Bezdol'naia IS. It was established that centimeter electromagnetic waves (EMW) are a biologically active factor. Dynamic of changes of behavioural reactions under the effect of EMW evidences instability of the functional state of the brain EMW densities of 1000, 1500 mW/cm2 produce a response characterized by inhibition of motor activity. PMID: 1485453 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 145: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001 Sep;70(1):123-31. Cannabinoid effects on anxiety-related behaviours and hypothalamic neurotransmitters. Arevalo C, de Miguel R, Hernandez-Tristan R. Departamento de Biologia Animal II (Fisiologia Animal), Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid, Spain. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 and the antagonist SR 141716A, alone and in combination, on rat exploratory and anxiety-like behaviour in the holeboard and elevated plus-maze tests. A further aim was to evaluate the effects of these treatments on hypothalamic neurotransmitters. Animals treated with CP 55,940 doses of 0.125 and 0.1 mg/kg exhibited less exploration and an increase in anxiety-like behaviour accompanied by great motor inhibition. No hypoactivity was seen at 0.075 mg/kg dosage, but anxiety and neophobic responses persisted, indicating independent and specific effects. Motor activity effects induced by CP 55,940 were reversed by pretreatment with SR 141716A (3 mg/kg). Surprisingly, when administered on its own, the antagonist also induced a reduction in exploratory parameters and an increase in anxiety-like responses. These apparently similar effects might be caused by different neural mechanisms. Finally, CP 55,940 increased hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin levels. These increases might be involved in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis described for cannabinoids. PMID: 11566149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 146: Physiol Behav. 1999 Sep;67(3):753-61. Corrected and republished from: Physiol Behav. 1999 Jan 1-15;65(4-5):753-61. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats. Lu ST, Mathur SP, Akyel Y, Lee JC. McKesson BioServices, U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Microwave Bioeffects Branch, Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235, USA. The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m, 180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6 min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect. Publication Types: Corrected and Republished Article PMID: 10497968 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 147: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 May-Jun;51(3):324-8. [Analysis of possibility of genotypic correlation between fear and anxiety] [Article in Russian] Khrapova MV, Popova NK, Avgustinovich DF. Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk. Special features of anxious behavior in the elevated plus maze test and acoustic startle response were analyzed in 11 inbred mouse strains. A significant influence of the genotype both on the startle amplitude and behavior in the elevated plus maze was found. However, analysis of covariance did not reveal a genotype-related association between anxiety and startle amplitude. The data indicates that the fear-induced acoustic startle response and anxious behavior in the elevated plus maze (agoraphobia) are not genetically related. PMID: 11550640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 148: Shinrigaku Kenkyu. 1997 Dec;68(5):339-45. [A temporary reduction of emotional reactivity in postweaning, prejuvenile rats: examination by the Runway Test] [Article in Japanese] Miyamoto K. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Letters, Tokai Women's College, Kakamigahara, Japan. Developmental change of emotional reactivity in Wistar rats was investigated by two experiments using the Runway Test. Rats were tested at 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 days of age for three successive days. First, a cross-sectional comparison of behavior in the Runway Test showed that 30-day-old rats were faster to enter the runway region, faster to reach the end section, and traversed more sections than other age groups. Rats at 60 and 90 days of age defecated more bolles and urinated more. Second, longitudinal comparisons showed that the ambulation of 30- and 40-day-old rats increased gradually over test days, suggesting lowered emotional reactivity. But 60- and 90-day-old rats showed asymptotic level of ambulation and no increase between days and less defecation. These results suggested that postweaning prejuvenile rats showed a temporary reduction of emotional reactivity in novel environments. Also, their emotional reactivity elevated gradually, and remained stable in each individual level. PMID: 9551536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 149: Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2001 Aug 23;129(2):189-99. Prenatal exposure to ethinylestradiol elicits behavioral abnormalities in the rat. Dugard ML, Tremblay-Leveau H, Mellier D, Caston J. Laboratoire PSY.CO, U.F.R. de Psychologie, Universite de Rouen, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan Cedex, France. Pregnant rats were i.p. injected with a solution of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (15 microg kg(-1)) every day between day 9 and day 14 of pregnancy and the behavior of the offspring was compared to that of rats born from dams injected with the vehicle only during the same gestational period. The percentage of neonatal death was dramatically high in the prenatally treated group. Growth of the surviving animals was even better than that of controls, but when adult, they exhibited a number of behavioral abnormalities: increased spontaneous motor activity, decreased exploratory behavior, impaired cognitive processing, qualitatively different exploratory drive, and/or persevering behavior, increased anxiety-like behavior and social neophobia. These behavioral alterations, which resemble a number of psychiatric syndromes, suggest that ethinylestradiol altered the ontogenesis of different parts of the central nervous system involved in cognitive and emotional processes. However, it cannot be excluded that the changes in behavior of ethinylestradiol exposed offspring were due to the abnormal maternal behavior of the estradiol treated dams. PMID: 11506863 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 150: Gig Sanit. 1982 Oct;(10):38-41. [Genetic hazard of microradiowaves of nonheat intensity and its hygienic aspects] [Article in Russian] Shandala MG, Antipenko EN, Koveshnikova IV, Timchenko OI. PMID: 7173645 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 151: Radiobiologiia. 1986 May-Jun;26(3):365-71. [Systemic effects of the interaction of an organism and microwaves] [Article in Russian] Suvorov NB, Vasilevskii NN, Ur'iash VV. A study was made of the dynamics of neurophysiological processes, the autonomic nervous system reactions, and the behaviour of cats during long-term electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure (500 mu W/cm2, 2375 MHz). Revealed were the synchronization of the brain bioelectrical activity at 6-10 Hz and 12-16 Hz, different EMF sensitivity of the brain structures, the heart rate decrease, and the increase in the mobility and aggression of the animals. A complex of interrelated changes occurring virtually in all functional systems of the organism should be considered as a specific EMF effect. PMID: 3737885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 152: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1980 Nov;90(11):602-5. [Effect of fluctuating electromagnetic fields on the processes of growth and blastomogenesis] [Article in Russian] Iur'ev VN, Krasnogorskaia NV. Rats were exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic field, adequate to the natural background, with Gaussian energy distribution, spectrum width 15 kHz, and field intensity 5 V/cm. Electric fluctuations were shown to have an inhibitory action on the normal growth of the animals and on blastoma development. This action reaches maximum with the greatest build-up gradient. As the frequency band of the field of action increase, the inhibitory effect declines. PMID: 7004528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 153: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2002 Mar-Apr;32(2):189-94. The effects of immunization against cholecystokinin fragment 30-33 in the behavior of white rats. Danilova RA, Rud'ko OI, Korotkova TM, Obukhova MF, Ashmarin IP. M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia. Active immunization of white rats with cholecystokinin-4 covalently linked to the antigen carrier BSA evoked long-lasting changes in the rats' behavior, which were in the opposite direction to the anxiogenic effects of cholecystokinin-4 itself, showing that immunization had anxiolytic effects. Immunoenzyme analysis demonstrated the presence of antibodies to cholecystokinin-4 in the serum of immunized rats. These data are interesting from the point of view of correcting pathological anxiety and fear states by inverse immunoregulation. PMID: 11942698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 154: Genome Res. 2002 Apr;12(4):618-26. A quantitative trait locus influencing anxiety in the laboratory rat. Fernandez-Teruel A, Escorihuela RM, Gray JA, Aguilar R, Gil L, Gimenez-Llort L, Tobena A, Bhomra A, Nicod A, Mott R, Driscoll P, Dawson GR, Flint J. Medical Psychological Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona E-08143, Spain. A critical test for a gene that influences susceptibility to fear in animals is that it should have a consistent pattern of effects across a broad range of conditioned and unconditioned models of anxiety. Despite many years of research, definitive evidence that genetic effects operate in this way is lacking. The limited behavioral test regimes so far used in genetic mapping experiments and the lack of suitable multivariate methodologies have made it impossible to determine whether the quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected to date specifically influence fear-related traits. Here we report the first multivariate analysis to explore the genetic architecture of rodent behavior in a battery of animal models of anxiety. We have mapped QTLs in an F2 intercross of two rat strains, the Roman high and low avoidance rats, that have been selectively bred for differential response to fear. Multivariate analyses show that one locus, on rat chromosome 5, influences behavior in different models of anxiety. The QTL influences two-way active avoidance, conditioned fear, elevated plus maze, and open field activity but not acoustic startle response or defecation in a novel environment. The direction of effects of the QTL alleles and a coincidence between the behavioral profiles of anxiolytic drug and genetic action are consistent with the QTL containing at least one gene with a pleiotropic action on fear responses. As the neural basis of fear is conserved across species, we suggest that the QTL may have relevance to trait anxiety in humans. PMID: 11932246 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 155: Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2001 May;25(3):235-60. A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field. Choleris E, Thomas AW, Kavaliers M, Prato FS. Room 9222D, Department of Psychology, Social Science Center, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2. The open field test (OFT) is a widely used procedure for examining the behavioral effects of drugs and anxiety. Detailed ethological assessments of animal behavior are lacking. Here we present a detailed ethological assessment of the effects of acute treatment with the benzodiazepines, diazepam (DZ, 1.5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg), as well as exposure to a non-pharmacological agent, a specific pulsed extremely low frequency magnetic field (MAG) on open field behavior. We examined the duration, frequency and time course of various behaviors (i.e. exploration, walk, rear, stretch attend, return, groom, sit, spin turn, jump and sleep) exhibited by male mice in different regions of a novel open field. Both DZ and CDP consistently reduced the typical anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and wall-following (thigmotaxis), along with that of an additional new measure: 'returns', without producing any overall effects on total locomotion. The drugs also differed in their effects. CDP elicited a shift in the locomotor pattern from a 'high explore' to a 'high walk', while DZ mainly elicited alterations in sit and groom. The MAG treatment was repeated twice with both exposures reducing horizontal and vertical (rearing) activity and increasing grooming and spin turns. However, the anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and return were marginally reduced by only the first exposure. We conclude that a detailed ethological analysis of the OFT allows not only the detection of specific effects of drugs and non-pharmacological agents (i.e. pulsed magnetic field) on anxiety-like behaviors, but also permits the examination of non-specific effects, in particular those on general activity. PMID: 11378179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 156: Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2001;37(2):213-24. [Infantile leukemia and exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields: review of epidemiologic evidence in 2000] [Article in Italian] Lagorio S, Salvan A. Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma. We review the epidemiological evidence on childhood leukemia and residential exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields. The possibility of carcinogenic effects of power frequency magnetic fields (ELF-EMF), at levels below units of micro tesla (microT), was first raised in 1979 by a case-control study on childhood cancer carried out in Denver, USA. In that study, excess risks of total cancer and leukemia were observed among children living in homes with "high or very high current configuration", as categorised on the basis of proximity to electric lines and transformers. Many other epidemiological studies have been published since then, characterised by improved--although still not optimal--methods of exposure assessment. At the end of 2000, the epidemiological evidence to support the association between exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood leukemia is less consistent than what was observed in the mid 90s. At the same time, a growing body of experimental evidence has accumulated against both a direct and a promoting carcinogenic effect of ELF-EMF. Such "negative" experimental evidence hampers a causal interpretation of the "positive" epidemiological studies. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11758279 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 157: Eur J Neurosci. 2002 Apr;15(7):1206-18. Contribution of amygdala neurons containing peptides and calcium-binding proteins to fear-potentiated startle and exploration-related anxiety in inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats. Yilmazer-Hanke DM, Faber-Zuschratter H, Linke R, Schwegler H. Otto-von-Guericke Universitat, Institut fur Anatomie, Leipziger Strasse 44, D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany. The purpose of this study was to investigate amygdala-related fear and anxiety in two inbred rat lines differing in emotionality (RHA/Verh and RLA/Verh), and to relate the behaviour of the animals to neuronal types in different nuclei of the amygdala. The behavioural tests used were the motility test, elevated plus-maze and fear-potentiated startle response. The neurons investigated were immunoreactive for the anxiogenic peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF-ir), the anxiolytic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY-ir), and the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PARV-ir) and calbindin (CALB-ir). The NPY-ir, PARV-ir and CALB-ir neurons studied were subpopulations of GABAergic neurons. RLA/Verh rats, which showed a significant fear-potentiation of the acoustic startle response, had more CRF-ir projection neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala. The same RLA/Verh rats were either less or equally anxious in the motility test (similar to open field) and elevated plus-maze as compared with RHA/Verh rats. In accordance with this behaviour, the RLA/Verh rats had more NPY-ir neurons in the lateral, and more PARV-ir neurons in basal nuclei of the amygdala than RHA/Verh rats, but no differences were detected in the number of CRF-ir and CALB-ir neurons of the basolateral complex. In conclusion, the RLA/Verh rats displayed an opposite behaviour in the fear-potentiated startle model and the exploratory tests measuring anxiety based on choice behaviour. Thus, the anxiogenic systems in the central nucleus and anxiolytic systems in the basolateral complex of the amygdala might be differentially involved in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm and exploratory tests in the Roman rat lines. PMID: 11982631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 158: Lik Sprava. 1998 Oct-Nov;(7):71-3. [The effect of ultrahigh-frequency radiation on adaptation thresholds and the damages to blood system cells] [Article in Ukrainian] Obukhan KI. Cytologic investigations designed to study bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus of albino rats irradiated by an electromagnetic field, 2375, 2450, and 3000 MEGS, revealed structural and functional changes in populations of megakaryocytes, immunocompetent cells as well as of undifferentiated cells, and of other types of cells that are dependent on the intensity of irradiation and permit establishing the probability-threshold levels of exposure taking account of reactions of perception and physiologic adaptation together with compensatory and regenerative processes and the injury sustained. It is shown that changes in bone marrow cells differentiation and reproduction rather than integral shifts in the peripheral blood that acquire the utmost significance. Subjected to a particular scrutiny in the paper are blast cells, which cells' repopulation was noted to be getting increased in low-intensity exposure as were disturbances in their mitosis pattern. PMID: 10050464 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 159: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1999 Mar-Apr;49(2):321-30. [Changes in the behavior and EEG of rats administered penicillin and a physiological solution into the amygdalar basal nuclei] [Article in Russian] Pankova NB, Kryzhanovskii GN, Kuznetsov IuB, Latanov AV. Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow. Three weeks after implantation of the electrodes for EEG recording, hyperactivation of the basal nucleus of rat's amygdala was produced by a local injection of penicillin (0.5 mcl, 1% solution). Saline injection of the same volume served as control. The hyperactivation of the amygdala resulted in a long-lasting (at least for 3 weeks) increase in the locomotor activity against the background and deficit in exploratory behavior and rise of the level of anxiety and fear. The behavioral changes were accompanied by a long-term disruption of the hippocampal theta rhythm, appearance and slowing of the immobility-related high-voltage spindles, and increase in the EEG dominant frequency in the state of emotional tension. Saline injection led to a short-time (up to 1 week) decrease in locomotor and exploratory activity and increase in anxiety. These phenomena were accompanied by a short-time disruption of the theta rhythm and appearance of the 10-13-Hz oscillations characteristic for the state of emotional tension. PMID: 10486901 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 160: Pol J Pharmacol. 2001 May-Jun;53(3):235-43. Examination of the influence of 3,5-DHPG on behavioral activity of angiotensin II. Holy Z, Wisniewski K. Department of Pharmacology, Medical Academy of Bialystok, Poland. The effects of the class I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) stimulation on the behavioral activity of angiotensin II (Ang II) was investigated in the present study. The experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats. Stimulation of the group I of mGluR receptors was evoked by icv injection of (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (3,5-DHPG) at the dose of 0.01 and 1 nmol per rat. Fifteen minutes later, the animals were given icv solution containing 1 nmol of Ang II. Memory motivated affectively was evaluated in passive avoidance and active avoidance responses (CARs). Moreover, the speculative influence of the treatment on anxiety and motor activity was tested in elevated plus-maze and in open field, respectively. We observed that both compounds did not have statistically significant influence on motor activity of rats in open field test. However, 3,5-DHPG at the dose of 0.01 nmol given alone and combined with Ang II tended to increase locomotor activity. 3,5-DHPG, given alone, significantly facilitated consolidation process in a passive avoidance situation (only at the dose of 0.01 nmol) but had no influence on acquisition and recall of information. Examination of the influence of 3,5-DHPG on the acquisition and extinction of CAR proved that it did not alter acquisition and extinction of these responses. In the elevated plus-maze, 3,5-DHPG had anxiogenic-like profile. Ang II, as repeatedly shown before, greatly increased passive avoidance latency, rate of acquisition of CARs and decreased their extinction. On the other hand, Ang II induced anxiolytic-like effect in elevated plus-maze. The pre-treatment of rats with 3,5-DHPG tended to attenuate behavioral effects of the Ang II administration. PMID: 11785924 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 161: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 May;155(3):251-9. Effects of central noradrenaline depletion by the selective neurotoxin DSP-4 on the behaviour of the isolated rat in the elevated plus maze and water maze. Lapiz MD, Mateo Y, Durkin S, Parker T, Marsden CA. School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham Medical School, Queen's Medical Centre, UK. RATIONALE: Social isolation of the rat from weaning influences behaviour following central noradrenaline (NA) depletion by the selective neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4). OBJECTIVES: The study characterised the effects of DSP-4 on the behaviour of isolates in the elevated plus maze and water maze. METHODS: Male Lister hooded rats were reared singly or in groups after weaning. Two weeks postweaning, the rats were injected with DSP-4 (25 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. From week 4, rats were tested in the plus maze and in the water maze. RESULTS: DSP-4 significantly reduced cortical and hippocampal NA but had no effect on hypothalamic NA. Isolation rearing alone had no significant effects on behaviour in the elevated plus maze but enhanced retention of platform placement in the water maze as measured by increased entries to the platform annulus during the probe test. DSP-4 in group-reared rats increased activity in the open arms and increased general activity in the elevated plus maze with no effect on water maze performance. DSP-4-treated isolates spent less time in the open arms and were hypoactive in the plus maze compared to group-reared DSP-4-treated rats, and had impaired retention of spatial memory in the water maze compared to isolate controls. CONCLUSIONS: DSP-4 treatment had an 'anxiolytic' effect in group-reared rats in the elevated plus maze. In the water maze, isolation rearing enhanced retention of spatial information, an effect normalised by NA depletion. The results demonstrate the importance of noradrenergic function in the regulation of responsiveness to environmental cues. PMID: 11432687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 162: Behav Brain Res. 2002 Feb 1;129(1-2):203-10. Does head-only exposure to GSM-900 electromagnetic fields affect the performance of rats in spatial learning tasks? Dubreuil D, Jay T, Edeline JM. Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de l'Apprentissage, de la Memoire, et de la Communication, CNRS-UMR 8620, bat. 446, Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France. The rapid expansion of mobile communication has generated intense interest, but has also fuelled ongoing concerns. In both humans and animals, radiofrequency radiations are suspected to affect cognitive functions. More specifically, several studies performed in rodents have suggested that spatial learning can be impaired by electromagnetic field exposure. However, none of these previous studies have simulated the common conditions of GSM mobile phones use. This study is the first using a head-only exposure system emitting a 900-MHz GSM electromagnetic field (pulsed at 217 Hz). The two behavioural tasks that were evaluated here have been used previously to demonstrate performance deficits in spatial learning after electromagnetic field exposure: a classical radial maze elimination task and a spatial navigation task in an open-field arena (dry-land version of the Morris water maze). The performances of rats exposed for 45 min to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field (1 and 3.5 W/kg) were compared to those of sham-exposed and cage-control rats. There were no differences among exposed, sham, and cage-control rats in the two spatial learning tasks. The discussion focuses on the potential reasons that led previous studies to conclude that learning deficits do occur after electromagnetic field exposure. PMID: 11809512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 163: Behav Brain Res. 2002 May 14;132(2):135-43. Behavioral profile of rats submitted to session 1-session 2 in the elevated plus-maze during diurnal/nocturnal phases and under different illumination conditions. Bertoglio LJ, Carobrez AP. Departamento de Farmacologia, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Rua Ferreira Lima 82, Florianopolis, SC 88015-420, Brazil. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) model usually employs nocturnal species (e.g. rats and mice) and the tests are almost exclusively performed during the diurnal phase (lights on), leading some laboratories to perform experiments with animals under a reversed light cycle to overcome this problem. However, it is questionable whether the artificial reversal of the light cycle for short periods guarantees modifications in all the physiological parameters found in normal subjects. The present study evaluated the session 1-session 2 (S1-S2) EPM profile in rats during their normal diurnal or nocturnal phase using different illumination conditions. Prior exposure to the EPM decreased open arm exploration for all groups in S2, regardless of the circadian phase and illumination condition; however, this behavior was decreased in subjects tested during the nocturnal phase, when compared to the diurnal phase. Risk assessment (RA) behavior was decreased under high illumination for both circadian phases in S1 and increased in the first minute of S2, when compared to the last minute of S1. Although open arm exploration and RA behavior were decreased under high illumination, when compared to low illumination conditions in both circadian phases, general locomotor activity was only decreased during the nocturnal phase. The results are discussed in terms of circadian variations in the behavioral profile and as a possible source of variability in pre-clinical models of anxiety. PMID: 11997144 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 164: J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994 Apr;76(4):489-501. Low-power electromagnetic stimulation of osteotomized rabbit fibulae. A randomized, blinded study. Pienkowski D, Pollack SR, Brighton CT, Griffith NJ. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104. The purpose of this study was to determine whether low-power-consuming symmetrical-waveform electromagnetic stimuli could increase the stiffness of fracture sites in a rabbit fibular-osteotomy model. Both active and placebo devices were used in a blinded study protocol. Dose-response studies of pulse amplitude and pulse width were performed by continuous application (twenty-four hours a day) of repetitive (fifteen-hertz), bursted (five-millisecond-long) symmetrical, rectangular electromagnetic stimulus waveforms. The power consumed by these stimuli is approximately one-fifth that consumed by the pulsing electromagnetic field devices that are in current clinical use. Significant increase of callus bending stiffness was produced by pulse widths of five to seven microseconds and pulse amplitudes of fifty to 100 millivolts. Publication Types: Clinical Trial Randomized Controlled Trial PMID: 8150816 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 165: Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 May 18;420(1):33-43. Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism. Nakamura K, Kurasawa M. CNS Supporting Laboratory, Nippon Roche Research Center, 200 Kajiwara, Kamakura, 247-8530, Kanagawa, Japan. The anxiolytic effects of aniracetam have not been proven in animals despite its clinical usefulness for post-stroke anxiety. This study, therefore, aimed to characterize the anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in different anxiety models using mice and to examine the mode of action. In a social interaction test in which all classes (serotonergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic) of compounds were effective, aniracetam (10-100 mg/kg) increased total social interaction scores (time and frequency), and the increase in the total social interaction time mainly reflected an increase in trunk sniffing and following. The anxiolytic effects were completely blocked by haloperidol and nearly completely by mecamylamine or ketanserin, suggesting an involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine, 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors in the anxiolytic mechanism. Aniracetam also showed anti-anxiety effects in two other anxiety models (elevated plus-maze and conditioned fear stress tests), whereas diazepam as a positive control was anxiolytic only in the elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests. The anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in each model were mimicked by different metabolites (i.e., p-anisic acid in the elevated plus-maze test) or specific combinations of metabolites. These results indicate that aniracetam possesses a wide range of anxiolytic properties, which may be mediated by an interaction between cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. Thus, our findings suggest the potential usefulness of aniracetam against various types of anxiety-related disorders and social failure/impairments. PMID: 11412837 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 166: Vrach Delo. 1980 Oct;(10):103-9. [Biomedical evaluation of electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Serdiuk AM. PMID: 7434689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 167: Physiol Bohemoslov. 1981;30(2):149-55. Contactless method for the continuous and selective study of motor activity in the laboratory rat. Rech F. The author suggests a system for the continuous, direct, long-term recording of the motor activity of a particular laboratory rat in a group. A pickup of the animal's presence and its motor activity in the given space supplies a desired signal coded by frequency modulation of the carrier frequency. Detection is effected by a phase lock. The carrier frequency of a controlled oscillator is altered within small limits by means of inductive coupling between the tuning coil of the oscillator and a shading ring. The shading ring, which marks the experimental animal, is oval and is made of thin insulated litz wire sutured in place subcutaneously on the animal's back. The coil of the controlled oscillator surrounds the whole of the space in which motor activity is recorded. As an example, in a study of maternal behaviour, the presence or absence of the female in the nest and the motor activity of the lactating female typical of washing the young and of suckling them are identified and compared with direct observations. PMID: 6454153 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 168: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1976 Oct;82(10):1163-5. [Changes in the selfexcitation reaction in rats under the effect of modulated electromagnetic field] [Article in Russian] Antimonii GD, Badikov VI, Kel' AA, Krasnov EA, Sudakov SK. The effect of electromagnetic field with various modulation frequencies (2, 7, and 50 hertz) on the reaction of selfstimulation was studied in rats. The frequency of 2 hertz proved to cause a primary increase in the incidence of the selstimulation reaction, followed by its depression; the frequency 7 hertz at first failed to alter the selfstimulation intensity and then led to the gradual reduction of the incidence of the selfstimulation reaction; the frequency of 50 hertz depressed the selfstimulation reaction practically from the very beginning. The changes in the selfstimulation reaction were independent of the localization of the stimulating electrodes, but were determined by the frequency of the EMF modulation. PMID: 1029490 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 169: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002 May-Jun;42(3):260-7. [Prediction of the severity of damage and disruption of work ability in reaction of the body to alcohol load prior to radiation exposure in the superlethal range] [Article in Russian] Darenskaia NG, Korotkevich AO, Maliutina TS, Nasonova TA, Bulgakov AI. State Research Center-Institute of Biophysics, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, 123182 Russia. In experiments on 121 white non-linear rats, 44 Papio hamadryas and 29 Macaca fascicularis, animals' reactions on the alcohol impact (AI) and following exposure to supralethal doses were compared. The animals were intravenously injected with 5% ethanol in the glucose solution, 2.1 g/kg for rats and 0.46-0.51 g/kg for monkeys. Monkeys' response to AI was scored in four-point scale by estimating of abnormalities in motor activity, coordination of motion and changes in conditioned reflex activity. It was shown that changes in the ability of alcohol-injected rats to perform the learnt exercises in the "jump box" could be used for prediction of their response to the exposure to supralethal doses of ionizing radiation. Observing the AI-response in monkeys along with a method "function of spying for moving object" made possible to predict not only a general degree of loss of working ability but also to estimate individual impairments of spying functions. In 65% monkeys high similarity of the reactions to AI and ionizing radiation was observed. PMID: 12125263 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 170: Physiol Behav. 2001 Jan;72(1-2):99-106. Influence of circadian phase and test illumination on pre-clinical models of anxiety. Jones N, King SM. Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Pre-clinical models of anxiety, particularly the elevated plus-maze (EPM), have been shown to be sensitive to a variety of methodological variations. Recent research has implicated circadian phase of testing in influencing the behavioural profile of 5-HT(1A) ligands on the EPM. The present study investigated the effects of testing animals during the dark and light phases and in light and subjective dark test conditions on baseline behaviour in animal models of anxiety. Eighty singly housed male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a battery of unconditioned, exploratory tests (EPM, open field arena, holeboard) and a new model of extreme anxiety, the unstable elevated exposed plus-maze (UEEPM). Circadian phase of testing failed to consistently alter behaviour on any model. Level of test illumination had no effect on subjects' response to the open field arena, holeboard or UEEPM. Dark testing increased locomotor activity on the EPM (total arm entries, closed arm entries and distance moved) without decreasing open-arm avoidance. The construct of anxiety as measured by a number of different paradigms withstood major intra-laboratory manipulation of circadian phase of testing and illumination of apparatus. It is suggested that the effects of circadian rhythmicity may be confined to the behavioural profiles of serotonergic, particularly 5-HT(1A), ligands on the EPM. PMID: 11239986 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 171: Brain Res. 2001 Jun 1;902(2):135-42. Antagonism of CRF(2) receptors produces anxiolytic behavior in animal models of anxiety. Takahashi LK, Ho SP, Livanov V, Graciani N, Arneric SP. Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, 96822, Honolulu, HI, USA. Two pharmacologically distinct CRF receptors are distributed in different brain regions and peripheral tissues. Studies suggest that CRF(1) receptors play an important role in mediating the anxiety provoking effects of CRF. In contrast, far less functional information is available on CRF(2) receptors. Therefore, we conducted dose response studies using antisauvagine-30 (anti-SVG-30, 0-20 microg, 20-min pretreatment, i.c.v.), a potent CRF(2) peptide antagonist, and tested rats in three models of anxiety - the conditioned freezing, the elevated plus maze, and the defensive-withdrawal test. Anti-SVG-30 produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in conditioned freezing. In the elevated plus maze test, administration of anti-SVG-30 effectively increased the number of entries and time spent in the open arms. In the defensive-withdrawal test, anti-SVG-30 treatment facilitated exploratory activity in a large illuminated open field. Thus, in all three animal models, administration of anti-SVG-30 was consistent in producing an anxiolytic-like behavioral effect. In addition, a dose of anti-SVG-30 (10 microg) that produced anxiolytic-like behavior had no significant effects on locomotor activity measured in an automated activity box. This latter finding suggests that antagonism of CRF(2) receptors is not associated with a non-specific increase in behavioral movements. These results provide evidence that, in addition to CRF(1) receptors, CRF(2) receptors may play an important role in the mediation of anxiety behavior. PMID: 11384606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 172: Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002 Feb;10(1):18-25. Anxiolytic effects of mecamylamine in two animal models of anxiety. Newman MB, Manresa JJ, Sanberg PR, Shytle RD. Center for Aging and Brain Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa 33612, USA. Clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist, may have anxiolytic properties. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the anxiolytic properties of mecamylamine in rats as measured by the Elevated Plus Maze and the Social Interaction models of anxiety and to determine if manipulation of the testing environment (either brightly lit or dimly lit conditions) influenced the results. Results indicated that mecamylamine had significant anxiolytic effects in both the Elevated Plus Maze and Social Interaction Tests and that these effects were dependent on dose administered and the level of anxiety produced under different testing conditions. If confirmed by further clinical research, nicotinic receptor antagonists like mecamylamine may represent a novel class of anxiolytics. PMID: 11866248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 173: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Nov-Dec;50(6):991-8. [Characteristics of behavior of knockout mice with genetic monoamine oxidase A deficiency] [Article in Russian] Popova NK, Skrinskaia IuA, Amstislavskaia TG, Vishnivetskaia GB, Seif I, De Mayer E. Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk. The effect of deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) in the gene encoding on behavior of transgenic Tg8 mice was studied. A decrease in the amplitude of acoustic startle reflex rather than the prepulse inhibition was found in lacking MAO A Tg8 mice, as compared with the control C3H strain. The exploratory activity in the hole-board test in Tg8 was decreased as well as the number of crossed lines in the light-dark test. Tg8 mice showed decreased latency and increased intensity of intermale aggression. At the same time, no difference was found between Tg8 and C3H mice in locomotor activity, in the expression of sexual motivation, and in the behavior in the elevated plus-maze test. No predisposition to catalepsy was shown. PMID: 11190099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 174: Gig Sanit. 1989 Oct;(10):80-1. [Changes in enzyme activity of the lymphocytes in animals in the evaluation of the adaptive reactions to electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency] [Article in Russian] Dyshlovoi VD, Ianovskaia AS, Chaplinskaia TS. PMID: 2599412 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 175: Behav Brain Res. 2002 Apr 15;132(1):85-93. Estrogen's effects on activity, anxiety, and fear in two mouse strains. Morgan MA, Pfaff DW. Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 275, New York, NY 10021, USA. Estrogen has effects on activity levels and emotional reactivity in both humans and rats. In a recent study conducted in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6 (C57) mice we found that treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) increased anxiety, fear learning, and running wheel activity relative to vehicle control (Veh). The present study was conducted to examine the stability of these findings across mouse strains (C57 and Swiss-Webster; SW), to get a better sense of the magnitude of the anxiety response by reducing baseline anxiety levels, and to discover if EB affects activity levels in a safe environment other than the home-cage running wheel. Mice of both strains treated with EB (s.c. implant, 25 microg in sesame oil, which enters the body over 5 weeks) were more anxious than Veh animals in the open field, elevated plus, and dark-light transition tests. SW animals were less anxious than C57 in the elevated plus. EB-treated animals of both strains were more active in the running wheel than Veh animals, and more active in the test of spontaneous activity in the home cage. EB-treatment also increased fear learning in a step-down avoidance task. EB appears to have a consistent but moderate effect in elevating anxiety and in increasing fear learning in two strains of mice. It is also involved in increasing activity in two different types of locomotion in the safer home cage. We conclude that these results of increased anxiety/fear and increased activity are suggestive of a general increase in arousal, with both sets of responses increasing the likelihood of reproductive behaviors occurring only when the environment predicts success. PMID: 11853861 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 176: Med Pregl. 2001 Mar-Apr;54(3-4):119-27. Morphophysiological status of rat thyroid gland after subchronic exposure to low frequency electromagnetic field. [Article in English, Croatian] Rajkovic V, Matavulj M, Lukac T, Gledic D, Babic L, Lazetic B. Institut za biologiju, Prirodno-matematicki fakultet, 21000 Novi Sad. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of low-frequency electromagnetic field on male rat thyroid gland of Mill Hill strain. Animals were exposed to 50 Hz frequency, of decaying intensity from 500 microT to 50 microT and 10 V/m field, beginning 24 hours after birth, 7 hours a day, 5 days a week during three months. Results of histological and stereological analysis showed increased volume density of thyroid follicles, decreased thickness of the follicular epithelium, intrafollicular colloid content in lumen, decreased thyroid activation index, increased volume density of parafollicular cells, decreased volume of interfollicular connective tissue and increased number of degranulated mast cells in exposed animals in regard to control animals. Radioimmunologic assays were used to examine thyroid hormone concentrations in the blood serum revealing decrease of the total T4 as well as of total T3 in animals exposed to electromagnetic field in regard to controls. The obtained results show that a three month-exposition of animals to low frequency electromagnetic field led to morphofunctional alterations of the thyroid gland that can be referred to as reduced activity of the gland. PMID: 11759202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 177: J Microw Power. 1976 Jun;11(2):145-6. Proceedings: Comparative study of the action of three types of microwave fields upon the behavior of the white rat. Servantie B, Gillard J, Servantie AM, Obrenovitch J, Bertharion G, Perrin JC, Creton B. PMID: 1047672 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 178: Lik Sprava. 1993 Jan;(1):65-9. [Changes in the immune status under the influence of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation] [Article in Russian] Dumanskii IuD, Nogachevskaia SI. Experiments on white rats showed that electromagnetic radiation (24 MHz, 400 W/m and 20 W/m) caused leucopenia, reduction of E and EAC rosette formation of lymphocytes, functional activity of neutrophils within 2 months of radiation. No immunosuppressive effect was seen with 24 MHz, 100 W/m radiation, while 400 W/m inhibited E-rosette formation in the presence of tissue antigens. PMID: 8379142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 179: Neuropsychobiology. 2001;43(3):192-9. Dopaminergic lateralisation in the forebrain: relations to behavioural asymmetries and anxiety in male Wistar rats. Thiel CM, Schwarting RK. Institute of Physiological Psychology I, Heinrich-Heine-University of Dusseldorf, Germany. Neurochemical lateralisation has been demonstrated in dopaminergic systems in the rat brain, and it has been suggested that such lateralisation might contribute to asymmetric and emotional behaviour. Here, we investigated dopaminergic brain lateralisation in relation to spontaneous and drug-induced behavioural asymmetries, and to emotional behaviour in a sample of 24 male Wistar rats. Asymmetric behaviour was measured in the open field in the undrugged state and after a systemic challenge with the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg). Emotional behaviour was measured in the elevated plus-maze. Dopaminergic lateralisation was assessed by means of a post-mortem analysis of tissue dopamine (DA) and dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) content. We found higher DOPAC/DA ratios in the neostriatum, ventral striatum, frontal cortex and amygdala of the right hemisphere. In the open field, the complete sample of rats did not show a left/right asymmetry in spontaneous behaviour, whereas systemic scopolamine induced a left-sided preference in thigmotactic scanning. A correlational analysis yielded individual relationships between behaviour and post-mortem neurochemistry, since lateralisation of DOPAC/DA ratios in favour of the right ventral striatum was related to right-side thigmotaxis. Furthermore, a right dopaminergic lateralisation in the frontal cortex was associated with lower anxiety. The study indicates that asymmetries in ventral striatal dopamine might contribute to side preferences in thigmotactic scanning while frontal dopaminergic lateralisation might influence emotional processing. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID: 11287799 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 180: Pharmacol Res. 2001 Oct;44(4):329-35. Baclofen prevents hypoxia-induced consolidation impairment for passive avoidance in rats. Car H, Oksztel R, Nadlewska A, Wisniewski K. Medical Academy of Bialystok, Department of Pharmacology, Mickiewicza 2c, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland. We investigated the effects of baclofen, a selective GABA-B receptor agonist, on certain behaviours in rats after short-term hypoxia, as a model of experimentally induced amnesia. Baclofen given intraperitoneally (i.p.) in a dose of 0.25 mg kg(-1) increased the number of crossings and bar approaches in the open field, but was ineffective in the passive avoidance tests; it also shortened the time spent in open arms and reduced the number of open arms entries in an elevated 'plus' maze, being a measure of anxiety. Hypoxia (2% O2, 98% N2) within 4 min profoundly impaired locomotor activity, consolidation and retrieval of conditioned responses, and exhibited a proaxiogenic effect in the elevated 'plus' maze in rats--it reduced the time spent in open arms and the number of entries to closed and open arms. Baclofen's effect on locomotor and exploratory activity was substantially impaired after hypoxia, i.e. rats exhibited a significant reduction in those activities. This agonist of GABA-B receptor used before hypoxia significantly improved consolidation, but had no effect on retrieval. In the elevated 'plus' maze rats pre-treated with baclofen and then subjected to hypoxia prolonged the time spent in open arms, reduced the time spent in closed arms, and increased the number of entries to the arms, i.e. exhibited anxiolytic effect. We conclude, therefore, that baclofen improved consolidation of passive avoidance in rats undergoing hypoxia. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID: 11592869 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 181: Physiol Behav. 2002 Feb 1-15;75(1-2):15-23. Spatial memory deficit and emotional abnormality in OLETF rats. Li XL, Aou S, Hori T, Oomura Y. Department of Integrative Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University 60, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is deeply involved in the control of learning and emotional behaviors. The authors characterize the behavioral properties of Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which lack the CCK-A receptor because of a genetic abnormality. In the Morris water-maze task, the OLETF rats showed an impaired spatial memory. In the inhibitory avoidance test, they showed facilitating response 24 h after training. Hypoalgesia was observed in a hot-plate test. In the elevated plus-maze and food neophobia test, OLETF rats showed an anxiety-like response. In addition, OLETF rats were hypoactive in the Morris water-maze and the elevated plus-maze. The results suggest that the OLETF rats showed a spatial memory deficit, hypoactivity and anxiety due, at least in part, to the lack of CCK-A receptors. PMID: 11890948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 182: Neuropeptides. 2001 Apr;35(2):100-9. The effects of CRA 1000, a non-peptide antagonist of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1, on adaptive behaviour in the rat. Harro J, Tonissaar M, Eller M. Department of Psychology, University of Tartu, Estonia. Intracerebrally administered CRF has been demonstrated to elicit several behavioural deficits in novel and potentially stressful experimental paradigms, and to promote activity in familiar situations. This study examined the effect of CRA 1000, a novel non-peptide antagonist of CRF(1)receptors, on rat behaviour in tests of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity and novelty-oriented behaviour. CRA 1000 (1.25-10 mg/kg) had no major effect in elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests. However, CRA 1000 (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility in the forced swimming test, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. In the exploration box test, CRA 1000 (1.25 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic effect on rat exploratory behaviour both in intact rats and after lesioning of the projections of locus coeruleus by DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) treatment. A higher dose of CRA 1000 (5 mg/kg) tended to have anxiolytic-like effects in DSP-4 pretreated rats, but in intact animals this dose prevented the increase in exploration which develops with repeated exposure to initially anxiety-provoking situations. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that CRF1 receptor blockade by CRA 1000 has antidepressant-like effects, does not have a robust anti-anxiety effect in non-stressed animals, but does have anxiolytic-like effects in more complex tasks, which can be observed also after denervation of the locus coeruleus projections. However, large doses of CRF1 receptor antagonists may reduce motivation of exploratory behaviour in familiar environments. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID: 11384205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 183: In Vivo. 2001 Nov-Dec;15(6):489-94. In vivo modulation of ETS genes induced by electromagnetic fields. Mucci N, Ianni A, Ursini CL, Arzani D, Bhat NK, Navarra P, Romano-Spica V. Department of Occupational Medicine, I.S.P.E.S.L., Rome, Italy. We have previously shown that electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure induces ETS1 oncogene overexpression in different cell lines. In order to investigate in vivo EMF effects, BALB/c mice were exposed at different times to 50 MHz radiation, modulated (80%) at 16 Hz. The exposed and control animals were sacrificed and the spleen excised for rt-pcr and western blot analysis. We observed an increase in ETS1 mRNA and protein expression, but a decrease in ETS2 protein levels. Preliminary results from this experimental model show in vivo evidence of the effect of EMF on ETS oncogene expression. PMID: 11887334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 184: Toxicol Pathol. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):286. Comment on: Toxicol Pathol. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):267-78. Toxicol Pathol. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):279-85. Rodent carcinogenicity studies on magnetic fields. Schwetz B. FDA (HF-32), Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA. Publication Types: Comment PMID: 10356704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 185: Exp Neurol. 2001 May;169(1):96-104. Enhanced excitability induced by ionizing radiation in the kindled rat. Jenrow KA, Ratkewicz AE, Elisevich KV. Epilepsy Research Laboratory, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit, Michigan, 48202, USA. Evidence derived from both clinical and experimental investigations has suggested an influence of ionizing radiation on focal epileptogenicity. To better characterize this influence we applied focal ionizing radiation to a kindled epileptic focus in the rat amygdala. The right and left basolateral amygdala and right frontal cortex were implanted with concentric bipolar electrodes. Rats were kindled through a minimum of 10 stage 5 seizures by afterdischarge-threshold electrostimulation of the left amygdala, after which generalized seizure thresholds were determined prior to irradiation. The left amygdala was exposed to single-fraction central-axis doses of either 18 or 25 Gy using a beam-collimated (60)Co source (1.25 MeV). Generalized seizure thresholds were then redetermined at weekly intervals for 10 weeks and at monthly intervals for an additional 3 months. We observed no significant changes in seizure threshold during the postirradiation interval; however, we did observe persistent changes in seizure dynamics manifesting within the first week postirradiation. These consisted of an increased tendency for seizure activity to propagate into brain stem circuits during the primary ictus (i.e., "running fits") and an increased tendency for secondary convulsions to emerge postictally. These effects involving seizure dynamics have not been reported previously and appear to represent a radiation-induced disinhibition of one or more neural circuits. The disparity between these effects and earlier reports of seizure-suppressive effects resulting from analogous radiation exposures is discussed in relation to kindling and status epilepticus-induced pathogenesis within the hippocampus. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID: 11312562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 186: Acta Physiol Pol. 1975 Sep-Oct;26(5):523-7. Changes in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of psycholeptic drugs in radiation-sickness. Effect of x-ray radiation on pharmacodynamic activity of nitrazepam in animals. Szczawinska K, Chodera A, Wojciak Z, Kozaryn I. PMID: 1224989 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 187: Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 2001 Nov;11(65):447-51. [Immunotropic effects of electromagnetic fields in the range of radio- and microwave frequencies] [Article in Polish] Dabrowski MP, Stankiewicz W, Sobiczewska E, Szmigielski S. Zaklad Ochrony Mikrofalowej Wojskowego Instytutu Higieny i Epidemiologii w Warszawie. On the grounds of reviewed literature and the results of own experiments, the authors present current views on the possible immunotropic influence of low energy electromagnetic fields, in the range of radio- and microwave frequencies. They conclude, that a more systematic and multidisciplinary investigations should be undertaken, comprising the wide spectrum of immune homeostatic tasks, including defensive, immunoregulatory and pro-regenerative capabilities of immune system exposed to rapid environmental spread of different electromagnetic emitters. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11852821 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 188: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1997 May-Jun;37(3):328-35. [The dependence of the biological effect of electron radiation on the pulse repetition rate. The dependence of mortality and life span in rats on the radiation dose and pulse repetition rate] [Article in Russian] Darenskaia NG, Nasonova TA, Aleshin SN, Vainer EA, Grinev MP. Quantitative regularities have been established for mortality and life-span of rats in relation to the pulse recurrence frequency (3-2400 s-1) of electron radiation with electron energies of 25 and 50 MeV. Electrons with pulse recurrence frequencies of 600 and 1200 s-1 have shown a higher biological effectiveness. PMID: 9244519 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 189: Diabetes Obes Metab. 1999 Sep;1(5):281-4. Intracerebroventricularly administered corticotropin-releasing factor inhibits food intake and produces anxiety-like behaviour at very low doses in mice. Momose K, Inui A, Asakawa A, Ueno N, Nakajima M, Fujimiya M, Kasuga M. Metabolic Disease Research, Pharmacology Laboratories, Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Tsukuba, Japan. AIM: Previous studies have demonstrated that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) produces behavioural, physiological and immunological responses similar to those induced by stress. However, these findings have been validated largely in laboratory rats. METHODS: We examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CRF on anxiety and food intake in mice. Using the elevated-plus maze, we measured anxiety levels after i.c.v. CRF in mice. We also measured food intake for 2 h after i.c.v. CRF. RESULTS: CRF increased the normal preference for the closed arms of the maze at a very low dose of 3 pmol, indicating an anxiogenic effect. CRF powerfully suppressed food intake at the doses of 3-300 pmol for over 2 h. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that i.c.v. CRF evokes anxiogenic behaviour and suppresses feeding with the same dose-response relationships in mice. CRF may thus play a role in integrating the overall responses to stress through co-ordinated actions in the brain of this species. PMID: 11225639 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 190: Biofizika. 1999 Sep-Oct;44(5):931-2. [Change in the percent of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme level in testes of animals exposed to superhigh frequency radiation] [Article in Russian] Afromeev VI, Tkachenko VN. Research Production Venture Stek, Tula, Russia. The content of six lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in testes of rats exposed to electromagnetic field of 3-cm wavelength range was studied. The changes in their percent contents were found to be inhomogeneous compared with control. It is assumed that electromagnetic radiation affects the organs of the human urinogenital system. The results can be used for estimating the safety of persons professionally exposed to electromagnetic radiation of the industrial frequency range and in the therapy of diseases of the urinogenital system. PMID: 10624539 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 191: Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 1999 Mar;50(1):5-11. Animal study on electromagnetic field biological potency. Trosic I, Matausicpisl M, Radalj Z, Prlic I. Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia. This recent basic research study used an animal model protocol to assess specific biomarkers of the effect of non-ionising, non-thermal radiation (2450 MHz microwave radiation at 5-15 mW/cm2) on bone marrow, peripheral blood, and bronchoalveolar free cell populations. Of 40 male Wistar rats taken in the study, 20 animals of the experimental group were irradiated for 2 hours a day, 5 days a week, and subsequently killed on days 1, 8, 16, and 30 of the experiment. The remaining 20 rats served as control. All animals were previously intratracheally instilled with biologically inert microspheres to see the influence of irradiation on lung retention kinetics. The cell response to chosen electromagnetic irradiation was followed quantitatively and qualitatively using the standard laboratory methods. The results of peripheral blood cell response suggested a decreasing tendency in total leukocyte count and in relative lymphocyte count in the treated group. A slight increase was also observed in granulocyte count and in the absolute count of peripheral blood erythrocytes over control animals. PMID: 10457649 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 192: Bioelectromagnetics. 1995;16(5):335-6; discussion 337-8. Do rats show a behavioral sensitivity to low-level magnetic fields? Stern S. Department of Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, New York 14642, USA. PMID: 8554636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 193: Bioelectromagnetics. 2002 Jan;23(1):68-82. Health and safety implications of exposure to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 300 Hz to 10 MHz. Litvak E, Foster KR, Repacholi MH. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. An international seminar on health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the frequency range from 300 Hz to 10 MHz (referred to as the Intermediate Frequency (IF) range) was held in Maastricht, Netherlands, on 7-8 June 1999. The seminar, organized under the International EMF Project, was sponsored jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and the Government of the Netherlands. This report does not attempt to summarize all of the material presented at the conference, but focuses on sources of exposure, biophysical and dosimetric considerations pertinent to extrapolating biological data from other frequency ranges to IF and identifies potential health concerns and needs for developing exposure guidelines. This paper is based on presentations at the conference and reports of working groups consisting of the speakers and other experts. It concludes with recommendations for further research aimed at improving health risk assessments in this frequency range. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Publication Types: Congresses PMID: 11793407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 194: Eur J Cell Biol. 2001 Aug;80(8):562-6. Stimulation of phagocytosis and free radical production in murine macrophages by 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. Simko M, Droste S, Kriehuber R, Weiss DG. University of Rostock, Institute of Cell Biology and Biosystems Technology, Division of Environmental Physiology, Germany. Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on phagocytosis and free radical production were examined in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Macrophages were in vitro exposed to electromagnetic fields using different magnetic field densities (0.5-1.5 mT). Short-time exposure (45 min) to electromagnetic fields resulted in significantly increased phagocytic uptake (36.3% +/- 15.1%) as quantified by measuring the internalization rate of latex beads. Stimulation with 1 nM 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) showed the same increased phagocytic activity as 1 mT electromagnetic fields. However, co-exposure to electromagnetic fields and TPA showed no further increase of bead uptake, and therefore we concluded that because of the absence of additive effects, the electromagnetic fields-induced stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages does not involve the protein kinase C signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, a significant increased superoxide production after exposure to electromagnetic fields was detected. PMID: 11561907 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 195: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):700-5. [Effects of 2375 MHz pulse-modulated microwave radiation on ATPase activity of the rat muscle actomyosin] [Article in Russian] Pashovskina MS, Akoev IG. Solution of rat muscle actomyosin (AM) was exposed to pulse-modulated microwave. Carried frequency was 2375 MHz. The rectangular pulse modulation was in the range of 50-300 pulses per second. It was shown that AM activity was dependent both on modulation frequency as well as on microwave intensity. It was shown the frequencies of modulation which were changed ATP-ase activity of AM. PMID: 9019280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 196: Science. 1983 Jun 17;220(4603):1283-5. Pulsing electromagnetic fields induce cellular transcription. Goodman R, Bassett CA, Henderson AS. Weak, pulsing electromagnetic fields can modify biological processes. The hypothesis that responses to such induced currents depend on pulse characteristics was evaluated by using transcription as the target process. Two pulses in clinical use, the repetitive single pulse and the repetitive pulse train, were tested. These pulses produced different results from each other and from controls when transcription in dipteran salivary gland cells was monitored with tritiated uridine in transcription autoradiography, cytological nick translation, and analysis of isolated RNA fractions. The single pulse increased the specific activity of messenger RNA after 15 and 45 minutes of exposure. The pulse train increased specific activity only after 45 minutes of exposure. PMID: 6857248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 197: Farmakol Toksikol. 1980 Jul-Aug;43(4):334-8. [Pharmacological characteristics of the tranquilizing action of hydiphen] [Article in Russian] Zainkonnikova IV, Val'dman AV, Kozlovskaia MM, Rzhevskaia GF. Hydiphen--hydrazide of diphenylphosphinylacetic acid--is a new Soviet tranquilizer having an original spectrum of psychotropic activity. It depresses an aroused emotional state of fear-anxiety, decreases the state of conflict in group interaction. It produces neither myorelaxation nor increase in positive emotions. The drug is not toxic. It possesses the central N-cholinolytic, antiadrenergic and antiserotonin effects. PMID: 7439361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 198: Bioelectromagnetics. 2002 Jan;23(1):2-6. Effect of short duration electromagnetic field exposures on rat mass. Sandrey MA, Vesper DN, Johnson MT, Nindl G, Swez JA, Chamberlain J, Balcavage WX. School of Physical Education, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA. Daily preexposure and postexposure mass measurements of 65 rats (young males and females, old males) a proprietary pulsed wound healing field, pulsed electromagnetic field, (PEMF), or their control fields for 4 h/day for 21 days. Statistical analysis of mass changes over time showed that young rats exposed to PEMF lost more mass and recovered it more slowly compared to controls (2-4% more loss) than did older PEMF exposed rats or any 60 Hz exposed rats. We conclude that daily preexposure and postexposure mass measurements are needed to adequately assess the effects of electromagnetic fields on body mass. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 11793400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 199: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2000;(5):8-11. [Changes in gastric electric activity and serum catecholamine level under the influence of electromagnetic microwaves (experimental studies)] [Article in Russian] Kulkybaev GA, Pospelov NI. Chronic experiments on 17 dogs revealed that ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic waves applied on epigastric area and head induce a double-phase response: depressed electric activity of gaster and increased total catecholamines level during exposure, but higher gastric activity and lower levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine in 24 hours after each of 10 procedures and during 7 days after 10 procedures. Double-phase changes in electric activity of gaster could be explained by double-phase fluctuations of humoral division in chromaffin system. PMID: 10881538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 200: Behav Brain Res. 2001 Aug 1;122(2):169-74. Vibrissal sense is not the main sensory modality in rat exploratory behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Cardenas F, Lamprea MR, Morato S. Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-901, Brazil. Four groups of male Wistar rats were submitted to acute bilateral removal of mystacial vibrissae at different lengths from the follicle. Each group was divided into two subgroups, tested under high (150 Lux) and low environmental illumination (2 Lux). All the subjects were allowed to freely explore an elevated plus-maze for 5 min. Results indicated that rats tested under low illumination tended to explore the open arms more frequently and longer then rats tested under high illumination. When tested under low illumination, rats in the group that suffered whole vibrissa removal stayed longer in the open arms than those in the other groups but did not differ in the number of entries. The average increase in the length of open arm entries, rather than a decrease in aversion to the open arms, may be due to the need of more time to obtain information about the environment since there is no light and the vibrissae were removed. This effect was not seen with rats tested under high illumination, possibly because vision could be used to obtain relevant information. PMID: 11334647 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 201: Biofizika. 1995 Sep-Oct;40(5):969-73. [Modification of reactions of rats to the effect of weak variable magnetic fields using a stress factor] [Article in Russian] Temur'iants NA, Mikhailov AV, Malygina VI. Stress-factor (hypokinesia) modifies the reaction of the adaptation, which develops under the changeable magnetic fields influence with 8 Hz frequency and 5 microT induction. It's being corroborated by the decrease of nonspecific resistance in the initial adaptation period, by the increase of central nervous system excitability, by the absence of catecholamines accumulation in the hypothalamus and in adrenal glands. PMID: 8555295 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 202: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1995;(7):40-2. [A neuropharmacological study of amnesia in animals induced by ultra high frequency electromagnetic irradiation] [Article in Russian] Iasnetsov VV, Pal'tsev IuP, Popov VM, Levina AV. PMID: 7551702 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 203: Pol J Pharmacol. 2000 Jul-Aug;52(4):247-54. 3,5-DHPG influences behavioral effects of baclofen in rats. Car H, Nadlewska A, Wisniewski K. Department of Pharmacology, Medical Academy, Bialystok, Poland. The role of 3,5-DHPG, an agonist of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (I mGluRs) in certain behavioral effects of baclofen, an agonist of GABA-B receptor, was assessed. Baclofen, given intraperitoneally (ip) at the dose of 0.25 mg/kg, enhanced the number of crossings and bar approaches in the open field and was ineffective in the passive avoidance tests, and it prolonged time spent in closed arms and shortened time spent in open arms, reduced number of entries into open arms in the elevated "plus" maze, measuring anxiety. 3,5-DHPG given intracerebroventricularly (icv) alone at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 nmole did not change locomotor activity in the open field test, except bar approaches: when 3,5-DHPG was given at the dose of 0.01 nmole it enhanced the activity of rats. At doses of 0.01 and 1.0 nmole it improved, but at the dose of 0.1 nmole it significantly impaired retrieval in the passive avoidance situation. All used doses of 3,5-DHPG did not influence the time spent in closed or open arms and the number of entries into open or closed arms in the elevated "plus" maze. 3,5-DHPG, given at the doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 nmole 10 min after baclofen significantly changed the effect of baclofen decreasing crossings and rearings in the open field, while 3,5-DHPG used at the doses of 0.01 and 1.0 nmole in rats pretreated with baclofen reduced bar approaches. Rats which received baclofen and, 10 min later, 3,5-DHPG at doses of 0.1 and 1.0 nmole, showed significantly improved retrieval in the passive avoidance response. The effect of 3,5-DHPG and baclofen were changed, i.e. 3,5-DHPG and baclofen can cooperate in retrieval process. Coadministration of baclofen and 3,5-DHPG at the dose of 1.0 nmole reduced time spent in the open arms in comparison with baclofen, i.e. this dose of 3,5-DHPG changed the effect of baclofen evaluated in the "plus" maze. Summary, the activation of I mGluR by 3,5-DHPG modulates GABA-B neurotransmission stimulated by baclofen, which is reflected by changing behavioral activity of rats. PMID: 11345480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 204: Biofizika. 1994 May-Jun;39(3):515-8. [Controlled effect of an impulse electromagnetic field on the central nervous system] [Article in Russian] Pestriaev VA. Faint influences of impulses (1 ms) electromagnetic fields (173 A/m) with dynamic frequency-impulse modulation, which is regulated by feedback from electrocorticogram, and influences with fixed frequency of impulses run infra-low range affect on changing of current function state of central nervous system in different ways, is established. The white rats in the sleep-wake cycle were used in experiments. Besides, the first regimen of influence is more effective for changing of character of bioelectrical activity of cortex of head brain. The second one-for support of current processes of synchronization. PMID: 8043642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 205: Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Dec 14;433(1):91-9. Increased anxiety and impaired memory in rats 3 months after administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy"). Morley KC, Gallate JE, Hunt GE, Mallet PE, McGregor IS. Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Male Wistar rats were administered either (a) a high dose regime of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (4 x 5 mg/kg, i.p. over 4 h on each of 2 consecutive days), (b) a moderate dose regime of MDMA (1 x 5 mg/kg on each of 2 consecutive days), (c) D-amphetamine (4 x 1 mg/kg over 4 h on each of 2 days), or (d) vehicle injections. The high MDMA dose regime and the amphetamine treatment both produced acute hyperactivity and hyperthermia. Twelve weeks later, all rats were tested in the drug-free state on a battery of anxiety tests (elevated plus maze, emergence and social interaction tests). A further 2 weeks later they were tested on a novel object recognition memory task. Rats previously given the neurotoxic dose of MDMA showed greater anxiety-like behaviour on all three anxiety tests relative to both controls and D-amphetamine-treated rats. Rats given the moderate MDMA dose regime also showed increased anxiety-like behaviour on all three tests, although to a lesser extent than rats in the high dose group. In the object recognition task, rats given the high MDMA dose regime showed impaired memory relative to all other groups when tested at a 15-min delay but not at a 60-min delay. Rats previously exposed to amphetamine did not differ from saline controls in the anxiety or memory tests. These data suggest that moderate to heavy MDMA exposure over 48 h may lead to increased anxiety and memory impairment 3 months later, possibly through a neurotoxic effect on brain serotonin systems. PMID: 11755138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 206: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1990 May-Jun;(3):58-66. [The experimental and clinical aspects of the action of electromagnetic fields on the endocrine glands and brain] [Article in Russian] Bogoliubov VM, Karpukhin IV, Maliavin AG. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 2219822 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 207: Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2002 May;79(1):25-31. The effect of melatonin on morphological changes in liver induced by magnetic field exposure in rats. Gokcimen A, Ozguner F, Karaoz E, Ozen S, Aydin G. Department of Histology and Embryology, S. Demirel University, School of Medicine, Isparta, Turkey. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible effect of melatonin on morphological changes in liver induced by magnetic fields exposure. Thirty albino young male Wistar Albino rats were used in the study. They were divided into 3 groups. Control group (C) (n: 10) received daily intraperitoneal injections of saline (0.1 ml/100 g) containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. Only magnetic field exposed (MF) group (n: 10); only magnetic field exposed had daily intraperitoneal injections of physiologic saline (0.1 ml/100 g) containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. Magnetic field exposed and melatonin treated (MF+m) group (n: 10); melatonin was dissolved in ethanol with further dilution in physiological saline. The animals in this group were exposed magnetic fields for two weeks. The magnetic fields exposed animals had intraperitoneal single dose of 4 mg/kg melatonin (0.1 ml/100 g) at 10:00 o'clock daily for two weeks following magnetic fields exposure. We used commercial CB handheld portable transceiver, Midland (USA) labelled, of 4 Watts, 40 channel. This channel frequency has been measured 27.17 MHz with frequency counter. According to the IRPA exposure standards; for 27 MHz, for 6 min, exposure limit is 0.2 mW/cm2. This value is for General Public. For occupational exposure limit is 1 mW/cm2. We have to consider General Public exposure limit. Therefore our limit is 0.2 mW/cm2. In other words; in this study; our exposure is always over the recommended limit. All the animals were decapitated. Liver samples were fixed in buffered neutral formalin. Paraffin sections were dyed with hematoxylen-eosin. Sections were examined under light microscopy. In MF group; sinusoidal dilatations, mixed cell infiltrations noticed in the periportal area, necrosis and vacuoler degeneration were determined in liver samples. However, parenchymal and stromal structures were observed to be prevented partially from effects of magnetic fields in melatonin treated group. In conclusion, it is suggested that melatonin has a mild preventive effect on magnetic field exposed changes in liver tissue in the rats. PMID: 12199535 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 208: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1991 Nov-Dec;25(6):30-3. [Grooming and motor activity of rats during hyperbaric exposure] [Article in Russian] Sledkov AIu. An experiment was performed in which Wistar male rats were exposed to a N2-O2 atmosphere at 10 kgf/sm2 or He-O2 atmosphere at 10 and 40 kgf/cm2. During the experiment grooming and motor activity as well as plasma corticosterone were investigated. Irrespective of the atmosphere composition, behavioural and biochemical parameters were found to increase significantly. At 10 kgf/cm2, the grooming frequency returned to normal faster than at a higher pressure. These observations give evidence for a nonspecific effect of the above hyperbaric factors on the parameters taken under study. PMID: 8577160 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 209: Med Pregl. 1997 Sep-Oct;50(9-10):357-62. [The effect of low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system] [Article in Croatian] Lazetic B, Kozarcic T, Stankov K. Zavod za fiziologiju, Medicinski fakultet, Novi Sad. This paper presents literature data about effects of low-intensity variable electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system of experimental animals. We mostly paid attention to electromagnetic fields frequently found in our environment, in technological processes, even in our everyday life. This study shows that the regulatory systems (nervous and endocrine) are extremely sensitive to effects of electromagnetic fields. In regard to structures of the central nervous system hypothalamus shows particularly high sensitivity whereas we can consider a hypothesis that effects of this physical factor may be expected in other systems too. It has been emphasized that the effects of electromagnetic fields on regulatory mechanisms may be connected with primary disturbances on the cellular and subcellular (mitochondrial) level. Publication Types: Review Review, Academic PMID: 9471530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 210: Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 1998;(8):27-32. [Induction of long-term depression (with anxiety and fear components) by immunization of rats against pargyline] [Article in Russian] Ashmarin IP, Danilova RA, Obukhova MF, Belopol'skaia MV. The active immunization of albino rats against pargyline (a MAO B inhibitor) induced the formation of antibody to pargyline and results in deep depressive changes and fear. These changes were observed within 6 weeks after the first immunization. Therefore, it opens the possibility to model depression long by exerting the minimum influences. There was also a long-term modulation of craving for alcohol. PMID: 9771127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 211: J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2000 Winter;10(4):277-86. Effects of subchronic methylphenidate hydrochloride administration on the locomotor and exploratory behavior of prepubertal mice. Carrey N, McFadyen MP, Brown RE. Department of Outpatient Psychiatry, IWK-Grace Hospital, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The increasing use of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) in children led us to examine the effects of MPH administration in developing mice. Male CD-1 mice were administered MPH (40 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or saline daily from postnatal days 26-32. The mice were then tested from postnatal days 33-37 for locomotion and exploration in the open field, anxiety in the elevated plus maze, and learning in the Morris water maze. The results indicate that MPH-pretreated mice were more exploratory and less fearful in the open field, entering more center squares than saline controls. MPH-pretreated mice also exhibited less anxiety, spending more time in the open arm and exhibiting more head dips in the elevated plus maze than controls. There was no significant difference between MPH and saline-treated mice in the time taken to find the visible or hidden platform in the water maze task. The results indicate that treatment with MPH has significant effects on later behavior, reducing fear and anxiety, and increasing exploration, but no effect on performance in a spatial learning task. PMID: 11191688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 212: Biofizika. 2001 Jul-Aug;46(4):753-60. [Effect of extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity on parameters of humoral immunity in healthy mice] [Article in Russian] Lushnikov KV, Gapeev AB, Sadovnikov VB, Cheremis NK. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 Russia. The modification of indices of the humoral immune response to thymus-dependent antigen (sheep erythrocytes) after a whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity extremely-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation was studied. Male NMRI mice were exposed in the far-field zone of horn antenna at a frequency of 42.0 GHz and energy flux density of 0.15 mW/cm2 under different regimes: once for 20 min, for 20 min daily during 5 and 20 successive days before immunization, and for 20 min daily during 5 successive days after immunization throughout the development of the humoral immune response. The intensity of the humoral immune response was estimated on day 5 after immunization by the number of antibody-forming cells of the spleen and antibody titers. Changes in cellularity of the spleen, thymus and red bone marrow were also assessed. The indices of humoral immunity and cellularity of lymphoid organs changed insignificantly after acute exposure and series of 5 exposures before and after immunization of the animals. However, after repeated exposures for 20 days before immunization, a statistically significant reduction of thymic cellularity by 17.5% (p < 0.05) and a decrease in cellularity of the spleen by 14.5% (p < 0.05) were revealed. The results show that low-intensity extremely-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation with the frequency and energy flux density used does not influence the humoral immune response intensity in healthy mice but influences immunogenesis under multiple repeated exposures. PMID: 11558390 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 213: Biofizika. 2001 Nov-Dec;46(6):1096-102. [Degranulation of skin mast cells caused by high frequency electromagnetic irradiation of low intensity] [Article in Russian] Popov VI, Rogachevskii VV, Gapeev AB, Khramov RN, Fesenko EE. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 Russia. It was shown by light and electron microscopy that local exposure of the projection of the MC-8 lao-gun acupuncture point in rat pad to low-intensity (0.05 mW/cm2) extremely high-frequency (42.0 GHz) electromagnetic radiation caused a degranulation of derma mast cells. It was suggested that the response of skin mast cells is an important amplifying mechanism in the chain of events leading to a systemic response of the organism to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation. PMID: 11771285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 214: Gig Sanit. 1981 Oct;(10):35-8. [Effect of a superhigh-frequency electromagnetic field on animals of different ages] [Article in Russian] Shutenko OI, Koziarin IP, Shvaiko II. PMID: 7308758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 215: Gig Sanit. 1990 Aug;(8):62-3. [Hygienic standardization of electromagnetic radiation from two-channel meteorological radar stations] [Article in Russian] Nikitina NG, Tomashevskaia LA. The study was designed to analyze the impact of the combined electromagnetic fields (EMF) with the wavelength of 10 and 0.8 cm and various levels of energy current density on the central nervous system, metabolic processes, immune resistance and reproductive function. Proceeding from the obtained data maximum allowable levels of EMF produced by the prospective two-channel meteorological++ radars were established. PMID: 2283071 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 216: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Oct;157(4):388-94. The effect of glucocorticoids on the anxiolytic efficacy of buspirone. Haller J, Leveleki C, Halasz J, Baranyi J, Makara GB. Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Science, P.O. Box 67, 1450 Budapest, Hungary. RATIONALE: The serotonergic system and the hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenocortical axis reciprocally influence each other. Therefore, the interaction between stress and serotonergic anxiolytics should be of major concern for both laboratory investigations and clinical treatment. OBJECTIVES: We have studied the effects of the serotonergic anxiolytic buspirone in rats in which basal levels of glucocorticoids were low and stable, while acute stress reactions were inhibited or exogenously induced. METHODS: Rats were adrenalectomised. Subcutaneous corticosterone pellets maintained basal glucocorticoid concentrations while acute changes were mimicked by corticosterone injections. Anxiety was assessed by the social interaction test. Temporal changes were evaluated by submitting rats to the same manipulations three times at two-day intervals. RESULTS: Buspirone applied to animals with stable and low plasma glucocorticoid concentrations induced a dramatic increase in social interactions. A slight locomotor suppressive effect was also noticed. The effects of buspirone proved to be stable over time in these animals. Acute treatment with corticosterone doubled the locomotor suppressive effects of buspirone and reversed its anxiolytic effects: the buspirone-corticosterone combination was anxiogenic after the first application. During the second and third treatment, the impact of corticosterone on buspirone efficacy gradually decreased, but the combined treatment remained about half as effective in reducing anxiety as buspirone alone. PMID: 11605098 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 217: Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001 Aug 15;92(1-2):78-84. Altered emotional behavior in PACAP-type-I-receptor-deficient mice. Otto C, Martin M, Wolfer DP, Lipp HP, Maldonado R, Schutz G. Division Molecular Biology of the Cell, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. PAC1 (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide type I receptor) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that binds the strongly conserved neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) with a thousandfold higher affinity than the related peptide VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide). PAC1 shows strong expression in brain areas which have been implicated in the emotional control of behavior, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, the locus coeruleus and the periaqueductal gray. To assess whether PAC1-mediated signaling has an impact on emotional behavior, we analysed two different mutant mouse lines with an ubiquitous or a forebrain-specific inactivation of PAC1 in several testing paradigms modelling general locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. We clearly demonstrate that mice with a ubiquitous but not with a forebrain-specific deletion of PAC1 exhibit elevated locomotor activity and strongly reduced anxiety-like behavior. We could not observe any gross alteration in circadian rhythmicity nor any enhanced sensitivity towards ethanol in the mutant mice. We previously demonstrated that PAC1 plays a crucial role in contextual fear conditioning. Therefore the finding that PAC1-deficient mice exhibit reduced anxiety is quite exciting, since the receptor and hence its ligand PACAP seem to be important for both, innate and learned fear. PMID: 11483244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 218: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1982 Mar-Apr;16(2):84-7. [Role of polarization and resonance in assessing the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation] [Article in Russian] Galkin AA. The dosimetric concept of measurements of electromagnetic radiations (EMR) during irradiation of biological objects can be realized by methods of mathematical modelling of EMR interactions with biological objects, which can be represented as an image of the human body as a uniform ellipsoid of revolution. The efficient surface of EMR absorption for the models shows a marked resonance dependence on the radiation frequency. The ratio of the largest to the smallest axes of the ellipsoid of revolution can be used as a resonance criterion. Besides, radiation polarization needs to be taken into consideration. This paper discusses the frequency dependence of the efficient absorption surface for three major types of radiation polarization. The paper demonstrates an applicability of the calculation method to the evaluation of the EMR absorbed dose rate. PMID: 7070047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 219: Brain Res. 2002 Jul 5;943(1):142-50. Human urocortin II: mild locomotor suppressive and delayed anxiolytic-like effects of a novel corticotropin-releasing factor related peptide. Valdez GR, Inoue K, Koob GF, Rivier J, Vale W, Zorrilla EP. Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN7, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Recently, human urocortin II (hUcn II), a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family, was identified. The following experiments sought to compare the effects of this novel CRF-related peptide versus those of ovine CRF (oCRF) on locomotor activation and anxiety-related behavior, using the locomotor activity test and the elevated plus maze, respectively. To examine locomotor activity during the active (dark) and inactive (light) phases, rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 microg of hUcn II (n=8/group active; n=6-9/group inactive) or oCRF (n=8/group active; n=8/group inactive) 2 h after the onset of their respective testing phase and monitored for 3 (inactive) or 5 (active) h. To compare the effects of CRF-related peptides on exploration of the elevated plus maze, rats were pretreated (i.c.v. 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 microg) with hUcn II (n=7-11/group) or oCRF (n=7-10/group), 10 min prior to testing. Delayed effects in the elevated plus maze were examined in rats injected with 1.0 microg of hUcn II (n=8/group) or oCRF (n=6-8/group), or vehicle (n=8/group) 1, 4 or 6 h before testing. In contrast to the activational effects of oCRF, hUcn II mildly suppressed locomotor activity during the inactive phase. hUcn II did not acutely affect open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze, whereas oCRF decreased this measure. However, hUcn II increased open arm exploration 4 h after injection. Thus, hUcn II exhibits mild motor suppressive effects and delayed anxiolytic-like effects, suggesting a time-dependent role for hUcn II in the regulation of stress-related behavior. PMID: 12088848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 220: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 Nov-Dec;51(6):733-42. [Behavioral analysis of consequences of chronic blockade of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in the early postnatal period in rats] [Article in Russian] Latysheva NV, Raevskii KS. Research Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow. In view of the hypothesis that glutamatergic dysfunction of brain can underlie the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (including cognitive deficit), the aim of this study was to develop a model of cognitive impairment in Wistar male rats after administration of a noncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist in early postnatal period. Rat pups were daily subcutaneously injected with 0.05 mg/kg MK-801 on postnatal days 7-49. On the 27th and 28th days 24 h after the last previous injection, the MK-801-treated rats demonstrated lower spontaneous locomotor and exploratory activity in comparison with saline control, however, they retained the reaction of hyperlocomotion which developed immediately after the MK-801 administration. In these rats, the anxiety level in the elevated plus-maze (on the 40th postnatal day) was found to be decreased, and the spatial learning in food rewarded task was negatively affected (on the 50th-54th days). It is suggested that impairment of the input of sensory information and its correct assessment by the animals can be associated with the early neonatal blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors. PMID: 11871038 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 221: J Neuroendocrinol. 2002 Jul;14(7):549-54. Hormonal and behavioural responses of paradoxical sleep-deprived rats to the elevated plus maze. Suchecki D, Tiba PA, Tufik S. Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is observed immediately after 96 h of paradoxical sleep (PS) deprivation. However, when individually or group PS-deprived rats are challenged with a mild stressor, they exhibit a facilitation of the corticosterone response, and a faster return to basal levels than control rats. Because the housing condition influences coping behaviour, we tested whether the type of PS deprivation (individually or in group) influenced anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus-maze and the accompanying adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses. Individually (I-DEP) or group deprived (G-DEP) rats and their appropriate control groups were either killed immediately after 96 h of sleep deprivation (time-point 0 or 'basal') or exposed to a 5-min test on the elevated plus maze and sampled 5, 20 or 60 min after test onset. Control of I-DEP rats showed reduced locomotor activity and augmented anxiety-like behaviour, replicating the effects of social isolation. Although I-DEP rats exhibited higher motor activity than cage control rats, these groups did not differ in regard to the percentage of entry and time spent in the open arms. G-DEP rats, in turn, ambulated more, entered and remained longer in the open arms, exhibiting less anxiety-like behaviour. PS-deprived rats exhibited higher ACTH and corticosterone 'basal' secretion than control rats. For all groups, peak ACTH secretion was reached at the 5-min time-point, returning to unstressed basal levels 60 min after the test, except for G-DEP rats, which showed a return at 20 min. Peak levels of corticosterone occurred at 5 min for PS-deprived groups and at 20 min for control groups. G-DEP rats showed a return to 'basal' unstressed levels at 20 min, whereas the I-DEP and control groups did so at 60 min. A negative correlation between exploration in the open arms and hormone concentrations was observed. These data indicate that housing condition influences the subsequent behaviour of PS-deprived rats in the EPM which, in turn, seems to determine the secretion profile of ACTH and corticosterone in response to the test. PMID: 12121491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 222: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4):3-7. [Recovery processes in the cerebral cortex, myocardium and thymus of rats with experimental atherosclerosis exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the head] [Article in Russian] Zubkova SM, Varakina NI, Mikhailik LV, Bobkova AS, Chabanenko SS, Luk'ianova TV. Studies of animals with experimental sclerosis has shown that a course of 10 procedures of alternative magnetic field (AMF) (50 Hz, 30 mT, 3 min daily) promotes partial recovery of the lipid spectrum and corrects vasomotor-metabolic disturbances in the cerebral cortex, myocardium and thymus caused by atherosclerosis. Combination of AMF with constant magnetic field in the same regime and location does not produce a hypolipidemic effect in atherosclerotic animals and this, in combination with increased vascular permeability may aggravate the condition. Activated microcirculation, antioxidant and antiproteinase effects in activation of biosynthetic processes in the cerebral cortex reflect inhibition in the CNS in this combined effect and create conditions for a hypotensive effect. PMID: 11008562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 223: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):659-70. [Role of modulation in biological effects of electromagnetic radiation] [Article in Russian] Grigor'ev IuG. Data, describing a role of modulation of electromagnetic fields in development of biological effect, are considered. Outcomes of researches, indicating the dependence of a response of nervous and immune systems on a kind of modulation at low levels of effect, are represented. The necessity of the account of a role of modulation in an evaluation of electromagnetic danger is formulated. PMID: 9019276 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 224: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 Sep-Oct;51(5):563-71. [Dynamics of spectral characteristics of theta- and alpha-range EEG during negative emotional reactions] [Article in Russian] Il'iuchenok IR, Savost'ianov AN, Valeev RG. Institute of Higher Nerous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. Power characteristics of the EEG theta and alpha rhythms were studied in a human in neutral state and during a conditioned negative emotional reaction (Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4, O1, O2, F7, F8, T3, T4, T5, and T6 derivations). A significant increase in the relative spectral power in the narrow theta band of 7.4-8.1 Hz in the frontocentral and temporal brain regions was observed during the development of the negative emotional reaction. The alpha-rhythm dynamics during the negative reaction was substantially individual and could be expressed in either an increase, or decrease in relative spectral power of different alpha-frequencies. No pronounced changes in their dynamics could also be observed. In some subjects the spectral power of the medium-frequency alpha-rhythm significantly decreased, that of the high-frequency rhythm increased, and changes in the spectral power of the low-frequency alpha range varied. PMID: 11764515 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 225: Behav Brain Res. 2002 Apr 1;131(1-2):67-78. Amygdala or ventral hippocampal lesions at two early stages of life differentially affect open field behaviour later in life; an animal model of neurodevelopmental psychopathological disorders. Daenen EW, Wolterink G, Gerrits MA, Van Ree JM. Department of Pharmacology, Division of Pharmacology and Anatomy Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neurosciences, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85060, 3508, AB, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia or autism are thought to result from disruption of the normal pattern of brain development. Abnormalities in the amygdaloid complex and hippocampus have been reported in these disorders. In the present study rats were lesioned in the amygdala or ventral hippocampus on day 7 of life (immature brain) or day 21 of life (almost mature brain) and open field behaviour was determined later in life before and after puberty. Lesioning on day 7 resulted in behavioural changes, interpreted as locomotor stereotypy and decreased anxiety in case of amygdala or hippocampus, respectively. These effects were more profoundly present after puberty. Lesioning on day 21 did not result in these behavioural changes, which subscribes to the importance of the stage of brain maturation on functional development. The results suggest that the behavioural changes in rats lesioned on day 7 may due to a malfunctioning of structures connected to the amygdala or ventral hippocampus. Brain lesions made on day 7 of life may serve as a potential model of psychopathological neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID: 11844573 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 226: Bioelectromagnetics. 2001 Apr;22(3):212-5. GSM phone signal does not produce subjective symptoms. Koivisto M, Haarala C, Krause CM, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland. The influence of pulsed radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields of digital GSM mobile phones (902 MHz, 217 Hz pulse modulation) on subjective symptoms or sensations in healthy subjects were studied in two single-blind experiments. The duration of the RF exposure was about 60 min in Experiment 1 and 30 min in Experiment 2. Each subject rated symptoms or sensations in the beginning of the experimental session and at the end of both the exposure and the nonexposure conditions. The symptoms rated were headache, dizziness, fatigue, itching or tingling of the skin, redness on the skin, and sensations of warmth on the skin. The results did not reveal any differences between exposure and non-exposure conditions, suggesting that a 30-60 min exposure to this RF field does not produce subjective symptoms in humans. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 11255218 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 227: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1999;(12):9-13. [Role of nonspecific cellular resistance factors in hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic nonionizing radiation] [Article in Russian] Obukhan EI. The most sensitive indices of the blood system at EMF exposure (disorders of megakaryocytes differentiation, unspecific reactions, repopulation of the blasts cells a. al.) have been determined by the cytologic investigations. At has been revealed that allowable UVF levels effect are situated below the threshold of activisation of adaptive reactions (less than 0.01 mV/cm2), for occupational conditions--at the level of compensatory processes (0.05-0.1 mV/cm2). The intensities higher than 0.5 mV/cm2 were estimated as critical. Involution of megakaryocytes, polimorphism and disturbances the structure of leucocytes a. al. were revealed as EMF markers which allow to carry out an express-diagnostic. PMID: 11965742 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 228: J Psychopharmacol. 2001 Jun;15(2):76-82. Interactions between LY354740, a group II metabotropic agonist and the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex in the rat elevated plus-maze. Ferris P, Seward E, Dawson GR. Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Neuroscience Research Centre, Harlow, Essex, UK. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor antagonist, and naloxone, a non-selective mu-receptor antagonist, were used to investigate whether the anxiolytic action of LY354740 [1S,2S,5R,6S-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylate monohydrate], a Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, was mediated through the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABA(A) receptor and opioid pathways. LY354740 (1.0-10.0 mg/kg i.p.) induced dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effects in the rat elevated plus-maze. The anxiolytic-like effects of LY354740 (10.0 mg/kg) and the benzodiazepine receptor agonist, chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 mg/kg i.p.) were blocked by flumazenil (15.0 mg/kg i.p.). By contrast, naloxone (10.0 mg/kg i.p.) failed to affect the anxiolytic-like effects of either LY354740 or CDP. The behaviour of animals treated with flumazenil or naloxone alone did not significantly differ from that of animals treated with vehicle alone. This study suggests that the anxiolytic-like effects of LY354740 on the elevated plus-maze may be directly or indirectly mediated by the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABA(A) receptor complex. PMID: 11448091 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 229: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Jan;153(3):365-72. 8-OH-DPAT, but not deramciclane, antagonizes the anxiogenic-like action of paroxetine in an elevated plus-maze. Koks S, Beljajev S, Koovit I, Abramov U, Bourin M, Vasar E. Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, Estonia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (paroxetine) has an anxiogenic-like effect and what possible pharmacological mechanism underlies that action. METHODS: We used the rat elevated plus-maze paradigm followed by measurement of locomotor activity. Some of the rats were subjected to handling and adaptation to the experimental situation, while the rest were naive to the test situation. Paroxetine was administered as a single treatment and in combination with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT) or 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist (deramciclane). RESULTS: The administration of paroxetine induced an anxiogenic-like action in rats adapted to handling, but not in handling naive animals. Treatment with paroxetine (0.1-2 mg/kg) reduced the number of open arm visits and time spent in open arms, and the ratio between open and total arm entries in the elevated plus-maze. Paroxetine also decreased the number of line crossings and head-dips. Paroxetine caused the strongest anti-exploratory action at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg. Paroxetine did not suppress the locomotor activity of rats, showing that the described anti-exploratory effect was behaviourally specific to the plus-maze. Pretreatment with 8-OH-DPAT (0.05 mg/kg) completely reversed the anxiogenic-like action of paroxetine, whereas treatment with deramciclane (2 mg/kg) affected only the number of closed arm visits. Deramciclane (0.5-2 mg/kg) and 8-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) changed neither exploratory behaviour nor locomotor activity if given as single treatments to the habituated rats. CONCLUSION: The 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine, at a low dose (0.5 mg/kg) induces an anxiogenic-like action in handling adapted rats. The effectiveness of 8-OH-DPAT against paroxetine probably supports a role of both pre- and postsynaptic 5HT-ergic mechanisms in the anxiogenic-like action of paroxetine. PMID: 11271409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 230: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002 May-Jun;42(3):322-30. [Enzymatic activity of some tissues and blood serum from animals and humans exposed to microwaves and hypothesis on the possible role of free radical processes in the nonlinear effects and modification of emotional behavior of animals] [Article in Russian] Akoev IG, Pashovkina MS, Dolgacheva LP, Semenova TP, Kalmykov VL. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science, Pushchino, 142290 Russia. The dependence of activities of actomyosin ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartataminotranspherase, monoaminoxidase and that of affective rat behavior on frequency of modulation of microwaves (0.8-10 microW/cm2) was explored at short-time actions. Series of nonlinear phenomenons, inexplicable from positions of the energy approaches are revealed, The working hypothesis explaining opportunity of high performance of weak and super-weak microwaves and other revealed phenomena by resonance interaction of such electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation with paramagnetic molecules of biological tissues was proposed. This resonance interaction activate free radicals and initiate auto-supporting and auto-intensifying of chain chemical reactions. The spontaneous autocatalytic oxidation of catecholamines enlarges a common pool of free radicals, capable to participate in such enhanced generating. The protective role of monoaminoxidase is postulated. Monoaminoxidase is basically located on an outer surface of mitochondrias and it is deaminating monoamines. The deaminating prevents penetration of catecholamines inside of mitochondrias and their quinoid oxidation there with formation of free-radical semi-quinons, capable to destroy system of ATP synthesis. These inferences are obliquely confirmed by the experimentally revealed correlation between activity of monoaminoxidase and integrative activity of the rat brain. PMID: 12125273 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 231: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2001 May-Jun;31(3):299-304. Neuron activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brain in rats with different typological characteristics in conditions of emotional stimulation. Zaichenko MI, Mikhailova NG, Raigorodskii YuV. Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. Male Wistar rats were separated according to the "emotional resonance" method (groups of animals avoiding ("altruists") and not avoiding ("egotists") the pain cries of partner rats) and neuron activity in the prefrontal areas of the cortex was studied in the right and left hemispheres. Assessments were made of changes in the frequency of nerve cell spike activity (in relation to the baseline activity of neurons in sated animals) in rats subjected to one day of food deprivation and after electrical stimulation of emotionally positive (lateral hypothalamus) and negative (tegmentum of the midbrain) brain structures and after exposure to the pain cries of partner rats. The results of these experiments revealed a series of differences in the cell activities of the two groups of rats. In conditions of hunger, the discharge frequency in the "altruists" was higher than that in "egotists." Cortical neuron responses to positive stimulation were greater than those to negative stimulation in rats of both groups. Intracerebral stimulation produced significantly greater increases in discharge frequency in neurons of both prefrontal areas of the cortex in "altruists" than in "egotists." In both groups of rats, neurons in the right hemisphere responded to emotionally negative stimulation with significantly greater activation than cells in the left hemisphere, while activity in the left hemisphere was greater in conditions of emotionally positive stimulation. "Altruists" showed significantly greater neuron responses during exposure to pain cries from "victim" rats in both the right and left hemispheres. The responses of "egotists" to "victim" cries were not significantly different from baseline activity levels. PMID: 11430574 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 232: Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Aug 3;425(1):43-50. Effect of chronic administration of flesinoxan and fluvoxamine on freezing behavior induced by conditioned fear. Li XB, Inoue T, Hashimoto S, Koyama T. Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan. The present study investigated the acute effects of flesinoxan (a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist), fluvoxamine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and their co-administration on the expression of conditioned freezing, and index of anxiety in rats. This study also examined the acute effects of fluvoxamine and flesinoxan following chronic flesinoxan or chronic fluvoxamine on the expression of conditioned freezing. Acute administration of flesinoxan (s.c.; 0.1-3 mg/kg) reduced freezing dose dependently, and fluvoxamine (i.p.) at a high dose (60 mg/kg) reduced freezing significantly. Acute co-administration of fluvoxamine (30 mg/kg) and flesinoxan (0.3 mg/kg) showed an additive inhibitory effect on freezing. Chronic flesinoxan treatment (0.3 mg/kg, for 13 days) did not affect the inhibitory effect of acute flesinoxan treatment, but enhanced that of acute fluvoxamine (30 mg/kg) on conditioned freezing. Chronic fluvoxamine treatment (30 mg/kg, for 13 days) enhanced the inhibitory effect of acute fluvoxamine (30 mg/kg) and the inhibitory effect of acute flesinoxan (0.3 mg/kg) on conditioned freezing. These results suggest that co-administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist is useful for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID: 11672573 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 233: Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2000 Aug;86(8):979-86. [Changes in the animal behavior caused by sequential changes of dominants related to reproduction] [Article in Russian] Vinogradova EP. St. Petersburg State University, Russia. Female rats during the sex dominanta (proestrus) revealed lower anxiety scores and a higher general level of activity than the rats in diestrus. Responses to stress were also more obvious in proestrus. During gestation the rats revealed a lower activity and a higher anxiety. In lactation, the rats' behaviour was similar to that in proestrus. PMID: 11059015 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 234: Adv Space Res. 1989;9(10):333-6. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles. Hunt WA, Joseph JA, Rabin BM. Behavioral Sciences Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD 20812-5145, USA. Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied. PMID: 11537313 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 235: Brain Res. 2001 Jun 15;904(1):43-53. Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices. Tattersall JE, Scott IR, Wood SJ, Nettell JJ, Bevir MK, Wang Z, Somasiri NP, Chen X. Biomedical Sciences Department, CBD Porton Down, SP4 0JQ, Salisbury, UK. Slices of rat hippocampus were exposed to 700 MHz continuous wave radiofrequency (RF) fields (25.2-71.0 V m(-1), 5-15 min exposure) in a stripline waveguide. At low field intensities, the predominant effect on the electrically evoked field potential in CA1 was a potentiation of the amplitude of the population spike by up to 20%, but higher intensity fields could produce either increases or decreases of up to 120 and 80%, respectively, in the amplitude of the population spike. To eliminate the possibility of RF-induced artefacts due to the metal stimulating electrode, the effect of RF exposure on spontaneous epileptiform activity induced in CA3 by 4-aminopyridine (50-100 microM) was investigated. Exposure to RF fields (50.0 V m(-1)) reduced or abolished epileptiform bursting in 36% of slices tested. The maximum field intensity used in these experiments, 71.0 V m(-1), was calculated to produce a specific absorption rate (SAR) of between 0.0016 and 0.0044 W kg(-1) in the slices. Measurements with a Luxtron fibreoptic probe confirmed that there was no detectable temperature change (+/- 0.1 degrees C) during a 15 min exposure to this field intensity. Furthermore, imposed temperature changes of up to 1 degrees C failed to mimic the effects of RF exposure. These results suggest that low-intensity RF fields can modulate the excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioural effects of RF fields. PMID: 11516410 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 236: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1994 Dec;118(12):606-8. [Correction of disruptions in learning and memory, caused by the effect of superhigh frequency electromagnetic emissions, by nootropic drugs] [Article in Russian] Iasnetsov VV, Popov VM, Pal'tsev IuP, Levina AV, Motin VG. PMID: 7703455 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 237: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1999;(6):38-40. [Combined effect of noise and electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency (experimental study)] [Article in Russian] Khudnitskii SS, Murzenok PP, Vikent'eva NK, Tsykhun GF, Netukova NI. PMID: 10420718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 238: Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1980 Feb;(2):46-7. [Calcium and magnesium content in the tissues of rats exposed to an industrial-frequency electromagnetic field] [Article in Russian] Dyshlovoi VD, Radlovskaia ZT, Arkhipchuk VD, Kachura VS. PMID: 7378163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 239: Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1997;31(2):38-43. [Combined effects of various forms of motor deprivation and gamma irradiation on the higher nervous activity in rats] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS. Effects of gamma-radiation at a dose of 3 Gy against either antiorthostatic hypodynamia (AOH) or hypokinesia (HK) on formation of the differentiated motor-drinking reflex (DR) were compared. Each of the forms of motor deprivation hindered the elaboration of DR; gamma-irradiation aggravated these disorders. At the same time, AOH led to significantly more severe disturbances in the higher nervous activity including the generalized excitation, pathologic aggressiveness and neurotization of animals. In contrast, hypokinesia stimulated the active elements of behavior which inhibit the passive-defensive behavior and a fear reaction. Therefore, the modifying effect of irradiation becomes apparent only if combined with AOH. PMID: 9190253 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 240: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 Mar-Apr;38(2):223-31. [Forming of memory (imprinting) in chicks after prior low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Grigor'ev IuG, Stepanov VS. State Research Centre of Russia-Institute of Biophysics, Moscow. EMF of power density from 0.4 to 10 mW/cm2 can influence forming the memory (imprinting). Showed the possibility to fix EMF modulated in embryonic brain during the natal period and conservation of this information after birth. PMID: 9633625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 241: Dtsch Zahnarztl Z. 1982 Feb;37(2):187-90. [Animal experiment studies of the question of radiogenic caries] [Article in German] Vogel C, Reichart P, Hassenstein E, Ronneberger H. PMID: 6951707 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 242: J Cutan Pathol. 2003 Feb;30(2):135-8. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular telephone on epidermal Merkel cells. Irmak MK, Oztas E, Yagmurca M, Fadillioglu E, Bakir B. Department of Histology and Embryology,Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey. The number of reports on the effects induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from cellular telephones in various cellular systems is still increasing. Until now, no satisfactory mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological effects of this radiation except a role suggested for mast cells. Merkel cells may also play a role in the mechanisms of biological effects of EMR. This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of EMR from a cellular telephone (900 MHz) on Merkel cells in rats. A group of rats was exposed to a cellular telephone in speech position for 30 min. Another group of rats was sham-exposed under the same environmental conditions for 30 min. Exposure led to significantly higher exocytotic activity in Merkel cells compared with the sham exposure group. This finding may indicate the possible role of Merkel cells in the pathophysiology of the effects of EMR. PMID: 12641793 [PubMed - in process] 243: Bioelectromagnetics. 1998;19(2):136-8. Comment on: Bioelectromagnetics. 1997;18(2):111-5. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields do not interact directly with DNA. Adair RK. Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA. Blank and Goodman [(1997): Bioelectromagnetics 18:111-115] suggest that weak extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields affect intracellular DNA directly. We show that such a conclusion is not in accord with physical principles. Publication Types: Comment PMID: 9492173 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 244: Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 1994 Jan-Mar;(1):17-9. [Permeability of erythrocyte membranes from peripheral blood after exposure to low-frequency alternating electromagnetic field] [Article in Russian] Levshin IV. The levels of dienic conjugates (DC), malonic dialdehyde (MD), extra-erythrocytic hemoglobin, the rate of chemiluminescence (C), total peroxidase activity (TPA) were determined on a single exposure of animals to low-frequency pulsating electromagnetic field (LFPEF) and chronic exposure of 16 healthy males aged 19-25 years. After acute exposure to LEPEF, the animals showed 64-106% increases in the levels of DC and MD and the rate of C. The persons had higher TPA and C. PMID: 8183583 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 245: IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1981 Mar;28(3):258-64. Measurements of the RF power absorption in spheroidal human and animal phantoms exposed to the near field of a dipole source. Iskander MG, Massoudi H, Durney CH, Allen SJ. PMID: 7228071 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 246: Gig Sanit. 1989 Jun;(6):84-6. [Evaluation of the work capacity of laboratory animals in a toxicologic experiment] [Article in Russian] Fedotov VP, Moskalev OS, I'lin BN. PMID: 2792810 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 247: Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1998;32(5):40-5. [Evaluation of individual radiation resistance of rats based on reactions to non-radiation testing] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS, Farber IuV, Shafirkin AV. Presented are the data on radiation sensitivity of various groups of animals preliminary differentiated by their tolerance of acute hypoxia. The processes of blood forming system impairment and reparation are detailed. As was shown, highly resistant to hypoxia rats are distinguished by the best radiation resistance. Survivability of these rats was significantly higher as compared with other groups of animals. Recovery of blood formation by both the red and white chits following exposure to [symbol: see text] of the mean lethal dose proceeded more rapidly in the radiation resistant rats. PMID: 9883333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 248: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):691-9. [Effects of electromagnetic radiation of various modes on heart activity (in experiments)] [Article in Russian] Afrikanova LA, Grigor'ev IuG. On spinal cord frogs and isolated interauricle to a partition of heart in vivo and in vitro influence the MICROWAVES of a radiation in continuous and modulated modes on function of heart (9.3 Hz is investigated; 0.348-0.16 and 0.016 mV/sm2, modulation from 1 up to 100 Hz). A possibility of influence of an electromagnetic exposure on heart frequency and rhythm is revealed. Pointing of heart in vitro by a neutral red resulted in large number of % of experience in a stop of irradiated heart. PMID: 9019279 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 249: Child Dev. 1968 Dec;39(4):1247-52. Newborn activity and emotional response at eight months. McGrade BJ. PMID: 5704397 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 250: Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Apr;90(2):659-74. Experimental simulation of a haunt experience and elicitation of paroxysmal electroencephalographic activity by transcerebral complex magnetic fields: induction of a synthetic "ghost"? Persinger MA, Tiller SG, Koren SA. Department of Psychology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. To test the hypothesis that experiences of apparitional phenomena with accompanying fear can be simulated within the laboratory, a 45-yr.-old journalist and professional musician who had experienced a classic haunt four years previously was exposed to 1 microTesla, complex, transcerebral magnetic fields. Within 10 min. after exposure to a frequency-modulated pattern applied over the right hemisphere, the man reported "rushes of fear" that culminated in the experience of an apparition. Concurrent electroencephalographic measurements showed conspicuous 1-sec.-to-2-sec. paroxysmal complex spikes (15 Hz) that accompanied the reports of fear. A second magnetic field pattern, applied bilaterally through the brain, was associated with pleasant experiences. The subject concluded that the synthetic experience of the apparition was very similar to the one experienced in the natural setting. The results of this experiment suggest that controlled simulation of these pervasive phenomena within the laboratory is possible and that this experimental protocol may help discern the physical stimuli that evoke their occurrence in nature. PMID: 10833767 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 251: Vopr Onkol. 1996;42(5):13-21. [Super-low frequency electric and magnetic fields and their role in development of neoplasms] [Article in Russian] Muratov EI. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 9064896 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 252: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4):7-11. [Pain relief by low-intensity frequency-modulated millimeter waves acting on the acupuncture points] [Article in Russian] Samosiuk IZ, Kulikovich IuN, Tamarova ZA, Samosiuk NI, Kazhanova AK. Analgetic effect of low-intensive frequency-modulated millimetric waves (MW) was studied in mice with formalin induced nociceptive behavior reaction (licking of defeat hindpaw). MW were applied to the acupoint E 36 of the defeat hindpaw. The following MW were used: 60 GHz (1) and 118 GHz (2) which were modulated by 4 Hz; noise MW within the range of 42-95 GHz (3) and 90-140 GHz (4) which were modulated in accidental order by frequencies 1-60 Hz; combinations of fixed frequencies with noise - 60 GHz + noise 42-95 GHz (5) and 118 GHz + noise 90-140 GHz (6). All used MW combinations suppressed licking of the defeat hindpaw and increased duration of sleep and eating. The strongest analgesia was achieved in series 1-3 (42.4-69.7%), the weakest in series 6 and 4 of the experiment (12.2-19.7%). PMID: 11008563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 253: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1982 Nov-Dec;32(6):1096-103. [Probabilistic characteristics of "open field" behavior in the rat] [Article in Russian] Lazarenko NS, Petrov ES, Zabrodin IIu, Vartanian GA. An analysis was made of the dynamics of probabilistic characteristics of the rat behaviour in the process of extinction of orienting-investigating behaviour in the "open field". Estimation of the entropy value related to behaviour permitted to divide the rats into two groups. The rats with high entropy values differed from those with low values by a more prolonged retention of a high level of locomotion, vertical stands, wall stands, peeping through a hole and grooming. It is suggested that a high entropy level and prolonged retention in the behaviour pattern of most of the elementary acts and poses may testify to a delayed process of extinction of orienting-investigating activity due to a higher level of the rats negative emotional state. PMID: 7164573 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 254: Lik Sprava. 1997 May-Jun;(3):83-7. [The interaction of changes in the genitalia in the pathogenesis of sterility in men] [Article in Ukrainian] Malyshkin IN. Alterations in testicular structures on the side of the pathologic process, contralateral testicle, epididymis, deferent duct, prostate, spermogramme, were found out to be related to the level of gonadotrophic and sex hormones in pathogenesis of infertility developing in varicocele, cryptorchidism, epididymitis, prostatitis, obstruction of the deferent duct, and action of low frequency electromagnetic field. The findings obtained will, we believe, help in diagnosing and prescribing the pathogenetically substantiated treatment. PMID: 9377363 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 255: Dokl Akad Nauk. 1994 Jun;336(6):826-8. [Effect of a low-energy pulse of EHF and SHF-radiation of nanosecond duration with a high peak intensity on biological structures (malignant neoplasms)] [Article in Russian] Deviatkov ND, Pletnev SD, Chernov ZS, Faikin VV, Bernashevskii GA, Shchitkov KG. PMID: 7951017 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 256: Probl Kosm Biol. 1982;43:148-66. [Biological system reactions to adequate weak low-frequency electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Kislovskii LD. Publication Types: Review PMID: 7048296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 257: Radiobiologiia. 1980 Jan-Feb;20(1):130-3. [Radiation lesion of the lymph nodes of rats through the intratracheal uptake of cenium-144] [Article in Russian] Zhorno LIa. PMID: 7360905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 258: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Jan-Feb;39(1):79-83. [Mechanism of radiobiological effects of low intensity nonionizing electromagnetic radiation] [Article in Russian] Kudriashov IuB, Perov IuF, Golenitskaia IA. Moscow State University, Department of Biology. The results of the research of the biological effects of the non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation were studied from the position of "thermal" and "unthermal" mechanisms. The special attention was spared to analysing the information characterising the high sensitiveness of the human and animals organism to the very-low intensity electromagnetic fields. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10347601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 259: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Mar-Jun;39(2-3):345-8. [Possible modification of radiation injury using radio frequency electromagnetic radiation] [Article in Russian] Aminova EM, Ismailov ESh. Daghestan State Polytechnic University, Makhach-Kala. The possibility of radioprotective action of electromagnetic fields and radiations in radiofrequency range have been considered. It has been shown that the EMF and EMR effects depend on parameters of acting field. It is necessary to establish biophysical and biochemical ways and mechanisms of EMF and EMR action for effective use of radioemissions as radioprotectors. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10366968 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 260: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1997;(5):24-30. [Features of the relationship of electromagnetic fields and biological objects and their shielding] [Article in Russian] Miroshnikova TK. PMID: 9235214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 261: Biofizika. 1997 May-Jun;42(3):738-41. [Molecular mechanisms of biological action of low magnetic fields. II. Purification and characteristics of protein from rat brain chromatin which inhibit DNAse 1 activity] [Article in Russian] Shvetsov IuP, Smirnova GN, Novikov VV, Tret'iak TM, Fesenko EE. PMID: 9296636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 262: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2000 Mar-Apr;40(2):149-53. [On the mechanism of cytogenetic effect of electromagnetic radiation: a role of oxidation homeostasis] [Article in Russian] Brezitskaia HV, Timchenko OI. Ukrainian Scientific Centre of Hygiene, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kiev. It was established in the experiments on rats that the changes in free radical oxidation under the influence of non-ionizing radiation had a wavy character. It was revealed that the changes in oxidation homeostasis preceded development of cytogenetic effects and could be their reason. PMID: 10819036 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 263: Acta Anat (Basel). 1992;145(4):302-6. Influence of continuous electromagnetic fields on the stage, weight and stature of the chick embryo. Piera V, Rodriguez A, Cobos A, Torrente M, Cobos P. Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Barcelona, Faculty of Medicine, Reus, Tarragona, Spain. The influence of continuous electromagnetic fields (0, 181 or 361 Gs/cm2) on the development of chick embryo (n = 144) was studied. Several parameters were determined at days 5, 10 and 15 of incubation: stage (following Hamburger and Hamilton), vertex-coccyx length (size) and weight. At 5 days of incubation, all embryos showed a similar stage. However, at days 10 and 15, the embryos exposed to 181 Gs/cm2 showed a stage significantly superior to that of the others. There were no differences between the exposed embryos and the control ones with regard to weight and stature, except at 15 days when the embryos exposed to 361 Gs/cm2 showed greater weight and stature than those of the controls. PMID: 10457769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 264: Gig Sanit. 1999 May-Jun;(3):48-51. [The current problems of electromagnetic safety in computer classes] [Article in Russian] Afanas'ev AI, Volodarskii VIa, Gumener PI, Kaisina OV, Litvak II, Nadezhina LG, Shumkova TV. He paper presents the data on the present-day situation in the computer classes in general educational schools to show electromagnetic safety. It shows that most of 37 classes do not satisfy the requirement of electromagnetic safety and proposes modes of elimination of this danger. PMID: 10394739 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 265: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1997 Sep-Oct;(5):3-7. [The general patterns in the development of the ultrastructural reactions under the action of electromagnetic radiations] [Article in Russian] Korolev IuN. Original investigations of the author provided authors with information on subcellular adaptive reactions in response to electromagnetic radiation. Activation of hyperplastic processes represents the leading structural-adaptive response of the body arising accelerated renewal of the ultrastructures. The author characterizes adaptive hyperplasia of the ultrastructures. The author characterizes adaptive hyperplasia emerging in bioenergetic and protein-synthetizing organelles in the cells of different organs. It is emphasized that high intensities provoke destructive processes. PMID: 9446304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 266: Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1995 Dec;81(12):115-20. [The erythrocyte reaction of the moving blood in mammals to the action of permanent and pulsed low-frequency electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Ignat'ev VV, Kidalov VN, Samoilov VO, Subbota AG, Sukhovetskaia NB, Siasin RI. PMID: 8754037 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 267: Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1999 Oct;36(5):337-40. Effect of amplitude modulated RF radiation on calcium ion efflux and ODC activity in chronically exposed rat brain. Paulraj R, Behari J, Rao AR. School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. The effect of exposing rats to amplitude modulated radiofrequency radiation (112 MHz modulated to 16 Hz) during development and growth has been examined. Wistar rats (35 days old) when exposed at above frequency at the power level 1.0 mW/cm2 (SAR, 0.75 W/kg) for 35 days showed enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity and Ca2+ efflux in brain indicating potential health hazards due to exposure. PMID: 10844985 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 268: Prog Brain Res. 2000;122:105-15. Neurobiological correlates of defensive behaviors. Bakshi VP, Shelton SE, Kalin NH. Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Wisconsin Psychiatric Institute and Clinics 53719, USA. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10737053 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 269: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1984 May-Jun;34(3):537-46. [Individual features of rat behavior: manifestations of anxiety] [Article in Russian] Khonicheva NM, Dmitrieva IL, Krushinskaia NL, Voronina TA. Motor agitation developing in some white rats during painful stimulation of other individual decreases under the action of phenasepam (the most effective drug used in clinic in cases of neurotic alarm). This effect is accompanied by strengthening of tendency to reside in closed space. After phenasepam injection, increased not goal-directed motor activity developing against the background of reduced alimentary reactions also decreases in a part of grey rats selected by their ability to extrapolate, while their alimentary behaviour intensifies. Thus, initial peculiarities of behaviour i.e. enhanced motor activity not directed to fulfillment of the above forms of inborn behaviour (residing in closed space and eating) may be considered as a manifestation of anxiety. In this case, these forms of behaviour have a defensive function. PMID: 6540937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 270: Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova. 1980 Feb;66(2):263-7. [Effect of radiowaves of nonthermal frequencies on the content of somatotropic hormone in the rat adenohypophysis] [Article in Russian] Demokidova NK. PMID: 7364125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 271: Tsitologiia. 2000;42(1):92-5. [Activity of the genome of cardiomyocytes as an indicator of the development of adaptive changes in the myocardium following exposure of the central nervous system to electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Zubkova SM, Mikhailik LV, Varakina NI, Strukova EV, Bobkova AS. Russian Scientific Centre of Rehabilitating Medicine and Health Resort Cure, Moscow. Methods of cardiomyocyte nuclei isolation from the myocard homogeneous mixture, and of cardiomyocyte genome activity estimation were elaborated. In the experiments with hyperlipoproteidemic rats, cardiomyocyte genome activity was shown to reflect the primary adaptive changes in the myocard, and to serve a reliable index of their influence on the CNS regulatory centres exposed to electromagnetic field, which is used for hyperlipoproteidemia treatment. The cardiomyocyte genome activity was used to distinguish between three types of development of adaptive reactions in the myocard. PMID: 10709259 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 272: Physiol Behav. 1974 Mar;12(3):393-8. Immediate behavioral responses of an echinoderm to ionizing radiations. Dedrick MC, Kimeldorf DJ. PMID: 4856540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 273: Health Phys. 1971 Apr;20(4):421-4. Effects of 800-MHz electromagnetic radiation on body weight, activity, hematopoiesis and life span in mice. Spalding JF, Freyman RW, Holland LM. PMID: 5569217 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 274: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2000;(5):32-5. [The evaluation of the consequences of electromagnetic irradiation of hands in operators of high-frequency welding devices] [Article in Russian] Rudakov ML. Method of secondary sources (method of integral equations) was applied to calculate specific absorbed intensity in hands of operators working at non-shielded high-frequency (27.12 Mhz) welding devices. The authors present calculations for "female" and "male" hand sizes, give recommendations on lower level of specific absorption. PMID: 10881543 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 275: Pol Tyg Lek. 1985 Nov 18-25;40(46-47):1304-7. [Anxiety level and duration of the disease in patients with leukemia] [Article in Polish] Wrona-Polanska H. PMID: 4094938 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 276: Psychol Rep. 1973 Dec;33(3):731-6. Swim-tank measurement of radiation-induced behavioral incapacitation. Casarett AP. PMID: 4767829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 277: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 2000 Jan;129(1):100-2. [[Effects of fractions of the cerebrospinal fluid from patients with drug addiction treated by liquor sorption on the behavior of rats-recipients] [Article in Russian] Pirumov PA, Ordian NE, Vasil'ev VIu, Shaliapina VG. PMID: 10710642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 278: Epidemiology. 2001 Jan;12(1):1-4. Comment on: Epidemiology. 2001 Jan;12(1):7-12. Frequent radiation exposures and frequency-dependent effects: the eyes have it. Inskip PD. Publication Types: Comment Editorial Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11138802 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 279: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1996;(9):20-3. [Hygienic regulation of electromagnetic radiation of 300-3000 MHz frequency range] [Article in Russian] Kol'chugin IuI. The article contains analysis of national standards determining maximal allowable levels of electromagnetic exposure in some developed countries. The point of specific interest is the levels in frequency range of 300 MHz-30 GHz, as this range is widely used in most apparatus for mobile communication. Different in various countries, values of the maximal allowable levels appear to be the most strict in Russia. Incomplete knowledge of long-standing exposure to mild electromagnetic fields requires through medical and technical research to determine limits of safe application of mobile communication devices. PMID: 9019326 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 280: Bioelectromagnetics. 1984;5(1):31-8. Offset of the vacuolar potential of Characean cells in response to electromagnetic radiation over the range 250 Hz-250 kHz. Montaigne K, Pickard WF. Measurements were made of the small, transient offsets of vacuolar potential produced in single cells of Nitella flexilis and Chara braunii by isolated bursts of audio frequency electromagnetic radiation. The offsets increased in magnitude with decreasing frequency of the electromagnetic radiation and, below about 6 kHz, seemed to approach a low-frequency asymptote. This frequency dependence for the offset is shown to be in accordance with a previously developed model in which the incident radiation is weakly rectified by the cell's membrane system. PMID: 6712748 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 281: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1981;15(3):26-8. [Emotional reactions and cardiac rhythm slow waves] [Article in Russian] Karpov AN, Zinov'eva LA. Simulation studies of various emotional reactions of operators have shown that sthenic emotional reactions induce inhibition of slow waves of cardiac rhythm (f=0.05 divided by 0.17 Hz,) whereas asthenic emotional reactions lead to excitation of slow waves in the above frequency range. PMID: 7289540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 282: Dokl Akad Nauk. 1995 Oct;344(6):840-2. [Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) as a behavioural modifier in rats, subjected to low-background ionizing radiation] [Article in Russian] Semenova TP, Novoselova EG, Medvinskaia NI, Kuzin AM. PMID: 8535282 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 283: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2000;(5):5-8. [Changes of neurocytes in CNS under general exposure to UHF field with local protection applied] [Article in Russian] Leshin VV. Experiments on white rats were performed to study influence of UHF field on cortical sensomotor area under general exposure or with the head shielded. The changes in CNS caused by UHF field were not prevented completely by means of the shield. That is probably due to pathologic reflex impulses from the body receptors. PMID: 10881537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 284: Med Hypotheses. 2000 May;54(5):685-8. Biological effects of low-level environmental agents. Kmecl P, Jerman I. BION, Institute for Bioelectromagnetics and New Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia. We compare three similar but different biological effects: provocation-neutralisation treatment of non-antibody-mediated hypersensitivities, hormesis and low-level effects in radiation biology. All three have not yet been fully explained but share some common and interesting properties: non-linear concentration dependence, typical stress pattern and typical immune response. We try to make a generalisation of the three phenomena in terms of the informational properties of the low concentrations, and imply the possible common mechanism. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID: 10859665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 285: Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. 1997 Nov-Dec;(6):728-34. [The destruction of microscopic organisms by their irradiation with a special form of UHF electromagnetic signals] [Article in Russian] Antonov OE, Kozyreva EV, Svishcheva TIa, Goncharova NV. Aviakonversiya Ltd., Moscow, Russia. Electromagnetic signals of special form produced by an ultra-high frequency generator were used to destroy various microorganisms: baker's yeast; blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum; mold fungus; and two flagellates, plant flagellate Euglena gracilis and an animal flagellate parasitizing on humans. The control samples before irradiation and experimental samples damaged and destroyed by irradiation were examined on a microscope with a computer system of image analysis. The results are presented as computer graph images. PMID: 9518060 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 286: Vopr Onkol. 1999;45(3):287-91. [Assessment of antineoplastic action of dehydrogenases in peripheral blood lymphocytes in S-45 tumor-bearing rats exposed to weak ultra-low-frequency irradiation] [Article in Russian] Shiikhliarova AI, Sheiko EA, Pil' EA. Research Institute of Oncology, Ministry of Health of the RF, Rostov-on-Don. The aim of the investigation was to study the antitumor action of weak ultra low-frequency magnetic field (ULFMF) and application of a spectrum of dehydrogenases of peripheral blood lymphocytes as a sensitive indicator of such action in tumor S45-bearing rats. It was shown that application of weak ULFMF improves antitumor defenses and dehydrogenase activity tends to stay normal. The dehydrogenase activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used to assess immune system tension and synchronization of resistance processes. PMID: 10443233 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 287: Wiad Lek. 1999;52(3-4):174-7. [Anxiety as a anesthesiological problem] [Article in Polish] Chmielnicki Z. Oddzialu Anestezjologii i Intensywnej Opieki Pooperacyjnej, Wojewodzkiego Szpitala, Specjalistycznego w Tychach. Fear is a feeling which always accompanies people. It is a compound phenomenon, which has different components as psychologic, motor, somatic-vegetative and metabolic. The operation and anesthesia increase the feeling of anxiety. The dimension of the fear has the inconvenient influence on the time of recovery, quantity of complications and the discomfort felt by patients. The dimension of the fear can be measured in many ways. The questionnaires are one of the methods of taking an objective measurement. The STAI is one of the most often used between them. It enables the estimation of the efficacy of the preoperative preparing methods and the dynamics of the fear during the hospitalization. Monitoring of the anxiety can be very useful in the decreasing the fear. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10499029 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 288: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1999;(6):31-4. [Occupational assessment of computer placement in school areas] [Article in Russian] Gel'tishcheva EA, Zhichkina GN, Serik NV, Khusainov TZh. The study included measurements of electromagnetic radiation emitted by MACINTOSH PC placed in public schools, functional state examination of schoolchildren sitting in rows in front of PCs. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by PCs appeared to harm higher nervous activity of the schoolchildren. With consideration of the studies conducted the recommendation is not to set workplaces in rows. The workplaces could be set perimetrically, with at least 1.0 m between the lateral borders of neighboring monitors. Angle-wise set workplaces should stay at least 2.0 m apart. PMID: 10420715 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 289: Radiat Res. 1974 Feb;57(2):288-99. Damage of rat thyroid by 131I and evidence against immunologic transferability. White SC, Casarett GW. PMID: 10874943 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 290: Z Gesamte Hyg. 1981 Oct;27(10):753-5. [The collagen structure in subacute radiation sickness in the albino rat] [Article in German] Drozdz M, Antoniewicz M, Kucharz E. PMID: 7314704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 291: Rev Esp Cardiol. 2000 Jun;53(6):881-2. [Pacemakers, defibrillators, and electromagnetic environment: potential interactions with electronic mechanisms of surveillance should not be cause of anxiety for patients] [Article in Spanish] de Camargo Maranhao MF. Publication Types: Letter PMID: 10944984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 292: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Nov-Dec;39(6):707. [The international conference on human protection from electromagnetic fields hazard] [Article in Russian] Grigor'ev IuG. Publication Types: Congresses PMID: 10689440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 293: Behav Genet. 1997 Nov;27(6):499-501. Comment on: Behav Genet. 1997 Nov;27(6):503-12. Modeling emotional reactivity and sensation/novelty seeking with the Roman/Verh rat lines/strains: an introduction. Fernandez-Teruel A, Escorihuela RM. Department of Psychiatry, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. Publication Types: Comment PMID: 9476358 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 294: Bioelectromagnetics. 1997;18(7):527-8; discussion 529. Comment on: Bioelectromagnetics. 1996;17(4):312-21. Comments on "Resonance effect of millimeter waves in the power range from 10(-19) to 3 X 10(-3) W/cm2 on Escherichia coli cells at different concentrations," Belyaev et al., Bioelectromagnetics, 17:312-321 (1996) Osepchuk JM, Petersen RC. Full Spectrum Consulting, Concord, Massachusetts 01742, USA. Publication Types: Comment PMID: 9338635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 295: Gig Sanit. 1997 Sep-Oct;(5):61-3. [Calculation of the average density of radiofrequency radiation power in biological objects] [Article in Russian] Rudakov ML. PMID: 9378358 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 296: Anim Behav. 1967 Oct;15(4):563-7. The relationship between sensory stimulation and gross motor behaviour during the postnatal development in the rat. Gard C, Hard E, Larsson K, Petersson VA. PMID: 6055112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 297: J Microw Power Electromagn Energy. 2000;35(3):179-84. Complex high-frequency technology for protection of grain against pests. Mishenko AA, Malinin OA, Rashkovan VM, Basteev AV, Bazyma LA, Mazalov YuP, Kutovoy VA. Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The results of experimental investigation of physical methods are presented for suppressing of biological activity of grain and grain product pests: harmful insects at each developmental stage except eggs (Insecta), mites (Arachnida, Acariformes) and microscopic fungi and bacteria. The technologies under development for disinfestation and disinfection of grain are based on irradiation of grain by modulated pulses of high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic fields and on simultaneous action of a complex of factors: vacuum and HF-field induced plasma. The threshold value of the electric field intensity for total insect mortality was found to be E = 4.0-5.0 kV/cm in the pulse mode at the base frequency of 47.5 MHz. When the combined technology is used, conditions are created in the irradiation chamber for HF-discharge and plasma formation, which are very strong factors influencing the biological organisms. These raise the energy (and cost) efficiency (approximately $2-3 per tonne of grain) of the combined technology for destruction of grain pests with complete environmental safety. PMID: 11098443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 298: Q J Exp Psychol. 1970 May;22(2):205-14. Effects of fear on exploratory behaviour in rats. Kumar R. PMID: 5431397 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 299: Verh Dtsch Ges Kreislaufforsch. 1966;32:46-57. [Neural mechanisms in emotional behavior] [Article in German] Zanchetti A. PMID: 6015213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 300: Nunt Radiol. 1967;33:Suppl:545-54. [Preliminary data on radiosensitivity as a function of dose in rats selected on the basis of behavioral activity] [Article in Italian] Di Paola M. PMID: 5617459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 301: Med Hypotheses. 2000 Aug;55(2):160-3. Human body frequency modulation by 0.9% sodium chloride solutions: a new paradigm and perspective for human health. Sudan BJ. This case study demonstrates that the normal human body frequency, which can be disturbed by electromagnetic influences of the environment, can be modulated by 0.9% sodium chloride solutions (physiological saline) and that occurrence of allergic reactions have subsequently been suppressed as a result of this modulation. The use of distilled water as control showed no effect on occurrence of allergic reactions. Further observations on the growth of various plants in a greenhouse exposed to various geomagnetic fields support the previous observations on humans. The neutralization of electromagnetic influences on humans using 0.9% sodium chloride solution or by enclosure of plants within a copper wire Faraday cage resulting in a normal and uniform growth of plants as compared with disturbed and irregular growth in unenclosed controls, is demonstrated. These original observations propose a new strategy to suppress or prevent allergic reactions and possibly other effects observed in various human pathologies in relation to a disturbance of human body frequencies. It is hypothesized that the double helix structure of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) could be modified by environmental electromagnetic fields and that disresonance between the two chains of DNA could lead to the expression of specific pathology. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID: 10904434 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 302: Lik Sprava. 1999 Jun;(4):51-6. [Low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in medicine: a factor in resonance therapy or a nonspecific adaptogen?] [Article in Russian] Karpan' VN. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10476642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 303: Am Psychol. 2000 Mar;55(3):313-7. Conditioned emotional reactions. 1920. Watson JB, Rayner R. Publication Types: Classical Article PMID: 10743250 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 304: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Jan-Feb;(1):14-6. [Electromagnetic and mechanical vibrations in the therapy of myofascial pains] [Article in Russian] Miriutova NF, Levitskii EF, Abdulkina NG. Low-frequency vibration effectively stimulates in a direct way or via reflexes neuromuscular apparatus in patients with muscular-tonic manifestations of spinal osteochondrosis. Long-term myofixation forms foci of denervation disorders as painful muscular consolidations with active center the irritation of which gives rise to phenomenon of reflected pain. In this case it is better to begin treatment with optic red and infrared radiation on the reflexogenic zones and muscular consolidations for reduction of trophic abnormalities. This creates favourable conditions for subsequent vibrostimulation of affected nerves and muscles. PMID: 11094873 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 305: Dokl Biophys. 2000 Jan-Jun;370-372:21-4. Effect of high-power microwave radiation with nanosecond pulse duration on some biological objects. Bol'shakov MA, Bugaev SP, Goncharik AO, Gunin AV, Evdokimov EV, Klimov AI, Korovin SD, Pegel IV, Rostov VV. Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia. PMID: 11029032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 306: Biofizika. 2000 Jan-Feb;45(1):144-7. [Electromagnetic information in the phenomenon of life] [Article in Russian] Kuzin AM. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia. The author's original experiments and ideas have been summarized, which concern the role of natural background radiation in maintenance of electromagnetic information essential for existence of the living organism as an integral whole. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10732224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 307: Behaviour. 1965;25(1):45-97. An experimental study of conflict and fear: an analysis of behavior of young chicks toward a mealworm. I. The behavior of chicks which do not eat the mealworm. Hogan JA. PMID: 5824947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 308: J Genet Psychol. 1969 Sep;115(1st Half):71-3. A criticism of the study of McDowell and Merchent on fearfulness in control and irradiated rats. Smith H, Dimond SJ. PMID: 5365004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 309: J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1970 Aug;72(2):238-43. Comparison between two methods of demonstrating relatedness of emotionality variables in rats. King DL. PMID: 5489456 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 310: J Genet Psychol. 1969 Sep;115(1st Half):75-6. A criticism of the study by McDowell and Merchent on fearfulness in control and irradiated rats. A reply to the preceding criticism by Smith and Dimond. McDowell AA, Stolmeier PV. PMID: 5365005 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 311: Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1971;15(2):17-21. [Effect of an industrial frequency electric field on motor dominant formation] [Article in Russian] Sazonova TE. PMID: 5090847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 312: Int J Biometeorol. 1973 Sep;17(3):277-84. [Influence of negative atmospheric ions on adaptation to an anxiety situation in rats] [Article in French] Olivereau JM. PMID: 4756241 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 313: Biofizika. 2000 Sep-Oct;45(5):950-3. [Chronobiological analysis of subarctic features of long-term dynamics of biological processes] [Article in Russian] Kashulin PA, Roldugin VK. Arctic-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute, Kola Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirovsk, Russia. The analysis of a large number of chronobiological observations (heliospheric modulations, cosmophysical factors, weak low-frequency electromagnetic influences, etc.) allows us to make a conclusion about the possibility of direct and indirect exogenous (relative to the biosphere) modulations of biological processes in avroral and arctic zones. A nonequivalence of various seasons for the performance of introduction experiments was established. It was shown that the intensive fluctuations of environmental conditions are very important for the survival of living forms introduced into subarctic regions. PMID: 11094729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 314: NITA. 1982 Nov-Dec;5(6):374. Patient emotional response to intravenous therapy. Brown EA. PMID: 6924083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 315: Nerv Sist. 1969;10:177-83. [Registration of electromagnetic fields arising during the movements of insects, birds and animals] [Article in Russian] Guliaev PI, Zabotin VI, Shlippenbakh NIa. PMID: 5404169 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 316: Psychol Rep. 1965 Oct;17(2):595-602. Behavioral effects of stimulation by UHF radio fields. Eakin SK, Thompson WD. PMID: 5833745 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 317: Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1996 Jun;57(6):576. A missing factor? Ely TS. Publication Types: Letter PMID: 8651079 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 318: Anim Behav. 1967 Oct;15(4):574-85. Changes in the behaviour of Lebistes reticulatus upon a repeated shadow stimulus. Russell EM. PMID: 6055114 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 319: PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS. 1992 Feb 17;68(7):946-949. Frequency upconversion of electromagnetic radiation upon transmission into an ionization front. Savage RL Jr, Joshi C, Mori WB. PMID: 10046039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]